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THE 

IMPERIAL GAZETTEER 

OF INDIA 



VOL. XVIII 

iVIORAM TO NAYAGARH 



NEW EDITION 

PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF HIS MAJESTY'S 
SECRETARY OF STATE FOR INDIA IN COUNCIL 



OXFORD 
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 



IQOl 



IIKXRY FROWDE, M.A. 

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD 

LONDON, EDINBURGH 

NEW YORK AND TORONTO 



^5 
or. /? 



INTRODUCTORY NOTES 

Notes o^n Transliteration 

P'owe/Souftds 

a has the sound of a m ' woman.' 

a has the sound of a in ' father.' 

e has the vowel-sound in 'grey.' 

i has the sound of / in ' pin.' 

I has the sound of / in ' police.' 

o has the sound of o in ' bone.' 

u has the sound of // in ' bull.' 

u has the sound of « in ' flute.' 

ai has the vowel-sound in ' mine.' 

au has the vowel-sound in 'house.' 

It should be stated that no attempt has been made to distinguish 
between the long and short sounds of e and o in the Dravidian 
languages, which possess the vowel-sounds in ' bet ' and ' hot ' in 
addition to those given above. Nor has it been thought necessary 
to mark vowels as long in cases where mistakes in pronunciation 
were not likely to be made. 

Most Indian languages have different forms for a number of con- 
sonants, such as d, /, r, Szc, n_^iarked in scientific works by the use 
of dots or italics. As the European ear distinguishes these with 
difficulty in ordinary pronunciation, it has been considered undesir- 
able to embarrass the reader with them ; and only two notes are 
required. In the first place, the Arabic ^, a strong guttural, has 
been represented by /i instead of </, which is often used. Secondly, 
it should be remarked that as[)irated consonants are common ; and, 
in particular, d/i and /// (except in Burma) never have the sound of 
f/i in 'this' or 'thin,' but should be pronounced as in ' woodhouse ' 
and ' boathook.' 

593671 



iv INTRODUCTORY NOTES 

Burmese Words 
Burmese and some of the languages on the frontier of China have 
the following special sounds : — 

aw has the vowel-sound in * law.' 
6 and ii are pronounced as in German, 
gy is pronounced almost like/ in 'jewel.' 
ky is pronounced almost like ch in ' church.' 
th is pronounced in some cases as in ' this,' in some cases as in 

'thin.' 
w after a consonant has the force of mv. Thus, ywa and pwe 

are disyllables, pronounced as if written jv/^f'^ ^wd^piiwe. 

It should also be noted that, whereas in Indian words the accent 
or stress is distributed almost equally on each syllable, in Burmese 
there is a tendency to throw special stress on the last syllable. 

General 

The names of some places — e.g. Calcutta, Bombay, Lucknow, 
Cawnpore — have obtained a popular fixity of spelling, while special 
forms have been officially prescribed for others. Names of persons 
are often spelt and pronounced differently in different parts of India ; 
but the variations have been made as few as possible by assimilating 
forms almost alike, especially where a particular spelling has been 
generally adopted in English books. 

Notes on Money, Prices, Weights and Measures 

As the currency of India is based upon the rupee, all statements 
with regard to money throughout the Gazetteer have necessarily been 
expressed in rupees, nor has it been found possible to add generally 
a conversion into sterling. Down to about 1873 the gold value of 
the rupee (containing 165 grains of pure silver) was approximately 
equal to 25., or one-tenth of a £ ; and for that period it is easy to 
convert rupees into sterling by striking off the final cipher (Rs. 1,000 
= £100). But after 1873, owing to the depreciation of silver as 
compared with gold throughout the world, there came a serious and 
progressive fall in the exchange, until at one time the gold value of 
the rupee dropped as low as \s. In order to provide a remedy for 
the heavy loss caused to the Government of India in respect of its 
gold payments to be made in England, and also to relieve foreign 
trade and finance from the inconvenience due to constant and 
unforeseen fluctuations in exchange, it was resolved in 1893 to close 
the mints to the free coinage of silver, and thus force up the value of 
the rupee by restricting the circulation. The intention was to raise 



INTRODUCTORY NOTES v 

the exchange value of the rupee to \s. 4d., and then introduce a gold 
standard (though not necessarily a gold currency) at the rate of Rs. 1 5 
= £1. This policy has been completely successful. From 1899 on- 
wards the value of the rupee has been maintained, with insignificant 
fluctuations, at the proposed rate of is. 4^. ; and consequently since 
that date three rupees have been equivalent to two rupees before 1873. 
For the intermediate period, between 1873 and 1899, it is manifestly 
impossible to adopt any fixed sterling value for a constantly changing 
rupee. But since 1899, if it is desired to convert rupees into sterling, 
not only must the final cipher be struck off (as before 1873), but 
also one-third must be subtracted from the result. Thus Rs. 1,000 
= £100 — ^ = (about) £67. 

Another matter in connexion with the expression of money state- 
ments in terms of rupees requires to be explained. The method of 
numerical notation in India differs from that which prevails through- 
out Europe. Large numbers are not punctuated in hundreds of thou- 
sands and millions, but in lakhs and crores. A lakh is one hundred 
thousand (written out as 1,00,000), and a crore is one hundred lakhs 
or ten millions (written out as 1,00,00,000). Consequently, accord- 
ing to the exchange value of the rupee, a lakh of rupees (Rs. 1,00,000) 
may be read as the equivalent of £10,000 before 1873, and as the 
equivalent of (about) £6,667 ^fter 1899; while a crore of rupees 
(Rs. 1,00,00,000) may similarly be read as the equivalent of 
£1,000,000 before 1873, ^^^ ^s the equivalent of (about) £666,667 
after 1899. 

Finally, it should be mentioned that the rupee is divided into 
16 annas, a fraction commonly used for many purposes by both 
natives and Europeans. The anna was formerly reckoned as i^d. ; 
it may now be considered as exactly corresponding to id. The 
anna is again subdivided into 12 pies. 

The various systems of weights used in India combine uniformity 
of scale with immense variations in the weight of units. The scale 
used generally throughout Northern India, and less commonly in 
Madras and Bombay, may be thus expressed : one maund = 40 seers ; 
one seer = 16 chittaks or 80 tolas. The actual weight of a seer 
varies greatly from District to District, and even from village to 
village; but in the standard system the tola is 180 grains Troy 
(the exact weight of the rupee), and the seer thus weighs 2-057 lb., 
and the maund 82-28 lb. This standard is used in official reports 
and throughout the Gazetteer. 

For calculating retail prices, the universal custom in India is to 
express them in te^-ms of seers to the rupee. Thus, when prices 
change, what varies is not the amount of money to be paid for the 



vi IXTKODUC'JV/n' XOTES 

same quantity, but the quantity to be obtained for llic same amount 
of money. In other words, prices in India arc (juantity prices, not 
money prices. When the figure of quantity goe.s up, this of course 
means that the price has gone down, which is at first sight perplexing 
to an English reader. It may, however, be mentioned that quantity 
prices are not altogether unknown in England, especially at small 
shops, where pennyworths of many groceries can be bought. Eggs, 
likewise, are commonly sold at a varying number for the shilling. 
If it be desired to convert quantity prices from Indian into English 
denominations without having recourse to money prices (which would 
often be misleading), the following scale may be adopted— based 
upon the assumi)tions that a seer is exactly 2 lb., and that the value 
of the rui)ee remains constant at \s. \d. : i seer per rupee = (about) 
3 lb. for 2s. ; 2 seers per rupee = (about) 6 lb. for 25'. ; and so on. 

Tlie name of the unit for square measurement in India generally 
is the lugho, Avhich varies greatly in different parts of the country, 
I^ul areas have always been expressed throughout the Gazetteer eiihex 
in square miles or in acres. 



MAP 

Mv.soRE to face p. 250 



IMPERIAL GAZETTEER 
OE INDIA 



VOLUME XVIII 

Moram. —Town in the Tuljapiir tCihik of Osmanabad District, 
Hyderabad State, situated in 17° 47' N. and 76° 29' E. Population 
(1901), 5,69:?. Ivarge quantities of grain and jaggery are exported from 
here via Sholapur and .Vkalkot. Two weekl) bazars are held — one on 
Sundays for general trade, and the other on Mondays for the sale of 
rloth only. A new bazar, Osmanganj, is under construction, Moram 
contains a school. 

Morar {Murdr). — Cantonment in the Gwalior State, Central India, 
situated in 26° 14' N. and 78° \\' E., 2 miles from the Morar Road 
station on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, and on the banks of 
the Morar river, a small stream tributary to the Vaisali. Population 
(1901), 19,179. In former days the waters of the river were dammed 
up so as to form a considerable lake, which was noted for the species 
of fish known as the Barilius morarensis which abounded in it. The 
town lies 4 miles from Lashkar city, with which it is connected by 
a broad road. The station is laid out on the usual plan, but is 
remarkable for the numerous fine avenues of large trees which line 
the roads. The substantial stone barracks built in 1870 for the British 
troops are now occupied by the State regiments, the officers' bungalows 
being used by European and native officials in the State service. 

Morar was founded in 1844 as a cantonment for the Gwalior Con- 
tingent, the brigadier in command and a force of all three arms being 
stationed here. In 1857 the most serious rising in Central India took 
place at this station. Signs of disaffection among the men of the 
Contingent were early discernible ; and on June 14 the troops mutinied, 
and killed six officers, the clergyman, and several other Europeans. 
The rest escaped to Agra with the assistance of the Maharaja. On 
May 30, 1858, Morar was occupied by the troops of Tantia Topi, the 
Nawab of Banda, and the Rani of Jhansi, who forced Sindhia to vacate 
Lashkar and retreat to Agra. On June t6 Sir Hugh Rose drove 
Tantia Topi out of Morar, and on the 20th reinstated Sindhia in his 
capital. Morar remained a British cantonment, garrisoned by a mixed 



2 MORAR 

force of British and Native troops, till r886, when it was handed over to 
Gwalior in connexion with the exchanges of territory which took place 
then. The State troops now occupying the cantonment are a regiment 
of Imperial Service Cavalry, the Imperial Service Transport Corps, 
three batteries, and two infantry regiments. Morar has of late years 
become a considerable trading centre, especially for grain, the local 
dues being lighter than those obtaining in Lashkar. Impetus has been 
given to the tanning industry by the establishment of the State leather 
factory in the cantonment. The town contains a European church, 
a State post office, a school for boys and another for girls, and two 
hospitals, one military and the other civil, and four large European 
cemeteries. Just beyond the cantonment limits is the Alijah Club 
for luiropcan residents. 

Morchopna.— Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Moro. — Tdluka in Hyderabad District, Sind, Bombay, lying between 
26° 23' and 26° 55' N. and 67° 52' and 68° 20' E., with an area of 402 
square miles. The population in 1901 was 66,641, conn)ared with 
57,646 in 1891 ; the density is 166 persons per square mile. The 
number of villages is 78, of which Moro is the head-quarters. Land 
revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to about 1-3 lakhs. The 
tiiluka has now lost its barren and sandy tracts, which have been 
transferred to Nasrat. The chief crops are Jowdr, barley, indigo, 
gram, and rapeseed. 

Morrelganj. — Village in the Bagherhat subdivision of Khulna 
District, Bengal, situated in 22° 27'' N. and 89° 52' E., on the Panguchi, 
2\ miles above its confluence with the Baleswar or Haringhata, of 
which it is a feeder. Population (1901), 972. Morrelganj was formerly 
the property of Messrs. Morrel and Lightfoot, who converted this part 
of the country from impenetrable jungle into a prosperous rice-growing 
tract dotted with thriving villages. The river, which here is tidal, is 
about a quarter of a mile broad, with deep water from bank to bank, 
affording good hold'ng ground for ships, with a well-sheltered anchorage. 
It was declared a port by the Government of Bengal in November, 1869, 
and buoys were laid down in the following month; but the effort to make 
it an entrepot for sea-going trade was not attended with success. Its 
])Osition on a fine navigable river, commanding a rich rice country, still, 
however, renders it a great centre of local trade. It is an important 
steamer station of the Cachar-Sundarbans service. 

Morsi TsiXyx^.— Td/i/k of AmraotI District, Berar, lying between 
21° 12' and 21° 34' N. and 77° 48' and 78° 29' E., with an area of 
622 square miles. The population fell from 152,374 in 1891 to 
'43)734 in 1901, its density in the latter year being 231 persons per 
square mile. The /dltik contains 231 villages and four towns, MoRsi 
(population, 8,313), the head-quarters, AN'arud (7,179), Sendurjana 



MORVI STATE 3 

(6,860), and Ner Pinglai (5,408). The demand for land revenue in 
1903-4 was Rs. 5,18,000, and for cesses Rs. 41,000. The taluk lies 
chiefly in the fertile valley of the Wardha river, which bounds it on the 
east and south-east ; but a narrow tract along its north-western border 
occupies the lower slopes of the Satpura Hills. 

Morsi Town. —Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name in 
Amraoti District, Berar, situated in 21° 20' N. and 78° 4' E. Poimlation 
(190 1 ), 8,313. The town contains eight ginning factories and two cotton- 
presses, and a Subordinate Judge and a Munsif hold their courts here. 

Morvi State. — State in the Kathiawar Political Agency, Bombay, 
lying between 22° 23' and 23° 6' N. and 70° 30' and 71" 3' E., with an 
area of 822 square miles. The country is generally flat. The river 
Machhu, on which the town of Morvi stands, never runs dry, and is 
crossed by a good bridge. The climate near the coast is good, but 
fever is common throughout the State. The annual rainfall averages 
23 inches. 

The Thakur Sahib of Morvi claims to be directly descended from 
the Cutch line and not through the Navanagar family. He possesses 
a small subdivision in Cutch with a port at Jangi. Many disputes 
have arisen with the Rao of Cutch regarding this port and the sea- 
borne trade. The differences which exist between the two States find 
a vent in obstructions offered to the trader. Tradition represents the 
chief of Morvi as the descendant of the eldest son of the Rao of Cutch 
who, in the latter part of the seventeenth century, was murdered by 
a younger brother, and whose family thereupon fled to this place, then 
a dependency of Cutch. Their possession of Morvi was subsequently 
sanctioned by the Cutch ruler. The chief entered into the same 
engagements with the British Government as the other Kathiawar chiefs 
in 1807. He holds a sa/iad authorizing adoption, and the succession 
of the house follows the rule of primogeniture. The chief is entitled 
to a salute of 11 guns. The present chief was created a K.C.I.E. in 
1887, and subsequently in 1897 a G.C.I.E. 

The population at the last four enumerations was: (1872) 90,016, 
(1881) 89,964, (1891) 105,335, and (1901) 87,496, showing a decrease 
of 17 per cent, during the last decade, owing to the famine of 1899- 
1900. In 1901 Hindus numbered 72,443, Musalmans 10,099, and 
Jains 4,913. The capital is MoRVi Town, and there are 140 villages. 

Grain, sugar-cane, and cotton are the principal products. The area 
cultivated is 345-| square miles, of which 3^ square miles are irrigated. 
Irrigation is provided by 4,257 wells and by the Paneli waterworks, 
which irrigate 1,208 blghas. A veterinary hospital is maintained; and 
horse-breeding is carried on by 14 stallions and 240 mares. Salt and 
coarse cotton cloth are manufactured. A cotton-mill, established by 
the State a few years ago, has recenll) been closed .; but a cotton- 



4 MORJ'I STATE 

ginning factory and gas-works arc still maintained. The chief articles 
of export are cotton, oil, ghi, wool, grain, liides and horns ; and the 
chief articles of import are timber, cotton cloth, oil, and coal. The 
total trade by sea and land amounted in 1903 4 to about 31 lakhs; 
namely, imports 12 lakhs, and exports about 9 lakhs. 

The State owns the port of Vavania, on the Gulf of Cutch, and 
maintains a g(Jod road between Morvi and Rajkot. A tramway runs 
from Morvi to the port of Navlakhi. The State railway, nearly 90 miles 
in length, known as the Morvi line, has been partly converted to the 
metre gauge ; it pays a dividend of about 5 per cent. Steam and oil 
launches are maintained by the State for trafific between Navlakhi i)ort 
and Khari Rohar. 

Morvi ranks as a first-class State in Kathiawar. The chief has full 
power over his own people, the trial of British subjects for capital 
offences requiring the previous permission of the Agent to the 
Governor. He enjoys an estimated revenue of more than 7^ lakhs 
(excluding the railway), chiefly derived from land (4-^ lakhs), and pays 
a tribute of Rs. 61,559 jointly to the British Government, the Gaik- 
war of Baroda, and the Nawab of Junagarh. The State contains four 
municipalities. In 1905 an armed police force of 176 men was main- 
tained : there are also 15 mounted men. The State contains a Central 
jail and four subsidiary jails, with a daily average of 102 prisoners. In 
1903-4 there were 49 schools, with a total of 2,086 pujjils, of whom 
155 are girls; and 6 medical institutions, treating 25,000 patients. 
In the same year about 1,900 persons were vaccinated. 

Morvi Town {Morbi). — Chief town of the State of the same name 
in Kathiawar, Bombay, situated in 22° 49' N. and 70° 53' 1'^., on the 
west bank of the river Machhu, which 22 miles farther north enters 
the Gulf of Cutch. Population (1901), 17,820. Morvi is the terminus 
of the Morvi State Railway, 35 miles distant from Rajkot. Old Morvi, 
.said to have been founded by Mor Jethwa, is situated on the eastern 
l)ank of the river, about a mile from the present town. It was called 
Mordhvajpuri and afterwards Bhimor. The present town is said to 
derive its name from the Morbo hill where Sanghji Jethwa defeated 
a \'aghela Rana, and in commemoratioji (;f his conquest founded the 
present town on the opposite bank of the river to Mordhvajpuri. 
Afterwards when Mordhvajpuri became waste in the wars of the end 
of the fifteenth and beginning of the sixteenth century, most of the 
wealthy inhabitants removed their dwellings to the present site in order 
to place the river between them and the foreign invader. A made road 
connects Morvi with the port of Vavania and the town of Tankara. 
The town contains a public park and a library and several fine 
Iniildings. 

Mota Kotarna. Tettv State in Maui Kamha, BomhaN. 



MOur.MRix srr> DIVISION 5 

Moth. -Norlh-western /rr/wV of jliansi District, United Provinces, 
conterminous with the pari:;ima of the same name, lying between 
25° 32' and 25° 50' N. and 78° 46' and 79° 7' E., with an area of 
279 square miles. Topulation fell from 59,089 in 1891 to 55,638 in 
1901. 'i'here are 136 villages and two towns: CInrgaon (population, 
4,028) and Moth (2,937), the tahsll head-quarters. The demand for 
land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,17,000, and for cesses Rs. 19,000. 
The density of population, 199 persons per square mile, is slightly 
abo\e the District average. The Betwa flows through the centre of 
the ta/istl. The villages along its banks are liable to injury from the 
erosion in ravines, and those east of the river are largely overgrown by 
kdns {Saccharum spontanei/m), which prevents cultivation, '^^'est of the 
Betwa good black soil is found in the north of the tahsll, where it is 
protected and enriched by embankments, while in the south, where 
the soil is lighter, there is a little irrigation. 'J'here is excellent grazing 
for cattle, and large quantities of glil are exported from Chlrgaon. 
In 1902-3 the cultivated area was 118 square miles, of which only 2 
were irrigated. 

Motihari Subdivision.- Head-quarters subdivision of Champaran 
District, Bengal, lying between 26° 16' and 27° 1' N. and 84° 30' and 
<i5° 18' E., with an area of 1,518 square miles. The subdivision con- 
sists of an alluvial tract traversed by the Sikrana river, in which the 
land is level, fertile, and highly cultivated. The population in 190X 
was 1,040,599, compared with 1,099,600 in 1891. The slight de- 
crease was due to the famine of 1897, which stimulated emigration and 
diminished the fecundity of the people. The density is 686 persons 
per square mile, or nearly twice as high as in the Bettiah subdivision. 
It contains one town, MotIhari (population, 13,730), the head-quarters : 
and 1,304 villages. Interesting archaeological remains are found at 
Araraj and Kesariva. Sa(;auij was the scene of an outbreak in the 
Mutiny. 

Motihari Town. — Head-quarters of Champaran District, Bengal, 
situated in 26° 40' N. and 84'^ 55' E. Population (1901), 13,730. 
Motihari was constituted a municipality in 1869. 'I'he income during 
the decade ending 1901-2 averaged Rs. 16,000, and the expenditure 
Rs. 14,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 22,000, of which Rs. 8,000 
was derived from a tax on houses and lands, and Rs. 3,000 from a 
municipal market; and the expenditure was Rs. 17,000. The town 
is pleasantly situated on the east bank of a lake, and contains the usual 
public ofifices, a jail, and a school. The jail has accommodation for 
356 prisoners ; the chief industries carried on are oil-pressing, dari- 
weaving, net-making, and the manufacture of string money-bags. 
Motihari is the head quarters of a troop of the Bihar Light Horse. 

Moulmein Subdivision. — .Sul^division and township in the north 



6 MOULMEIN SUBDIVISION 

west corner of Amherst District, Lower Burma, with an area of 30 
square miles, 15 of which are comprised in the Moulmein municipality 
and 6 in Moulmein port. The township contains that part of the 
District (outside municipal limits) which lies north of the Gyaing river, 
where Kado (population, 2,934), an important forest depot, is situated. 
The population, excluding the Moulmein municipality and port, was 
8,168 in 1901 (chiefly Takings and Burmans), distributed in 40 villages. 
The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 16 square miles, paying Rs. 23,400 
land revenue. 

Moulmein Town (Burmese, Mawlamyaing). — Head-quarters of 
Amherst District and of the Tenasserim Division of Lower Burma, 
situated in 16° 29' N. and 97° 38' E., 28 miles from the sea, on the 
left bank of the Salween, at its confluence with the Gyaing and Ataran. 
\\\ configuration the town has roughly the form of an inverted * L, 
the portion represented by the horizontal line following the course of 
the Salween, and that represented by the vertical line the course of the 
Ataran. The former contains four divisions of the town, the latter one. 

As a British settlement, Moulmein dates from the year 1827, when 
it was selected by General Sir Archibald Campbell as the capital for 
the newly acquired Tenasserim province, its claims being held superior 
to those of Amherst in the south and Martaban in the west. One of 
Moulmein's chief titles to fame is the great beauty of the scenery in 
which it is set. The visitor entering the river from the Gulf of 
Martaban is met by banks crowned with the most varied of evergreen 
foliage, a marked contrast to the low-lying muddy flats that characterize 
the mouths of the Hooghly or Irrawaddy. Right and left, parallel with 
the banks, are low ranges of hills, on which are perched pagodas here 
and there ; and up the river beyond the town a limestone eminence 
about 2,000 feet in height, known as the Duke of York's Nose, stands 
in bold relief against the sky. From the plains surrounding the town 
isolated limestone rocks rise abruptly, forming one of the most marked 
characteristics of the Moulmein scenery. 

('oniing to the town itself, through the horizontal arm of the inverted 
' L ' runs a range of hills 300 feet in height, on which are built two 
magnificent pagodas, the Uzina and Kyaikthanlan, the former in the 
centre, the latter at the northern end. Midway between the two is 
a third pagoda, from which the midday gun is fired and ships are 
signalled. From this ridge a view, hardly to be equalled in Burma 
for beauty, is obtained of Moulmein nestling among the trees on the 
western slopes. 'Yo the north and west lie the meeting-place of the 
rivers, the shipping in the .stream, the wooded islands in the channel, 
Martaban with its glistening pagoda overhanging the water, and the 
dark hills of Bilugyun. To the east, the Ataran may be seen winding 
through the green plain, and the Taungwaing hills rise up in the south. 



MO UL ME IN TOWN 7 

The town, which has an area of 15 square miles, is laid out on a fairly 
regular plan, but is not altogether worthy of its gorgeous setting. It 
stretches, long and narrow, along the bank of the Salween. Three main 
roads run north and south, parallel to the river, two throughout the 
entire length of the town, and one for about 2 miles. Numerous cross- 
roads, mostly unmetalled, run east and west, one being continued by 
means of the Nyaungbinzeik ferry into the country beyond the Ataran, 
thus forming the main avenue by which food-supplies are brought into 
Moulmein. The European residences are situated to the west of the 
central ridge, for the most part in spacious and well-kept grounds. 
The most notable buildings are Salween House, the official residence 
of the Commissioner, built on the ridge ; the masonry law courts and 
Government offices, at the foot of the rising ground ; the General 
Hospital ; the Government schools ; and three churches, vSt. Matthew's, 
St. Patrick's, and St. Augustine's. The old cantonment, from which 
the troops have now been removed, centres around a parade-ground 
towards the north of the town. The business quarter adjoins the 
river bank in the west. The new jail lies at the foot of the ridge 
towards the northern end of the town in the old cantonment area. 
A blot on Moulmein at present is the indiscriminate way in which cooly 
barracks, native hamlets [bastts), and lodging-houses have been allowed 
to spring up in all the quarters. The hastls are composed of long 
narrow houses on three sides of a square, divided into small window- 
less compartments. The back-yard is common to the inmates of all 
the houses, and contains a shallow well from which both bathing and 
drinking water is obtained. Near it are cesspits ; goats and calves find 
a hospitable refuge in the living rooms and cooking-places, and a herd 
of cows is usually accommodated under a lean-to shed in the back-yard. 
Reconstruction and improvements in sanitation are now, however, 
being undertaken. 

The population of Moulmein was 46,472 in 1872 ; 53,107 in 1881 ; 
55,785 in 1891 ; and 58,446 in 1901. The last figure includes 8,544 
Musalmans and 19,081 Hindus, the increase of population in the last 
decade being almost entirely due to Hindu immigration from Madras. 
The chief native industries pursued are gold- and silver-work and ivory- 
carving; but Moulmein also contains 14 steam saw-mills, 3 rice-mills, 
and 4 mills in which both sawing and milling are carried on, besides 
a steam joinery (also dealing with rice), and a foundry. 

The port of Moulmein has an interesting history. Between the years 
1830 and 1858 ship-building was carried on to a considerable extent, 
ample supplies of teak being drawn from the rich forests in the sur- 
rounding country. The advent of the iron ship and the steamer has 
destroyed the larger branch of this industry, which is now confined to 
the construction of small country craft. Of late a great obstruction to 



s }rori.}rr.r.y roirx 

ihe prosperity of the oversea trade of Nfoulmein has been the presence 
of bars in the channel of the Sahveen near its moutli, but Government 
has lately taken steps to keep the lower reaches of the river open to 
steamers of deei) draught by means of a powerful dredger. The growth 
in the trade of the port appears from the following figures. The imports 
in 1880-1 were valued at 98 lakhs, in 1890-1 at 99 lakhs, in 1900-1 at 
1-2 crores, and in 1903-4 at 1-5 crores ; while the exports were valued 
in 1880-1 at 1-48 crores, in 1890-1 at 1-28 crores, in 1900-1 at i-88 
crores, and in 1903-4 at 2 crores. Of the imports, only about one- 
tenth come direct from foreign (extra-Indian) ports, the greater part 
being received, more or less equally, from Calcutta and Rangoon. 
From foreign ports the chief imports (mainly from the Straits) are betel- 
nuts, sugar, and provisions of various kinds. The imports from Bengal 
consist mainly of specie in payment for rice and other exports, and 
those from Rangoon of re-exported foreign goods. The exports, on 
the other hand, go mainly to foreign ports, this portion being valued in 
1903-4 at 1-35 crores, of which by far the greater part was partially 
husked rice (valued at r crore), teak and rice-bran being the next most 
important commodities. About half the rice is shipped to Suez, where 
it is to a large extent reconsigned to European ports. The exports 
from Moulmein to the Straits for Farther Asian ports were valued in 
1903-4 at 36 lakhs, and those to England at 22| lakhs, while those to 
Indian ports were valued in the same year at 68 lakhs, of which 21 
lakhs went to Calcutta, 18 to other Burmese ports, and 24 to Bombay. 
The British India Steam Navigation Company runs three fast steamers 
a week between Moulmein and Rangoon, as well as a boat between 
Moulmein and the other ports on the Tenasserim coast. The inland 
waters are served by the steamers of the Irrawaddy Flotilla Company. 

The port of Moulmein is in charge of a Port Ofificer, belonging to the 
Royal Indian Marine, and is buoyed and lighted by the Port fund, 
which had an income and expenditure of 1-56 lakhs and 1-79 lakhs 
respectively, in 1903-4. The Port and Customs offices are near the 
main wharf, close to the river's edge. Up to 1874 the town was under 
the control of a town magistrate, the funds required for administration 
being provided by a night-watch tax and Government contributions 
and from a few local sources. In 1874 a municipal committee was 
formed, and the income and expenditure during ilic decade ending 
1 90 1 averaged Rs. 1,42,800. In 1903-4 the former amounted to 7-2 
lakhs (including a loan of 3-96 lakhs). The principal sources of 
revenue were house and land tax (Rs. 72,600), and water rate (Rs. 
90,000). The expenditure In the same year was 6-4 lakhs. The chief 
heads of outlay were Rs. 42,000 spent on conservancy, Rs. 43,000 on 
roads, Rs. 44,000 on lighting, and Rs. 59,000 on public works. The 
water-supply, constructed at a cost of 9I lakhs, has recently been 



AfOff'/IA' 9 

(Completed. The water is impounded in a reservoir 4 miles to the 
south of Moulmein, at the foot of the Taungwaing hills, and is 
distributed through each division of the town by gravitation. It is 
hoped that the provision of a supply of good drinking-water will put 
a stop to the cholera ei)idemics that have visited Moulmein regularly 
in the past. A sum of nearly 3 lakhs is to be expended on surface 
drainage, of which the town is badly in need. Since 1898 the town 
has been lit by oil gas. The gas-works are a municipal concern, the 
plant being capable of generating 12,500 cubic feet of gas daily. The 
municipality makes no contribution to education, but maintains a 
hospital with 100 beds. Other pubHc institutions are the leper asylum 
(where 29 in-patients and 23 out-patients were treated in 1903), and 
numerous schools. There is a branch of the Bank of Bengal in 
Moulmein, and two newspapers arc published, one in English and one 
in Burmese. 

Moulmeingyun.— Township of Myaungmya District, Lower Burma, 
lying between 15° 45'' and 16° 34' N. and 95° and 95° 35' E., with an 
area of 561 square miles. It is really a large island, bounded on the 
east by the Irrawaddy and oii the west by the Kyunpyatthat and 
Pyamalaw rivers, and cut up by numerous creeks. The northern 
portion is somewhat densely populated, but the southern is mostly 
jungle-covered, though cultivation is rapidly extending. The township 
was constituted in 1903, out of a portion of the old Wakema township 
and an area transferred from the former Thongwa District at the time 
that che District of Pyapon was created. The population of the town- 
ship as now constituted was 97,931 in 1901, distributed in 129 villages, 
Moulmeingyun (population, 1,782), on one of the numerous branches 
of the Irrawaddy, being the head-quarters. In 1903-4 the area under 
cultivation was 273 square miles, paying Rs. 2,85,000 land revenue. 

Mount Victoria. — Highest point in the Natmadaung range in the 
Pakokku Chin Hills, Burma, situated in 21° 16' N. and 93° 57' E., 
close to the eastern edge of the hills of Northern Arakan, and about 
76 miles due west of the Irrawaddy, opposite the town of Pakokku, 
10,400 feet above the sea. Of recent years Mount Victoria has been 
found to possess possibilities as a sanitarium, the construction of 
Government buildings has commenced, and in 1902 the head-quarters 
of the Assistant Superintendent of the Pakokku Chin Hills were 
removed from Mindat Sakan to Kanpetlet on the mount. 

Mowa.— Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Mo war. — Town in the Katol faAsi/ of Nagpur District, Central 
Provinces, situated in 21° 28' N, and 78° 27' E., on the Wardha river 
bordering Berar, 53 miles north-west of Nagpur city. Population 
(1901), 4,799. Mowiir was created a municipality in 1867. The 
municipal receipts during the decade ending iqoi averaged Rs. 3,000. 



lo MO IV A R 

In 1903-4 they were Rs. 4,000, the chief source of income being 
market dues. It has a small dyeing industry, but with this exception 
the population is solely agricultural. The town is surrounded by 
groves and gardens on all sides except towards the river. A large 
weekly market is held. There is a vernacular middle school. 

Mozufferpore. — District, subdivision, and town in Bengal. See 

MUZAFFARPUR. 

Mrohaung. — Township and village in Akyab District, Lowe. 
Burma. See Myohaung. 

Mubarakpur. — Town in the Muhammadabad fa/istl of Azamgarh 
District, United Provinces, situated in 26° 6' N. and 83° 18' E., 8 
miles north-east of Azamgarh town. Population (1901), 15,433. It is 
said to have been formerly called Kasimabad, and to have fallen into 
decay before it was resettled, under the name of Rajl Mubarak, by an 
ancestor of the present Shaikh landholders, some twelve generations 
ago. Serious conflicts have occurred between the Muhammadan and 
Hindu inhabitants of the town, especially in 1813, 1842, and 1904, 
and special police are at present quartered here. Mubarakpur 
is administered under x'\ct XX of 1856, with an income of about 
Rs. 2,000. It contains about 1,700 looms on which cotton, silk, and 
satin stuffs are woven, the town being especially noted for the last. 
There is also a small industry in sugar-refining. A primary school 
is attended by 60 pupils. 

Mudbidri. — Village in the Mangalore idluk of South Kanara I )is- 
trict, Madras, situated in 13° 5' N. and 75° E., 21 miles east of 
Mangalore town. It was once an important Jain town, and a 
descendant of the old Jain chief, known as ' the Chouter,' still resides 
here and draws a small pension. It contains eighteen Jain bastis or 
temples, one of which, the Chandranath temple, is the finest building 
of the kind in the District. It has about 1,000 pillars, all of them 
most beautifully and richly carved. The architecture of these basits 
is peculiar, and Fergusson states that the nearest approach to the type 
is to be found in Nepal. By the .sloping roofs of their verandas and 
the exuberance of their carving, they show that their architecture is 
copied from constructions in wood. Close by are some tombs of Jain 
priests, built in several storeys, but of no great size and now much 
decayed. There is also an old stone bridge, which is interesting as 
showing the ancient Hindu methods of constructing such works. 

Muddebihal Taluka. — Eastern tdluka of Bijapur District, Bombay, 
lying between 16° 10' and 16° 37^ N. and 75° 58' and 76° 25' E., with 
an area of 569 square miles. It contains one town, Talikot (popula- 
tion, 6,610) : and 150 villages, including Muddebihal (6,235), the 
head-quarters. The population in 1901 was 69,842, compared with 
81,572 in 1891. The density, 123 persons per square mile, is 



MUDGEKE II 

sligl)tl\ below ilie 1 )istricl a\eiagc. Tlie (.leniand lor land revenue m 
1903-4 was 1-53 laklis, and for cesses Rs. 13,000. In the north of the 
taluka is the rich \allcy of the Don. The central plateau of sandstone 
and limestone is fairly fertile. The south and south-east is a barren 
tract of metamorphic granite, fertile only close to the Kistna. 'I'he 
annual rainfall averages about 27 inches. 

Mitddebihal Village. — \'illage in the tdhika of the same name in 
i>ijai)ur Distriit, Bombay, situated in i6° 20' N. and 76° 8' E., about 
iS miles from Alimatti station on the Southern Mahratta Railway. 
Population (1901), 6,235. 'I'he \illage comprises the site of Parvatgiri 
to the east and of Muddebihal to the west, separated by a large drain 
running north and south. It was founded about 1680 by Parmanna, an 
ancestor of the present Nadgaunda of Ba.sarkot, and the fort was built 
by his son Huchappa about 1720. About 1764 it came under the 
Peshwas, and it was included in British territory in 181 8, The village 
contains a .Subordinate Judge's court, a dispensary, two boys' schools 
with 329 pupils, and a girls' school with 56. 

Mudgal. — Head-quarters of the Lingsugur taluk, Raichur District. 
Hyderabad State, situated in 16° \' N. and 76 26' E. Population 
(1901), 7,729, of whom 4,753 are Hindus, 2,593 Musalmans, and 380 
Christians. The fort was the seat of the Yadava governors of Deogiri 
in 1250. It came successively into the possession of the Rajas of 
A\'arangal, the Bahmani and the Bijapur Sultans, and lastly it fell to 
Aurangzeb. There is a small Roman Catholic colony in the town, 
whose ancestors were originally converted by one of St. Francis 
Xaviers missionaries from Goa. The church was built at an early date 
and contains a picture of the Madonna. Mudgal has two schools, one 
of which is supported by the mission, a post office, and an Ash'ur- 
kJidna, where the Muharram ceremony is held with great eclat in the 
presence of thousands of pilgrims. 

Mudgere.— Southern tdluk of Kadilr District, Mysore, lying between 
12° 55' and 13° 19' N. and 75° 10' and 75° 45' E., with an area of 
435 square miles. The population in 1901 was 46,212, compared with 
45,521 in 1 89 1. The taluk contains one town, Mudgere (population, 
1,675), the head-([uarters : and 137 villages. The land revenue demand 
in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,23,000. Till 1876 Mudgere formed part of 
Manjarabad. Like that tdluk, it lies in the Malnad, and is highly 
picturesque. The AVestern Ghats bound it on the west, towering up 
to the great peak of Kudremukh (6,215 ^'^^O- '^'""^ Bhadra flows 
across the north, and the Hemavati through the south. The summits 
of the mountains are bare, but the hanging woods on their sides impart 
great beauty to the landscape. The annual rainfall averages 103 inches. 
The chief products are coffee, areca-nuts, cardamoms, rice, and a little 
sugar-cane. The rice crop mainly depends on springs in the hills from 
vol.. XVI II. n 



12 MUDGERE 

which watercourses are led. Many of the coffee estates are under 
European management, the labourers being Tulus from South Kanara. 
The Band (or coffee) ghat road runs from Mudgere west, down to 
Mangalore on the coast. 

Mudhol State. — State under the Political Agent of Kolhapur and 
the Southern Maratha Country, Bombay, lying between i6° i' and 
i6° 27' N. and 75° 4' and 75° 32' E., with an area of 368 square 
miles. It is bounded on the north by Jamkhandi State ; on the east 
by the Bagalkot fdiuka; on the south by Belgaum and Bijapur Dis- 
tricts and the Kolhapur State ; and on the west by the Gokak tahika 
of Belgaum District. The population in 1901 was 63,001, Hindus 
numbering 57,896, Muhammadans 4,826, and Jains 277. The State 
contains 3 towns, including Mudhol (population, 8,359), the resi- 
dence of the chief; and 81 villages. The general aspect of the country 
is flat, with slight undulations. The scenery is monotonous, and, 
except during the rainy season, presents a parched and barren aspect. 
There are no mountains, the small hill ranges not being more 
than 150 feet high. The greater portion of the soil is black, the 
remainder being the inferior description of red and stony land known 
as mdl. The only river passing through the State is the Ghatprabha, 
which is navigable during the monsoon by boats of less than a ton 
burden ; but it is never used as a means of communication for 
travelling or trade. It waters in its course about half the villages of 
the State, and irrigates by its annual floods a considerable area. 
Irrigation is also effected by damming up small rivulets, and turning 
off the water in the direction required ; by drawing water from wells 
and pools by means of leathern bags ; and where the elevation of the 
bed of a reservoir is sufficient, by leading channels into the neigh- 
bouring fields. As in other parts of the I")eccan, the climate is very 
dry, the heat from March to May being oppressive. The staple crops 
are Jowdr, wheat, gram, and cotton. Cotton cloth and articles of 
female apparel are the chief manufactures. 

The chief of Mudhol belongs to the Bhonsla family of the Maratha 
caste or clan, descended, according to tradition, from a common 
ancestor with Sivajl the Great. This name, however, has been entirely 
superseded by the second designation of Ghorpade, which is said to 
have been acquired by one of the family who managed to scale a fort, 
previously deemed impregnable, by fastening a cord around the body 
of a ghorpad or iguana. All that is authentically known of the history 
of the family is that it held a high position at the court of Bijapur, 
from which it received the lands it still holds. The Mudhol chiefs 
were the most determined opponents of Sivaji during his early con- 
quests ; but on the overthrow of the Muhammadan power they joined 
the Marathas, and accepted a military command from the Peshwa. 



MUDKl I -5 

The great-grandfather of the present ruler (who died in 1856) was 
the first who became a feudatory of the British Government. 

The chief administers his estate in person. He enjoys an esti- 
mated revenue of more than 3 lakhs, and pays a tribute of Rs. 2,672 
to the British Government. He officially ranks as a first-class Sardar 
in the Southern Maratha Country. There are two civil courts in the 
State. An appeal lies to the chief, who has power to try his own 
subjects for capital offences. The family of the chief holds a title 
authorizing adoption, and follows the rule of primogeniture in matters 
of succession. There are 24 schools with 1,123 pupils ; and three muni- 
cipalities, with an income in 1903-4 of Rs. 6,400. The police force 
numbered 104 in the same year, and the one jail in the State contained 
a daily average of 17 prisoners. In 1903-4 the State maintained three 
dispensaries which afforded relief to 26,000 persons, and 1,300 persons 
were vaccinated, 

Mudhol Town (i). — Chief town of the State of Mudhol, Bombay, 
situated in 16° 20' N. and 75° ig' E., on the left bank of the Ghat- 
prabha, about 12 miles south of Jamkhandi. Population (1901), 8,359. 
It is administered as a municipality, with an income in 1903-4 of 
Rs. 2,700. The town contains a dispensary. 

Mudhol Taluk. — Taluk in Nander District, Hyderabad State, with 
an area of 335 square miles. In 1901 the population, including yVf^/r.y, 
was 57,024, compared with 64,124 in 1891, the decrease being due to 
the famine of 1900. Till recently it had 115 villages, of which 25 are 
jdglr^ and one town, Mudhol (population, 6,040), the head-quarters. 
The land revenue in 1901 was 1-7 lakhs. Up to 1905 the taluk 
formed part of Indur (Nizamabad) District ; and on its transfer to 
Nander District it was enlarged by the addition of the Bhaisa taluk 
and part of Nander. The soil is mostly black cotton. 

Mudhol Town (2). — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name 
in Nander District, Hyderabad State, situated in 18° 59' N. and 77° 
55' E., 28 miles north-west-by-north of Nizamabad. Population 
(1901), 6,040. Besides the taksil office, the town contains a post office, 
a police inspector's office, and a school with 1 20 pupils. 

Mudki. — Town in the District and tahs'il of Ferozepore, Punjab, 
situated in 30° 47' N. and 74° 55' E., on the road between Ferozepore 
and Ludhiana. Population (1901), 2,977. It is memorable for the 
battle which inaugurated the first Sikh War, fought on December 18, 
1845, on the plain 26 miles south of the Sutlej. Two days before this 
battle, the Sikhs had crossed the boundary river at Ferozepore. They 
were met by a much smaller British force at Mudkl, and driven from 
their position, with the loss of 17 guns, after a hard contest, in which 
the British lost a large proportion of officers. Monuments have been 
erected on the battle-field in honour of those who fell. 

B 2 



14 MUDON 

Mudon. — Seaboard township of Amherst District, Lower Burma 
(formerly known as Zaya), strelehing down the coast opposite the 
island of Bilugyun, from the Taungnyo hills to the sea, between 15* 58' 
and 16° 27' N. and 97° 36' and 97° 55' E., with an area of 236 square 
miles. It is fiat, fertile, and thickly populated. The population, which 
is largely Taking, increased from 40,761 in 1891 to 52,746 in 1901, 
distributed in 106 villages, Mudon (population, 2,358), a village on the 
Moulmein-Amherst road, 9 miles south of Moulmein, being the head- 
quarters. The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 144 square miles, paying 
Rs. 2,12,600 land revenue. 

Muduktilattur. — Zamliiddri hihsl/ in the Ranniad subdivision and 
estate, Madura District, Madras. It is named after its head-quarters, 
where a ([Q\^\xX.y-/ahsllddr and sub-magistrate is stationed. The popula- 
tion in 1901 was 146,255, compared with 135,182 in 1891. It contains 
two towns, AiURAMAM (population, 7,338) and Kamudi (6,854) ; and 
399 villages. The talml possesses the same desolate and uninviting 
appearance as the rest of the Ramnad estate. It is largely black 
cotton soil, and during the rains, owing to the absence of roads, the 
country becomes nearly impassable. 

Muhamdi Tahsil. — .South-western iahs'il of Kheri District, United 
I'rovinces, com[)rising the parganas of Muhamdi, Pasgawan, Atwa 
riparia, Aurangabad, Magdapur, Haidarabad, and Kasta (Abgawan), 
and lying between 27° 41' and 28° 10' N. and 80° 2' and 80° 39' E., 
with an area of 651 square miles. Population fell from 258,617 in 1891 
to 257,989 in 1901, this being the only tahsil in the District where 
a decrease took i^lace. There are 607 villages and one town, 
MuiiA.MDi (population, 6,278), the tahsil head-quarters. The demand 
for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 296,000, and for cesses Rs. 49,000. 
The density of population, 396 persons per square mile, is the highest 
in the District. The tahsil is bounded on the west by the Sukheta, 
and is also drained by the Gumti, Kathna, and Sarayan. A great part 
is composed of fertile loam; but the large area between the Kathna 
and Gumti, called the Parehar, is a dry sandy tract where irrigation 
is generally impossible. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 
406 square miles, of which 99 were irrigated. A\'ells supply more 
than two-thirds of the irrigated area, and tanks or jliils most of the 
remainder. 

Muhamdi Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name in 
Kheri District, United Provinces, situated in 27'^ 58' N. and 80"^ 14' E., 
near the Gumti. Population (1901), 6,278. The town became of 
some importance during the seventeenth century, when it was held b)- 
Muktadi Khan, a descendant of Sadr Jahan, the great noble of Akbar's 
court. He built a large brick fort, the ruins of which still remain. 
Early in the eighteenth centurv the celebrated Hakim Mahdi Ali 



MUHAM.MAl^ABAn T. I llSjf. 1 5 

Khan, afletwards ininisti-r lo llic kiiins of Oudh, nsidcd here while- 
governor of Muliamdi and Khairabiid, and made several improvements. 
At annexation in r856 Muhamdi was selected as the head-quarters 
of a District, but after the Mutiny Lakhlmpur became the capital. 
Besides the usual offices, there are a branch of the American Methodist 
INIission and a dispensary. The town was administered as a muni- 
cipality from 1879 to 1904, when it was declared to be a 'notified 
area.' During the ten years ending 1901 the mconie and expenditure 
averaged Rs. 2,800. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 7,000, including 
a grant of Rs. ,5,500 from Provincial revenues ; and the expenditure 
was Rs. 6,500. Thouii;h Muhamdi is of less importance than formerly, 
a considerable trade is still carried on, and the town contains six sugar 
refineries, 'inhere is a school witii i 40 pupils. 

Muhammadabad Tahsil (i).— .South-eastern lahsil of .\zamgarh 
District, United Provinces, comprising the pargn/ias of Karvat Mittu, 
Chiriakot, Maunath Bhanjan or Mau, and Muhammadabad, and lying 
between 25° 48' and 26° 8' N. and ^f ri' and 83° 40' E., with an area 
of 427 square miles. This area was reduced by 71 miles in 1904, 
portions being transferred to the new GhosI tahsi/. Population fell 
from 359,746 in 1891 to 306,870 in 1901, and allowing for the recent 
change is now 251,796. There are 971 villages and three towns : Mau 
(population, 17,696), Mubarakpur (15,433), and Muhammadabad 
(8,775), the iahs'/I head-quarters. The demand for land revenue in 
1903-4 was Rs. 3,63,000, and for cesses Rs. 59,000 : but after the 
transfer these figures became Rs. 3,02,000 and Rs. 49,000. The 
density of population of the reconstituted fa/isfl is 707 persons per 
square mile, or almost exactly the District average. The fa/isll is inter- 
sected by several small streams and a number of swamps and marshes, 
and lies south of the Chhoti -Sarju and its tributary, the Tons. In 
1900 r, 238 scjuare miles of the old area were under cultivation, of 
which 146 were irrigated. Wells supply rather more than half the 
irrigated area, and tanks or swamps and small rivers the remainder in 
equal proportions. 

Muhammadabad Town (i).— Head-quarters of the fa/isi/ of the 
.same name in A/amgarh District, United Provinces, situated in 26" 
2' N. and 83° 24' E., on the Tons and on the Bengal and North-Western 
Railway. Population (1901), 8,775. ""'•^ town appears lo be of some 
antiquity, and was held by Muhammadans from the early part of the 
fifteenth century. It contains a dispensary, a iahsill, a mirnsifi, and 
a police station. It is administered under Act XX of 1856, with an 
income of about Rs. 1,400. There are about 300 looms and a few- 
sugar refineries. Two schools have 100 pupils. 

Muhammadabad Tahsil (2).— Eastern A?//«/ of Ghazlpur District, 
United Provinces, comprising the /«7;{,'-<7//<7.c of Zahurabad, Mulunnimad 



1 6 MUHAMMADABAD TAHSlL 

abad, and Dehma, and lying north of the Ganges, between 25" 31' and 
25° 54' N. and 83° 36' and 83*^ 58' E., with an area of 320 square 
miles. Population fell from 251,823 in 1891 to 226,760 in 1901. 
There are 694 villages and two towns, including Muhammadabad (popu- 
lation, 7,270), the tahsll head-quarters. The demand for land revenue 
in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,41,000, and for cesses Rs. 45,000. The density 
of population, 709 persons per .square mile, is the highest in the 
District. Through the centre of the tahsll flows the Mangai, and 
the Chhotl Sarju crosses the north. Rice and sugar-cane are largely 
grown in the northern portion, where jhth and tanks abound, while 
spring crops are the staple in the south, which includes a large area 
of alluvial soil and forms one of the most fertile tracts in the District. 
The area under cultivation in 1903-4 was 234 square miles, of which 
82 were irrigated. Wells supply about eight-ninths of the irrigated 
area, and tanks most of the remainder. 

Muhammadabad Town (2). — Head-quarters of the tahsll of the 
same name in Ghazlpur District, United Provinces, situated in 25° 
37' N. and 83° 47' E., on the Bengal and North-Western Railway and 
close to the road from Ghazlpur town to Buxar. Population (1901), 
7,270. The town is administered under Act XX of 1856, with an 
income of about Rs. 1,500. It contains one tolerably straight thorough- 
fare, lined with well-built shops and houses, and wears a neat and clean 
appearance. A weekly bazar is held, and a flourishing export trade 
in grain is .springing up. Besides the ordinary public ofifices, there are 
a dispensary, a uiunsifi, and two schools with 184 pupils. 

Muhammadgarh.— Mediatized State in Central India, under the 
Bhopal Agency, situated on the Malwa plateau, with an area of about 
29 square miles, and a population (1901) of 2,944. The State was 
originally included in Basoda and Korwai. In 1753 Ahsan-ullah Khan, 
the Nawab of Basoda, divided his State between his two sons, 
Baka-ullah and Muhammad Khan, the latter founding the town and 
State of Muhammadgarh. The present chief is Hatim Kuli Khan, who 
succeeded in 1896, and bears the title of Nawab. The State contains 
14 villages, and produces good crops of all the ordinary grains and 
of poppy. About 8 square miles, or 27 per cent, of the total area, 
are cultivated, of which 51 acres are irrigated. The chief exercises the 
criminal powers of a first-class magistrate, all serious crimes being dealt 
with by the Political Agent. The revenue amounts to Rs. 7,000. The 
town of Muhammadgarh is situated in 23° 39' N. and 78° 10' E., and 
has a population (1901) of 856. It is reached from the Bhilsa station 
of the Midland section of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, 29 
miles distant, by a fair-weather road. 

Muhammad Khan's Tando. Head-quarters of the Guni tah/ka 
of Hyderabad District, Sind, Bombay. See Tando Muhammad Khan. 



MUKERIAX 17 

Muhammadot. — An estate in F'erozepore District, Punjalx See 
Mam DOT. 

Muhammadpur. — Village in the Magura subdivision of Jessore 
])istrict, Bengal, situated in 23° 24' N. and 89° 37' I'^., on the right 
hank of the Madhumati. ?0])ulation (1901), 44. Muhammadpur was 
formerly a large town ; and a quadrangular fort, many fine tombs, and 
other remains bear testimony to its ancient greatness. The place is 
now very unhealthy, and it was in its neighbourhood that the virulent 
epidemic known as ' Burdwan fever' was first noticed about 1840. 

Muhpa. — Town in Nagpur District, Central Provinces. See Mohpa. 

Mukama. — Town in Patna District, Bengal. See Mokameh. 

Mukandwara (or Mukandara).— Village in the Chechat tahsll of 
the State of Kotah, Rajputana, situated in 24° 49' N. and 76° E., in 
the hills of the same name, about 32 miles south-by-south-east of Kotah 
city and about 80 north-east of Nimach. The range is here pierced by 
a pass, about 1,500 feet above the sea, which is of great importance as 
being the only defile practicable for wheeled traffic for a consider- 
able distance between the Chambal and Kali Sindh rivers. This pass 
is called Mukandwara, ' the gate or portal of Mukand,' after Mukand 
Singh, who was the second chief of Kotah, and built the gates of the 
defile as well as a palace to his favourite mistress, Abli Mini, on 
the slope of the hill. The pass has been the scene of many obstinately 
contested battles between the KhTchI and the Hara Rajputs, and is 
famous as the route of Colonel Monson's retreat before Jaswant Rao 
Holkar in July, 1804. Some distance up the valley are the fragments 
of the chaor'i or hall of Bhim. Fergusson thought the building might 
be as old as a.d. 450, or even older, but only the columnar part of the 
mandap or portico remained and no inscription could be found. The 
lintels and consoles are elaborately carved all o\er with strange 
animal forms and floral scrolls ; and the pillars, though scarcely ten 
feet in height, look larger and nobler than many of twice their 
dimensions. 

[J. Tod, Rajastha)i, vol. ii; J. Fergusson, Picturesgi/e Illustrations 
of Ancient Architecture and History of Indian and Eastern Architecture ; 
also, Archaeological Survey of N^orthern India, vol. xxiii.] 

Mukerian. — Town in the Dasuya tahsll of Hoshiarpur District, 
Punjab, situated in 31° 57' N. and 75° 38' E. Population (1901), 
3,589. It was a stronghold of Sardar Jai Singh Kanhaya, whose power 
was paramount in the Punjab about 1774-84: and RanjTl Singh's 
reputed son, Sher Singh, who afterwards became Maharaja, was born 
here. The town has no trade of any importance. The municipality 
was created in 1867. The income and expenditure during the ten 
years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 3,100. In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 3,200, chiefly derived from octroi : and the expenditure was 



1 8 MUKERTAX 

Rs. 2,900. It nuiintains a \ernacular middlf school and a Govern- 
ment dispensary. 

Mukhalingam. — Village in the Parlakimedi tahsil of Cianjam Dis- 
trict, Madras, situated in 18° 35' N. and 38° 59' E., on the left bank 
of the Vamsadhara, 18 miles from Parlakimedi. It is famous for its 
Siva temple, which is held in great veneration, and is maintained by 
the Raja of Parlakimedi. v\ religious festival and fair is held annually 
on the Sivariitri, when thousands of pilgrims visit it. This and two 
other temples in the same village are excellent examples of the Orissan 
or Indo-Aryan style of architecture, which differs widely from the 
Dravidian style (jf the southern Districts ; and the sculpture on them is 
remarkable for its elegance and precision. One of them was built in 
the beginning of the ninth century, and the inscriptions show that 
Mukhalingam was formerly inhabited by Buddhists, and tliat it, and 
not Calingapatam or (^hicacole, as was once supposed, was the site of 
the capital of the old Ganga kings of Kalinga. 

Mukher. — Head-quarters of the Kandahar taluk, Nander Dis- 
trict, Hyderabad State, situated in 18° 42' N. and 77° 22' E. Popula- 
tion (1901), 6,148. It is a centre of the cotton trade and contains 
a ginning factory, while brass and copper vessels are largely manu- 
factured. Besides the tahsil office, it contains a Munsifs court, a 
police inspector's office, a dispensary, a post office, a school, and an old 
Hindu temple. 

Muktagacha. — Town in the head-quarters subdivision of Mymen- 
singh District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 24° 46' N. and 
90° 15' E,, on the road from NasTrabad to Subarnakhali. Population 
(1901), 5,888. Though the town was constituted a municipality in 
1875, the population is poor and rural. The income during the decade 
ending 1901-2 averaged Rs. 6,500, and the expenditure Rs. 6,000. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 8,000, of which Rs. 4,500 was obtained 
from a property tax ; and the expenditure was Rs. 7,000. 

Muktesar. — Tahsil and town in Ferozepore District, Punjab. 
See MuKTSAk. 

Mukteswar (J/^'/^i-*?;-).— Village in NainI Tal District, United Pro- 
vinces, situated in 29° 28' N. and 79° 39' E., on the Himalayas, at an 
elevation of 7,500 to 7,700 feet. Up to 1893 the village was dis- 
tinguished only by its shrines and a small temple. It was then selected 
as the site of a laboratory for the manufacture of serum to protect 
cattle against rinderpest. The laboratory was completed in 1898, but 
was burnt down in 1899 ''^'""-1 rebuilt by 1901. It stands in an enclosure 
of about 3,000 acres, part of which is occupied by oak and pine forest ; 
a fruit garden started many years ago has also been included, and a 
meteorological observatory is maintained. In addition to the supply 
of serum for use in epidemics of rinderpest, a serum for anthrax, and 



MULA 19 

uls(( uiallcin, tiil)t. rculin, and telanus anli toxin art" prepared. ReseurrlK-s 
are being conducted in the etiology of diseases affecting animals, such 
as rinderpest, anthrax, surra, lymphangitis epizootica, and glanders ; 
and District hoard \eterinary assistants from the United Provinces and 
the Punjab are instructed in the use of various kinds of sera. The 
annual expenditure is about Rs. 50,000. 

Muktsar T2i\i^{^Muktesar). — 7a/?.y|/of Ferozepore District, l^mjab, 
lying between 30° 9' and 30° 54' N. and 74^4' and 74^ 52' E., with an 
area of 935 square miles. It is bounded on the north-west by the 
Sutlej, which divides it from Montgomery and Dahore Districts; on the 
east by Farldkot ; and on the south-east by Patiala. On the west is 
a belt of alluvial land along the left bank of the Sutlej, irrigated by the 
Grey Canals. The middle portion of the tahs'il is a level plain with 
a firm soil, while north and south the country is sandy. The central 
and southern portions are irrigated by the Sirhind Canal. The popu- 
lation in 1901 was 172,445, com[)ared with 161,492 in 1891. The 
head-quarters are at the town of Muktsar (j)opulation. 6,389). The 
tahs'il also contains 320 villages. The land revenue and cesses 
in 1903-4 amounted to 2-7 lakhs. 

Muktsar Town {Mi/kfesar). — Head-quarters of the iahsil of the 
same name in Ferozepore District, Punjab, situated in 30° 28' N. and 
74° 31'' E., on the Fazilka extension of the Rajputana-Malwa Railway. 
Population (1901), 6,389. Muktsar is the largest town and principal 
trade mart in the west of Ferozepore District. Apart from its commer 
cial importance, the town is chiefly noticeable for a great Sikh festival, 
which takes place in January. It lasts for three days, and commemo- 
rates a battle fought in 1705-6 by Guru Govind Singh against the 
pursuing imperial forces. There is a large tank in which pilgrims 
bathe, begun by the Maharaja Ranjit Singh, and continued and com- 
pleted by the chiefs of Patiala, jTnd, Nabha, and Farldkot. The 
municipality was created in 1867. The income during the ten years 
ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 6,100, and the expenditure Rs. 4,900. In 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 6,800, chiefly from octroi ; and the expen- 
diture was Rs. 6,200. There is a Government dispensary. 

Mukurti.— Peak in the Xllgiri District, Madras. .S*'^ Makurti. 

Mula. — River in Baluchistan, rising in the Harboi hills and having 
a total length of 180 miles. As far as Kotra in Kachhi (28° 22' N., 
67° 20" E.), it passes with a rapid fall through the Central Brahui range : 
in its lower reaches many flats lie along its course. The upper course 
is known as the Soinda : a little lower it is called the Mishkbel, and 
from Pashthakhan downwards it becomes the Mula. Its principal 
affluents are the Malghawe, the Anjira or Pissibel, and the Ledav. The 
Mula drains the whole of the north-east of the Jhalawan country and 
also the south-west corner of Kachhi. Wherever possible, the small 



20 MULA 

perennial supply of water is drawn off to irrigate the flats along the 
course of the river, while flood-water is utilized for cultivation in 
Kachhi. The Mula Pass route to the Jhalawan country lies along its 
course. 

Mulbagal Taluk. -Eastern taluk of Kolar District, Mysore, lying 
between 13^ i' and 13° 22' N. and 78° 14' and 78^36' E., with an area 
of 327 square miles. The population in 1901 was 66,899, compared 
with 56,269 in 1 891. The taluk contains one town, Mui.bagal (popu- 
lation, 6,562), the head-quarters; and 351 villages. The land revenue 
demand in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,60,000. The Palar river runs along the 
southern half of the west border, and the streams flow to this below 
the Ghats. A range of hills runs north from Mulbagal, and over the 
taluk generally gneissic rocks and boulders crop up everywhere. The 
west is open rolling country, the east broken and steep. Tanks and 
wells are numerous, with water close to the surface. The ' dry-crop ' 
soil is poor, grey, and sandy. The ' wet ' lands contain much sand 
and clay, often with efflorescences of potash. The best cultivation is 
towards the north-east. 

Mulbagal Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name in 
Kolar District, Mysore, situated in 13° 10' N. and 78° 24' E., 18 miles 
east of Kolar town. Population (1901), 6,562. The name, originally 
Muluvayi, is Mulu-bagal, in Sanskrit Kantakadvara, 'thorn-gate.' 
There is a SrTpadaraya math of the Madhva sect here, and the tomb 
of a saint named Haidar Wall attracts many Musalmans to the celebra- 
tion of his anniversary. Pilgrims to Tirupati from the west shave their 
heads and bathe in the Narasimha-tirtha as a preliminary purification. 
Mulbagal sugar and Mulbagal rice are considered the best in the 
District. The former is prepared by Muhammadans employed by 
Brahmans. Under Vijayanagar rule the town was at first the seat of 
government for the Kolar territory, and afterwards belonged to the 
Sugatur family. It was taken by the British in 1768 and 1791, but 
restored to Mysore at the peace of 1792. The municipality dates from 
1870. The receipts and expenditure during the ten years ending 1901 
averaged Rs. 3,100. In 1903-4 they were Rs. 4,000 and Rs. 3,600. 

Mulgund.— Town in the Gadag tdluka of Dharwar District, Bombay, 
situated in 15° 16' N. and 75° 31" E., 12 miles south-west of Gadag 
town. Population (1901), 7,523. Till 1848, when through failure of 
heirs it lapsed to the British Government, Mulgund belonged to the 
chief of Tasgaon. There are five Brahmanic and four Jain temples in 
the town. It contains four schools, including one for girls. 

Muli State.— State in the Kathiawar Political Agency, Bombay, 
lying between 22° 38' and 22*" 46' N. and 71" 25' and 71° 38' E., with 
an area of 133 square miles. The population in 1901 was 15,136, 
residing in 20 villages. The revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 79,773, and 



MULTAX DIl'ISIOX 21 

25 square miles were cultivated. The State ranks as a fourth-class 
State in Kathiawar, and is the only Ponwar chiefship. The Ponwars 
entered the peninsula about 1470-5 from Thar and Parkar, under the 
leadership of Laghhdirji, and established themselves at Than and 
Chotila. They founded the present town of Muli, named after 
a Rabari woman. After three generations the KathTs crossed over 
to Than, and shortly after expelled the Ponwars from Chotila. Since 
then the Kathis have held Chotila, and the Ponwars' holding has been 
limited to Muli and the adjacent villages. 

Muli Town. — Chief town of the State of the same name in Kathi- 
awar, Bombay, situated in 22° 38' N. and 71*^ 30' E., 13 miles south- 
west of Wadhwan on the Bhogava. Population (1901), 5,455. It is 
famous for its saddle-cloths. Muli contains a temple of the Swami 
Narayan sect, founded by the Ponwars and named after a Rabari 
woman. There is also a temple of the Sun, which is worshipped 
here under the name of Mandav Rai. 

Mulila Deri.— Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Mulji-na-pura. — Petty State in Mahi Kantha, Bombay. 

Multai. — Eastern tahstl of Betul District, Central Provinces, lying 
between 21° 25' and 22° 23' N. and 77° 57' and 78° 34' E., with an 
area of 1,056 square miles. The population in 1901 was 114,369, com- 
pared with 128,477 in 1891. The density is 108 persons per square 
mile. The tahs'il contains 417 inhabited villages. Its head-quarters 
are at Multai, a village of 3,505 inhabitants, 28 miles from Badnur on 
the Nagpur road and 87 miles from Nagpur. The village stands on an 
elevated plateau 2,600 feet high, and contains a sacred tank which is 
considered to be the source of the river Tapti. The real source of the 
river is, however, two miles distant. Excluding 364 square miles of 
Government forest, 75 per cent, of the available area is occupied for 
cultivation. The cultivated area in 1903-4 was 557 square miles- 
The demand for land revenue in the same year was Rs. 1,16,000, and 
for cesses Rs. 13,000. The iahsll consists mainly of poor rolling 
upland, with rich patches of fertile soil in the valleys, and is bordered 
by rugged hills to the north and south. 

Multan Division. — South-western Division of the Punjab, form- 
ing a wedge between the North-West Frontier Province and the 
State of Bahawalpur. It lies between 28° 25' and 33° 13' N. and 
69° 19' and 73° 39' E. The Sutlej divides it from Bahawalpur on 
the south-east, while the Indus flows partly through the Division and 
partly along its border to the west. The head-quarters of the Com- 
missioner are at Multan or, in the hot season, at Fort Munro. The 
Division was abolished in 1884, but reconstituted in 1901. In 188 1 
the population of the area now included was 2,036,956, in 1891 it 
had risen to 2,277,605, and in 1901 to 3,014,675. The total area is 



22 MUr.TAX niJ7SlOX 

29,520 s(]uarc miles, and the density of ihe population was the lowest 
in the I'loviiioe, 102 persons per square mile, compared with the 
Provincial average of 209. The Multan Division is considerably larger 
in area, but its population is considerably less than that of any other 
Division in the Punjab. In 1901 Muhammadans numbered 2,391,281, 
or 79 per cent, of the total ; Hindus, 536,052 ; Sikhs, 79,269 ; Jains, 
334 ; and Christians, 7,686. 

The Division includes five Districts, as shown below :— 



District. 


r.and revenue , 

, . n 1 , • and cesses, 
-Area in s<iiiarp Popul.Ttion, ^ 

'"'les. '9»'- i in thousands 1 
of rupees. ! 


Mianwali 

Jhang* .... 

Multan .... 

Muzafifargarh . 

Dera Ghazi Klian 


7,816 
6,652 
6.107 

3^635 
5,306 


424,588 5.67 
1,002,656 27,13 
710,626 17,51 
405.656 8,46 
471,149 6,41 


Total 


29,516 3,014,675 65,18 



' In 1904 part of Jhang District was separated, to form the new District of 
LVAI.I.PUR. 

'I'he Division contains 5,085 villages and 23 towns, the largest being 
Multan (population, 87,394), Jhang-Maghiana (24,382), and Dera 
Ghazi Khan (23,731). The whole area is flat, excepting a spur ot 
the Salt Range which runs into Mianwali, and the Sulaiman range 
which divides Dera Ghazi Khan from the trans-frontier Baloch tribes. 
-V great part of the Division is desert, but the Chenab Canal is rapidly 
changing the face of Jhang. Multan is the only place of first-rate 
commercial importance, though Dera Ghazi Klian is a collecting mart 
for trans-Indus products, and Lyallpur is rapidly becoming a centre 
of trade. The historical importance of Multan and Mankera is 
considerable. Fort Monro in the Sulaiman range (6,300 feet) and 
Sakesar in the Salt Range (5,010 feet) are minor .sanitaria. 

Multan District. — District in the Multan Division of the Punjab, 
lying between 29° 22' and 30° 45' N. and 71° 2' and 72° 52' E., with 
an area of 6,107 square miles. It consists of an obtuse wedge of land, 
enclosed by the confluent streams of the Chenab and the Sutlej, which 
unite at its south-western extremity. The irregular triangle thus 
cut off lies wholly within the Bari Doab ; but the District boundaries 
have been artificially prolonged across the Ravi in the north, so as 
to include a small portion of the Rechna Doiib. It is bounded on 
the east by Montgomery and on the north by Jhang ; while beyond the 
Chenab on the west lies Muzaffargarh, and beyond the Sutlej on the 
south the State of P>ahawalpur. The past or present courses of four 
of the great rivers of the Punjab determine the conformation of the 



yrrj.TAx nisTRh-r 23 

Multan plain. At present llu' vSulIcj forms ils .southern and th*: 
Chenab its north-western boundary, while the Ravi intersects its extreme 
northern angle. Along the banks of these three 
streams extend fringes of alluvial riverain, flooded in asoect^ 

the summer months, and rising into a low j)lateau 
watered by the inundation canals. Midway between the boundary 
rivers, a high dorsal ridge enters the District from Montgomery, 
forming a part of the sterile region known as the Bar. It dips into 
the lower plateau on cither side by abrupt banks, which mark the 
ancient beds of the Ravi and Beas. These two rivers once flowed for 
a much greater distance southward before joining the Chenab and the 
Sutlej than is now the ca.se ; and their original courses may still be 
distinctly traced, not only by the signs of former fluvial action, but also 
by the existence of dried-up canals. The Ravi still clings to its ancient 
watercourse, as observed by General Cunningham, and in seasons of 
high flood finds its way as far as Multan by the abandoned bed. 
During tlie winter months, however, it lies almost dry. It is chiefly 
interesting for the extraordinary reach known as the Sidhnai, a cutting, 
which extends in a perfectly straight line for lo or 12 miles, as to 
whose origin nothing can be said with certainty. The Chenab 
and Sutlej, on the other hand, are imposing rivers, the former never 
fordable except in exceptionally dry winters, the latter only at a few 
places. Near their confluence the land is regularly flooded during the 
summer months. 

The District contains nothing (^f geological interest, as the soil is 
entirely alluvial. 'J'he flora combines species characteristic of thr 
A\'estern Punjab, the transTndus country, Sind, and Rajputana, but 
has been much changed, since Edgeworth's Flonila Ma/lica was 
written, by extension of canal-irrigation. The date-palm is largely 
cultivated, and dates are exported. A variety of mango is also 
grown, with a smaller and more acid fruit than the sorts reared in 
Hindustan and the submontane Punjab. 

Wolves are not uncommon, while jackals and foxes are numerous. 
The antelo[)e most frequently met with is the 'ravine deer' (Indian 
gazelle), but iii/gai are also seen. 

The heat and dust of Multan are proverbial ; but on ihc whole 
the climate is not so bad as it is sometimes painted, and, as else- 
where in the Punjab, the cold season is delightful. The hot season 
is long : and, during the months in which high temperatures are 
recorded, Multan is only one (jr two degrees below Jacobabad. 
Though elsewhere the mean temperature may be higher, there is no 
place in India, except Jacobabad, where the thermometer remains 
high so consistently as at Multan. The nights, however, are com- 
p.iratively cool in May, the difference between the maximum and 



24 MULTAX DISTRICT 

minimum temperatures sometimes exceeding 40°. The general dry- 
ness of the climate makes the District healthy on the whole, though 
the tracts liable to flood are malarious. The rainfall is scanty in the 
extreme, the average varying from 4 inches at Mailsi to 7 at Multan. 
The greatest fall recorded during the twenty years ending 1903 was 
19-9 inches at Multan in 1892-3, and the least 1-3 inches at Lodhran 
in 1887-8. Severe floods occurred in 1893-4 and 1905. 

The history of Multan is unintelligible without some reference to 
its physical history, as affected by the changes in course of the great 
rivers \ Up to the end of the fourteenth century the 
'^ Ravi seems to have flowed by Multan, entering the 

Chenab to the south of the city. The Beas flowed through the middle 
of the District, falling into the Chenab, a course it appears to have held 
until the end of the eighteenth century; while possibly as late as 1245 
the Chenab flowed to the east of Multan. It has also been held that 
in early times the Sutlej flowed in the present dry bed of the Hakra, 
some 40 miles south of its present course. When the District was thus 
intersected by four mighty rivers, the whole wedge of land, except the 
dorsal ridge of the Bar, could obtain irrigation from one or other of 
their streams. Numerous villages then dotted its whole surface ; and 
Al Masudi, in the tenth century, describes Multan, with Oriental 
exaggeration, as surrounded by 120,000 hamlets. 

In the earliest times the city now known as Multan probably bore 
the name of Kasyapapura, derived from Kasyapa, father of the Adityas 
and Daityas, the sun-gods and Titans of Hindu mythology. Under the 
various Hellenic forms of this ancient designation, Multan figures in 
the works of Hecataeus, Herodotus, and Ptolemy. General Cunning- 
ham believes that the Kaspeiraea of the last-named author, being the 
capital of the Kaspeiraei, whose dominions extended from Kashmir to 
Muttra, must have been the principal city in the Punjab towards the 
second century of the Christian era. Five hundred years earlier Multan 
perhaps appears in the history of Alexander's invasion as the chief 
seat of the Malli, whom the Macedonian conqueror utterly subdued 
after a desperate resistance. He left Philippus here as Satrap ; but it 
seems probable that the Hellenic power in this distant quarter soon 
came to an end, as the country appears shortly afterwards to have 
passed under the rule of the Maurya dynasty of Magadha. At a later 
period Greek influence may once more have extended to Multan under 
the Bactrian kings, whose coins are occasionally found in the District. 
In the seventh century a. n. Multan was the capital of an important 
province in the kingdom of Sind, ruled by a line of Hindu kings 
known as the Rais, the last of whom died in 631. The throne was 

' A. Cunningham, ////(/(.v// Geography of Itdia, pp. 221-2; Raverty in Journal, 
Asiatic Society, Bengal, vol. Ixi, 1892 ; and (Jldhani, C alcut/a Rcvictv, vol. lix, 1S74. 



HISTORY 25 

then usurped by a Brahman named Chach, who was in power when 
the Arabs first appeared in the valley of the Indus. During his reign, 
in 641, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim, Hiuen Tsiang, visited Multan, 
where he found a golden image of the Sun. This idol is repeatedly 
mentioned by the Arab historians, and from it General Cunningham 
derives the modern name of the city, though other authorities connect 
it rather with that of the Malli. . 

In 664 the Arab inroads penetrated as far as Multan ; but it was not 
until 712 that the district fell, with the rest of the kingdom of Sind, 
before Muhammad bin Kasim, who conquered it for the Khalifas. 
For three centuries Multan remained the outpost of Islam ; but the 
occupation was in the main military, and there was no general settle- 
ment of Muhammadan invaders or conversion of Hindu inhabitants 
till the Ghaznivid period. It was twice again captured by the Arabs, 
and in 871 the Lower Indus valley fell into the hands of Yakub bin 
Lais. Shortly afterwards two independent Muhammadan kingdcnns 
sprang up with their capitals at Mansura and Multan. Multan was 
visited in 915-6 by the geographer Masudi, who says that 'Multan' is 
a corruption of Mulasthanapura, by which name it was known in the 
Buddhist period. He found it a strong Muhammadan frontier town 
under a king of the tribe of Koresh, and the centre of a fertile and 
thickly populated district. In 980 the Karmatians took Multan, and 
converted to their heresy the family of LodI Pathans, who had by that 
time possessed themselves of the frontier from Peshawar to Multan. 
When Mahmud of Ghazni took Bhatia (probably Uch), Abul Fateh, 
the LodT governor of Multan, allied himself with Anand Pal, but sub- 
mitted in 1006. He again revolted, and in 10 10 was deported by 
Mahmud, who made his son Masud governor. Masud released Abul 
Fateh, who had apparently abandoned the Karmatian tenets ; for a 
letter of 1032, which has been preserved by the Druses, addressed to 
the Unitarians of Sind and Multan, and in particular to Shaikh bin 
Sumar of Multan, exhorts them to bring him back into the true faith. 

For the next three centuries the history of Multan, as the frontier 
province of the empire, is practically the history of the Mongol 
invasions. Owing "to the difficulties of the Khyber route and the 
hostility of the Gakhars, the majority of the invading hordes took the 
Multan road to Hindustan, until the drying up of the country all along 
the Ghaggar made this route impracticable. Between 122 1 and 1528 
ten invasions swept through the District, commencing with the cele- 
brated flight of Jalal-ud-din Khwarizm and ending with the peaceful 
transfer of the province to Babar in 1528, while the city suffered 
sacks and sieges too numerous to detail. During this period Multan 
was for the most part subject to Delhi, but twice it was a separate and 
independent kingdom. 



26 ^rULTAX DISTRICT 

On the death of Kutb-ud-din, Nasir-ud-din Kubacha seized Multan, 
with Sind and Seistan (1210), and ruled independently till 1227. 
After successfully resisting a Mongol siege in 122 1, Multan was 
reduced in 1228 by the governor of Lahore under Altamsh, and again 
became a fief of the Delhi empire. On that emperor's death, its 
feudatory I/z-ud-din Kabir Khan-i-Ayaz joined in the conspiracy to 
put Razia on the throne (1236); but though he received the fief of 
Laliore from her, he again rebelled (1238), and was made to exchange 
it for ISIultan, where he proclaimed his independence, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son Taj-ud-din Abu-Bakr-i-Ayaz (1241), who repelled 
scv(;ral Karlugh attacks from the gates of the city. 

Saif-ud-dTn Hasan, the Karlugh, unsuccessfully attacked Multan 
(1236). After his death the Mongols held the city to ransom (1246), 
and at last it fell into the hands of the Karlughs, from whom it was in 
the same year (1249) wrested by Sher Khan, the great viceroy of the 
Punjab. Izz-ud-din Balban-i-Kashlu Khan endeavoured to recover 
Uch and Multan (1252), and succeeded in 1254. Mahmud vShah I 
bestowed them on Arsalan Khan Sanjar-i-Chast, but Izz-ud-din was 
reinstated in 1255. He rebelled against the minister Ghiyas-ud-din 
Kalban (1257), and being deserted by his troops fled to Hulaku in 
Irak, whence he brought back a Mongol intendant to Multan and 
joined a Mongol force which descended on the province, and dis- 
mantled the walls of the city, which only escaped massacre by a 
ransom paid by the saint Bahawal Hakk (Baha-ud-din Zakariya). 

For two centuries the post of governor was held by distinguished 
soldiers, often related to the ruling family of Delhi, among whom may 
be mentioned Ghazi Malik, afterwards Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlak. In 
r395 Khizr Khan, the governor, a .Saiyid, quarrelled with Sarang Khan, 
governor of Dipalpur, and, being taken prisoner, escaped to join Timur 
on his invading the Punjab. After being compelled to raise the siege 
of Uch, Timur's grandson defeated .Sarang Khan's forces on the 
Beas, and invested Multan, which surrendered after a siege (1398), 
and Khizr Khan was reinstated in his governorship. After a series of 
victories over the Delhi generals, Khizr Khan took Delhi and founded 
the Saiyid dynasty. Some years later Bahlol LodI held the province 
before seizing the throne of Delhi. In 1437 the Langahs, a Pathan 
tribe recently settled in the District, began to make their power felt ,; 
and in 1445 I^'^' Sahra Langah exi)elled Shaikh Yusuf, a ruler cliosen 
by the people and his own son-in-law, and established the Langah 
dynasty, which ruled independently of Delhi for nearly 100 years, the 
Ravi being recognized in 1502 as the boundary between the two 
kingdoms. Finally, however, the Arghiur 'Purks incited by Babar took 
Multan in 1527, and in tlie following year handed it over to him. 
Under the Mughal cmpLiors .Multan enjoyed a [)eriod of [)eacc and 



HISTORY 27 

prosperity, only disturbed by the rebellion of the Mirzas, who were 
defeated at Talamba in 1573, and by the flight of Dara Shikoh through 
the province. The town became the head-quarters of a Sfibah covering 
the whole of the South-West Punjab and at times including Sind. Even 
when the Mughal power began to wane Multan no longer felt the first 
shock of invasion, the route through Multan and Bhatinda being now 
too dry to give passage to an army. In 1 748 a battle was fought near 
Multan between Kaura Mai, deputy of Mir Mannu, the governor of 
the Punjab, and Shahnawaz, who had received a grant of the province 
from the late emperor Muhammad Shah. Kaura Mai was victorious, 
but fell later fighting against Ahmad Shah Durrani. Multan in 
1752 became a province of the kings of Kabul, ruled for the most 
part by Pathan governors, chiefly Sadozais, who ultimately founded 
a virtually independent kingdom. Their rule, however, extended over 
only half the present District, the southern portion being under the 
Nawabs of Bahawalpur. The Marathas overran the province in 1758, 
but the chief feature of this period was the continual warfare with the 
Sikhs. From 1771-g the Bhangi confederacy held the north and 
centre of the District, but they were expelled by Timar Shah, and from 
1779 to i8r8 Nawab Muzaffar Khan Sadozai was in power in Multan. 
His relations with the Bahawalpur State were strained, and he had to 
face unassisted the repeated onslaughts of the Sikhs, which culminated 
in the capture and sack of Multan by Ranjit Singh in 18 18. 

After passing through the hands of two or three Sikh governors, 
Multan was in 1821 made over to the famous Diwan Sawan Mai. The 
whole country had almost assumed the aspect of a desert from frequent 
warfare and spoliation ; but Sawan Mai induced new inhabitants to 
settle in his province, excavated numerous canals, favoured commerce, 
and restored prosperity to the desolated tract. After the death of 
Ranjit Singh, however, quarrels took place between Sawan Mai and 
Raja Gulab Singh ; and in 1844 the former was fatally shot in the 
breast by a soldier. His son Mulraj succeeded to his governorship, 
and also to his quarrel with the authorities at Lahore, till their constant 
exactions induced him to tender his resignation. After the establish- 
ment of the Council of Regency at Lahore, as one of the results of the 
first Sikh War, difficulties arose between, Dlwan Mulraj and the British 
officials, which culminated in the murder of two British officers, and 
finally led to the Multan rebellion. That episode, together with the 
second Sikh War, belongs rather to imperial than to local history. It 
ended in the capture of Multan and the annexation of the whole of the 
Punjab by the British. The city offered a resolute defence, but, being 
stormed on January 2, 1849, fell after severe fighting ; and though the 
fort held out for a short time longer, it was surrendered at discretion 
by Mulraj on January 22. Mulraj was put ujion his trial for the 

VOL. xviii. C 



28 



MULTAN DISTRICT 



murder of the officers, and, being found guilty, was sentenced to death ; 
but this penalty was afterwards commuted for that of transportation. 
The District at once passed under direct British rule. In 1857 the 
demeanour of the native regiments stationed at Multan made their 
disarmament necessary, and, doubtless owing to this precaution, no 
outbreak took place. 

The principal remains of archaeological interest are described in the 
articles on Atari, Jalalpur, Kahror, Multan, and Talamba. 

The District contains 6 towns and 1,351 villages. The population 
at each of the last three enumerations was: (1881) 556,557, (1891) 
635,726, and (1901) 710,626. During the last decade 
it increased by ii-y per cent., the increase being 
greatest in the Multan tahs'il and least in Lodhran. The increase was 
largely due to immigration, for which the attractions of the city are 
partly responsible, and to some extent to the colonization of the 
Sidhnai Canal tract between 1886 and 1896. The District is divided 
into five tahslls, Multan, Shujabad, Lodhran, Mailsi, and Kabir- 
wala, the head-quarters of each being at the place from which it 
is named. The chief towns are the municipalities of Multan, 
the administrative head-quarters of the District, Shujabad, Kahror, 
Talamba, and Jalalpur. The following table shows the chief 
statistics of population in 1901 : — 



Population. 



Tahsil. 


m 

3 

^t 
en: 

< 


Number of 


c 
.0 

_2 
"3 
0. 

(2 


'S 

Pi 


Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and IQOI. 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 


> 

f2 


OJ 

> 


Multaa 
KabTrvvala . 
Mailsi . 
Lodhran 
Shujabad 

District total 


953 
1,603 
1,658 

1,057 
680 


I 
I 

2 
2 


289 
320 
332 

262 

148 


232,126 

130,507 
109,727 

"3,359 
124,907 


243.6 
81.4 
66-2 

107-2 
183.7 


+ 21.9 
+ 151 
+ 3-5 
+ 3-3 
-f 8.9 


19,726 
6,338 
4>2i3 
4,710 
5,546 


6,107 


6 


1,351 


710,626 


116.4 


+ II. 7 


40,533 



Note.— The figures for the areas of tahsils are taken from revenue returns. The 
total District area is that given in the Census Report. 

Muhammadans number 570,254, or over 80 per cent, of the total; 
Hindus, 133,560 ; and Sikhs, 4,662. The density of population is very 
low, but is comparatively high if the cultivated area only be taken into 
account. The language of the people, often called Multanl, is a form 
of Western Punjabi. 

The most numerous tribe is that of the agricultural Jats, who number 
140,000, or 20 per cent, of the total population. Next to them come 
the Rajputs (92,000), and after them Arains (32,000), cultivators and 
market-gardeners. Then come the Baloch (24,000), Khokhars (12,000), 



AGRICULTURE 29 

and Pathans (8,000). The Saiyids number 11,000, and Kureshis 
8,000. Of the commercial classes, the Aroras, who are found in larger 
numbers in Multan than in any other District of the Province, number 
89,000; the Khattrls, who are largely immigrants from the Punjat) 
proper, only 11,000. The Muhammadan Khojas, more numerous here 
than in any other District in the Punjab except Montgomery and La- 
hore, number 10,000. 'J1ie Bhatias (3,000), though small in num- 
bers, also deserve mention as a commercial caste. Of the artisan 
classes, the Julahas (weavers, 27,000), Mochis (shoemakers and leather- 
workers, 24,000), Kumhars (potters, 19,000), and Tarkhans (carpenters, 
17,000) are the most important ; and of the menial classes, the sweepers 
(38,000), who are mostly known in this District as Kutanas, Dhobis 
(washermen, 15,000, known as Charhoas), Machhis (fishermen, bakers, 
and water-carriers, 12,000), and Nais (barbers, 8,000). The MirasTs, 
village minstrels and bards, number 11,000. Other castes worth men- 
tion are the Mahtams (5,900), of whom the Muhammadan section 
are generally cultivators, while the Hindus make a living by clearing 
jungle or hunting game ; Ods (4,000), a wandering caste living by 
earthwork ; Jhabels (3,000), a fishing and hunting tribe of vagrant 
habits, living on the banks of the Sutlej ; and Marths (700), also a 
vagrant tribe found only in this District. About 40 per cent, of the 
population are supported by agriculture, and 28 per cent, by industries. 

The Church Missionary Society began its operations at Multan city 
in 1855, and the mission school, the oldest in the District, was 
established there in the following year. The mission also maintains 
a church, a female hospital, and a branch of the Punjab Religious 
Book Depot. The American Methodist Episcopal Mission began 
work at Multan in 1893. The District contained 198 native Christians 
in 1901. 

The soil is of a uniform alluvial composition, with sand everywhere 
at a greater or less depth from the surface ; and the chief distinction of 
soils depends on the proportions in which the sand , 

and clay are intermixed, though there are also some 
tracts of salt-impregnated earth. From an agricultural point of view, 
however, all distinctions of soil are insignificant compared with that 
between irrigated and unirrigated land, and the agricultural conditions 
depend almost entirely on the quality and quantity of irrigation. 

The District is held chiefly by small peasant proprietors, but large 
estates cover 627 square miles and lands held under temporary leases 
from Government about 533 square miles. The area for which details 
are available from the revenue records of 1903-4 is 5,952 square miles, 
as shown in the table on the next page. 

Wheat is the chief crop of the spring harvest, covering 555 square 
miles in 1903-4. Gram and barley covered only 40 and 21 square 

c 2 



30 



MULTAN DISTRICT 



miles respectively. The great and spiked millets {jowdr and bdjra) 
are the principal staples of the autumn harvest, covering 94 and 58 
square miles ; and pulses occupied 69 square miles. There were 26 
square miles under indigo, 20 under rice, and 102 under cotton. 
Very little sugar or maize is grown. 



Tahsil. 


Total. 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Forests. 


^^ultan 
Kabirwala . 

Mailsi 

Lodhran 

Shiijabad 

Total 


9.53 
1,604 
1,656 
1,058 

681 


364 
343 
3" 
267 
256 


.^31 
298 
244 
248 
189 


242 
304 
374 
3S2 
289 


268 
889 
882 
316 
60 


5.952 


1,541 


1,310 


1,591 


2,415 



The area under cultivation varies enormously with the character of 
the season, but the average area sown increased by about 30 per cent, 
in the twenty years ending 1901-2, owing to the extension of canal- and 
well-irrigation. Loans for the construction of wells are taken readily, 
and more than 3 lakhs was advanced under the Land Improvement 
Loans Act during the five years ending 1903-4. 

Four breeds of cattle are recognized : the Bhagnari (from Sind), the 
Massuwah and Dajal (from Dera Ghazi Khan), and the local breed, 
which is mostly of an inferior description. Cow buffaloes are kept for 
milk. Camels are very largely bred, and sheep and goats are common 
in all parts. Horses and ponies are numerous, but the District is 
only a moderately good one for horse-breeding. The Army Remount 
department maintains six horse and eleven donkey stallions, and the 
District board one donkey and three pony stallions. 

Of the total area cultivated in 1903-4, 1,310 square miles, or 85 
per cent., were classed as irrigated. Of this area, 123 square miles 
were supplied from wells, 758 from wells and canals, 417 from canals, 
and 12 from channels and tanks. In addition, 276 square miles, or 
18 per cent, of the cultivated area, are subject to inundation from 
the Chenab, Sutlej, and Ravi. Three great canal systems irrigate the 
District : the Sidhnai taking off from the Ravi, the Lower Sutlej 
Inundation Canals, and the Chenab Inundation Canals. As 
these canals flow only while the rivers are in flood, they generally 
require to be supplemented by wells. The District possesses 21,615 
wells, all worked by Persian wheels, and 3,744 unbricked wells, lever 
wells, and water-lifts. The latter are largely used for lifting water from 
river channels. 

The District contains 157 square miles of 'reserved' and 2,323 of 
' protected ' forests, under the Deputy-Conservator of the Multan Forest 
division. These forests are chiefly waste land covered with scrub and 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 31 

scattered trees. Avenues of shlsham {Dalhcrgia Sissod) are found 
along the roads and canals, and the date-palm is grown largely, 
considerable quantities of the fruit being exported. The revenue 
from forests under the Forest department in 1903-4 was r-2 lakhs. 

Saltpetre is manufactured to some extent, and a little katikar is 
found. Impure carbonate of soda is also made from the ashes of 
Haloxylon recurvum, which grows wild in considerable quantities. 

The industrial products for which the city of Multan is noted are 

glazed pottery, enamelling on silver, silver ornaments, cotton and 

woollen carpets, silk fabrics, mixed textures of cotton 

1 .,, Ill- Trade and 

and silk, cotton prmtmg, metal-work, and ivory- ^.^^^^^j^^^j^^^^ 

turning. The glazed pottery work, which used to 
be confined to the manufacture of tiles, now largely takes the form of 
ornamental vases, plaques, &c., and the enamelling industry is on the 
increase. The manufacture of carpets has greatly fallen off Multan 
is second only to Amritsar in the manufacture of silk, and over 40,000 
yards of silk fabrics and 200,000 of silk and cotton mixtures are 
produced annually. A large number of ivory bangles are turned. 
The metal-work consists chiefly of the manufacture of dispatch boxes 
and uniform cases, which is a rapidly growing industry. Cotton cloth 
is woven, and a once flourishing paper manufacture still lingers. 
Multan city has a railway workshop, with 315 employes in 1904; and 
10 cotton-ginning and 3 cotton-pressing factories, with a total of 657 
hands. At Shujabad a ginning factory employs 21 hands, and at 
Rashida on the North-^^^estern Railway a ginning factory and cotton- 
press employs 150. 

The District exports wheat, cotton, indigo, bones, hides, and car- 
bonate of soda ; and imports rice, oilseeds, oil, sugar, ghi, iron, and 
piece-goods. The imports of raw wool exceed the exports, but cleaned 
wool is a staple of export. The chief items of European trade are 
wheat, cotton, and wool. Multan city is the only commercial place of 
importance, and has long been an important centre of the wheat 
trade. 

The District is traversed by the North-Western Railway main line 
from Lahore to Karachi, which is joined by the Rechna Doab branch 
from WazTrabad and Lyallpur at Khanewal. After reaching Multan 
city the line gives off the branch running through Muzaffargarh, along 
the Indus valley, which leaves the District by a bridge over the Chenab. 
It then turns south, and enters Bahawalpur by a bridge over the Sutlej. 
The total length of metalled roads is 31 miles and of unmetalled roads 
1,199 miles ; of these, 13 miles of metalled roads are under the Public 
Works department, and the rest are maintained by the District board. 
There is practically no wheeled traffic, goods being carried by camels, 
donkeys, or pack-bullocks. The Chenab is crossed by ten ferries, the 



32 MULTAN DISTRICT 

.Sutlej by thirty-one, and the Ravi by twelve. There is but little traffic 
on these rivers. 

Before British rule cultivation was confined to the area commanded 
by wells, and though drought might contract the cultivated area and 
cause great loss of cattle, real famine could never 
occur. The extension of cultivation that has taken 
place since annexation has followed the development of irrigation by 
wells and canals; and though considerable loss of cattle is still incurred 
in times of drought, the District is secure from famine, and exports 
wheat in the worst years. The area of crops matured in the famine 
year 1 899-1 900 amounted to 75 per cent, of the normal. 

The District is in charge of a Deputy-Commissioner, aided by two 

Assistant or Extra-Assistant Commissioners and two Revenue Assistant 

. , . . ^ ^. Commissioners, of whom one is in charge of the Dis- 
Admimstration. '.,..,,. i 1 • • . ■ 

tnct treasury. It is divided for general administrative 

purposes into the five ia/islls of Multan, Shujabad, Lodhran, Mailsi, 

and KabIrwala, each under a tahsildar assisted by two naib-tahsilddrs. 

Multan city is the head-quarters of a Superintending Engineer and two 

Executive Engineers of the Canal department, and of an Extra-Assistant 

Conservator of Forests. 

The Deputy-Commissioner as District Magistrate is responsible for 
criminal justice. Civil judicial work is under a District Judge; and 
both officers are supervised by the Divisional Judge of the Multan 
Civil Division, who is also Sessions Judge. There are two Munsifs, 
both at head-quarters. Cattle-theft is the principal crime of the 
District, but burglary is also becoming common. Cattle-lifting is 
regarded as a pastime rather than a crime, and proficiency in it is 
iiighly esteemed. 

The greater part of the District was administered for twenty-three 
years by Dlwan Sawan Mai. He adopted the system usual with native 
rulers of taking a share of one-third, one-fourth, or one-sixth of the 
produce, or else a cash assessment based on these proportions but 
generally calculated a little higher than the market rate. Cash rates 
per acre were levied on the more valuable crops. Another form of 
assessment was the lease or patta, under which a plot of 15 to 20 
acres, generally round a well, paid a lump annual sum of Rs. 12 or 
more. In addition, many cesses and extra dues were imposed, until 
the uttermost farthing had in some way or other been taken from the 
cultivator. 

On annexation, the first summary settlement was made at cash rates 
fixed on the average receipt of the preceding four years. Prices, 
Iiowever, had fallen ; and the fixity of the assessment, added to the 
payment in cash, pressed hardly on the people, and the assessment 
broke down. The second summary settlement made in 1853-4, despite 



ADMINISTRA TION 



33 



reductions and attempts to introduce elasticity in collections, did not 
work well. In 1857-60 a regular settlement was undertaken. A fixed 
sum was levied in canal areas, amounting to 16 per cent, below the 
previous assessment, to allow for varying conditions. It was estimated 
that about 54 per cent, of the revenue might require to be remitted in 
bad years. In point of fact remissions were not given, but the assess- 
ment was so light that this was not felt. In 1873 a revised settlement 
was begun. The new revenue was 86 per cent, of the half 'net assets,' 
and an increase of 40 per cent, on the last demand. A fluctuating 
system, which made the assessments depend largely on actual cul- 
tivation, was definitely adopted in riverain tracts, and the system of 
remission proposed at the regular settlement was extended in the 
canal areas. 

The current settlement, completed between 1897 and 1901, was a 
new departure in British assessments, though the resemblance to 
Sawan Mai's system is notable. On every existing well is imposed 
a lump assessment, which is classed as fixed revenue, and paid irre- 
spective of the area from time to time irrigated by the well; if, however, 
the well falls out of use for any cause, the demand is remitted. All 
cultivation other than that dependent entirely on well-water pays at 
fluctuating rates, assessed on the area matured in each harvest. Thus, 
although the revenue is approximately 92 per cent, of the half 'net 
assets,' and the demand of the former settlement has been more than 
doubled, there is no fear of revenue being exacted from lands which 
have no produce to pay it with. The crop rates vary from Rs. 3-5 per 
acre on wheat, tobacco, &:c., to Rs. 2-2 on inferior crops. The demand, 
including cesses, was 17-5 lakhs in 1903-4. The average size of a 
proprietary holding is 8-3 acres. 

The collections of land revenue alone and of total revenue are shown 
below, in thousands of rupees : — 





1880-1. 


1890-1. 


1900- 1. 


1903-4- 

7,77* 
13,16 


Land revenue . 
Total revenue . 


7,61 
9.72 


8,26 
11,22 


6,60 
12,05 



* These figures are for the financial year ending March 31, 1904. The demand 
figures given above (17-5 lakhs, including cesses) are for the agricultural year, 
and include the revenue demand for the spring liarvest of 1904, which was very 
much higher than that for the corresponding harvest of 1903. 



The District contains five municipalities, Multan, Shujabab, Kah- 
KOR, Talamba, and Jalalpur ; and one 'notified area,' Dunyapur. 
Outside these, local affairs are managed by the District board. The 
expenditure of the board in 1903-4 was i-i lakhs, education being 
the largest individual item. Its income, which is mainly derived from 
a local rate, slightly exceeded the expenditure. 



34 MVLTAN DISTRICT 

The regular police force consists of 804 of all ranks, including 41 
cantonment and 252 municipal police, under a Superintendent, who 
usually has one Assistant Superintendent and 5 inspectors under him. 
The village watchmen number 943. The District is divided into 18 
police circles, with 5 outposts and 9 road-posts. The District jail at 
head-quarters has accommodation for 743 prisoners. It receives pri- 
soners sentenced to terms not exxeeding three years from the Districts 
of Multan and Muzaffargarh, and in the hot season from Mianwali. 
The Central jail, situated 4 miles outside the city, is designed to hold 
1,197 prisoners. Convalescents from all jails in the Punjab are sent 
here. 

Multan stands third among the twenty-eight Districts of the Province 
in respect of the literacy of its population. In 1901, 5-7 per cent, of 
the population (lo-i males and 0-4 females) could read and write. 
The high proportion of literate persons is chiefly due to the Hindus, 
among whom education is not, as elsewhere, practically denied to the 
lower castes. The number of people under instruction was 3,684 in 
i88b-i, 7,355 in 1890-1, 8,156 in 1900-1, and 8,881 in 1903-4. In 
the last year the District had one training, one special, 13 secondary 
and 82 primary (public) schools, and 26 advanced and 141 elementary 
(private) schools, with 296 girls in the public and 166 in the private 
schools. The chief institutions are a Government normal school and 
three high schools at Multan city. The District also possesses five 
zaniinddri schools, where special concessions are made for the purpose 
of extending education to the agricultural classes. There is a school 
of music (unaided) for boys at Multan. The expenditure on education 
in 1903-4 was Rs. 89,000, of which fees contributed Rs. 25,000, 
municipalities Rs. 16,000, the District fund Rs. 19,000, and Provincial 
revenues Rs. 22,000, the rest coming from subscriptions and en- 
dovvments. 

Besides the civil hospital, two city branch dispensaries, and the 
Victoria Jubilee Hospital for women in Multan city, the District pos- 
sesses eight outlying dispensaries. At these institutions, 119,044 out- 
patients and 2,510 in-patients were treated in 1904, and 6,153 operations 
were performed. The Church Missionary Society also maintains a female 
hospital at Multan. The total expenditure in 1904 was Rs. 27,000, 
Rs. 16,000 being contributed by District and municipal funds in equal 
shares. 

The number of persons vaccinated in 1903-4 was 27,700, repre- 
senting 39 per 1,000 of the population. Vaccination is compulsory in 
Multan city. 

[E. D. Maclagan, District Gazetteer (190 1-2); Settlement Report 
(1901); and ' Abul FazFs Account of the Multan ^2ix\iax,' Journal 
As. Soc. 0/ Bengal {ic)Oi), p. i; Saiyid Mxxhamma.d'LdiXii, Early History 



MULTAN CITY 35 

of Multdn (1891); C. A. Roc, Customary Law of the Miiltdn District 
(revised edition, 1901); 'E,. O'l^nen, Glossary of the Multd/ii Language, 
revised edition, by J. Wilson and Pandit Hari Kishan Kaul (1903).] 

Multan Tahsil. — Tahsll o( ^i\i\XM\ District, Punjab, lying between 
29° 29'' and 30° 28' N. and 71° 17' and 71° 58' E., with an area of 
953 square miles. Its north-west border rests on the Chenab. It 
consists of the Chenab lowlands, which are subject to periodical 
inundation from the river, a higher tract farther east irrigated by 
inundation canals, and a still higher strip beyond irrigated in part by 
the Sidhnai Canal. The population in 1901 was 232,126, compared 
with 190,431 in 1891. The /a/zj-J/ head-quarters are at Multan City 
(population, 87,394). It also contains 289 villages. The land revenue 
and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 4-9 lakhs. 

Multan City. — Head-quarters of the Multan Division, District, and 
tahsil, in the Punjab, situated in 30° 12'' N. and 71° 31' E., on the 
North- Western Railway, 576 miles from Karachi and 1,429 from 
Calcutta. The city is built on a mound, the accumulated del>ris of 
ages, at a distance of 4 miles from the present left bank of the Chenab, 
enclosed on three sides by a wall from 10 to 20 feet in height, but 
open towards the south, where the old dry bed of the Ravi intervenes 
between the city and the citadel. As late as the days of Timur, the 
Ravi seems to have flowed past Multan, joining the Chenab 10 miles 
lower down ; and the original site consisted of two islands, which are 
now picturesquely crowned by the city and citadel, at an elevation of 
50 feet above the surrounding country. Population (1901), 87,394, 
including 46,899 Muhammadans and 36,947 Hindus. 

Multan, formerly called Kashtpur, Hanspur, Bagpur, Sanb or Sanab- 
pur, and finally Mulasthan, derives its name from that of the idol and 
temple of the Sun, a shrine of vast wealth in the pre-Muhammadan 
period. As one of the frontier towns of India, it has been from the 
earliest times of the greatest historical importance, and its history is 
given in detail with that of Multan District. Tradition identifies 
the present site with the strong city of the Malli, stormed by Alexander. 
For the next thousand years the conquerors of Multan present an 
amazing variety of race — Graeco-Bartrians are followed by the Kushans, 
who in turn give place to the White Huns. When the Arabs first 
penetrated the valley of the Indus, the town was ruled by Chach, 
a Brahman usurper, who died in a.d. 671. The Arabs entered India 
from Sind, and after a victorious campaign they captured and garrisoned 
Multan. For three centuries the garrison remained the outpost of 
Islam in India, though by 900 the Multan governor was independent 
of Baghdad. About that time the followers of Abdullah, the Karmatian, 
seized Multan. Mahmud, the orthodox ruler of Ghazni, waged per- 
petual war upon this heretical sect, and the Ghaznivids kept a nominal 



36 MULTAN CITY 

control over Multan until Muhammad of Ghor overthrew them. The 
city fared but ill throughout these sectarian wars, and is said to have 
been deserted when the Gardezi Saiyids first migrated there in the 
twelfth century. 

From 1206 to 1528 Multan was nominally subject to the kings of 
Delhi, though in fact it was almost independent. In 1397 Timur 
occupied the city on his way to Delhi, and in 1528 it passed to Babar. 
Always the route chosen by the earlier invaders, whether going or 
returning, the province of Multan passed with its capital city from 
hand to hand, with short space to recover from one devastation ere 
the next came upon it. Under the strong government of the early 
Mughal emperors, Multan at last enjoyed 200 years of peace. The 
trade route from Hindustan to Persia passed through it, and Multan 
itself became a trading city. The later -invaders chose the northern 
route, and Multan owed its immunity to the desert which had suddenly 
replaced the fertile lands of Sind. 

In 1752 the nominal allegiance of Multan was transferred from 
Delhi to Kabul. In 1771 the Sikhs appeared before the gates, and 
the city was constantly threatened from that date until it was stormed 
by RanjTt Singh in 1818. In 182 1 Dlwan Sawan Mai became its 
governor, and a just, if absolute, autocracy replaced the confusion of 
the Pathan regime. The first Sikh War did not affect Multan ; but 
the murder of two British officers here by Mulraj, son of Sawan Mai, 
led to the second Sikh War, in which it was captured on January 3, 
1849. The fortifications were dismantled in 1854. In the Mutiny 
the garrison was quietly disarmed by orders of the Chief Commissioner. 
In consequence of a riot which broke out in September, 1881, between 
Hindus and Muhammadans the city was occupied by troops for ten 
days, and a punitive police post was imposed on the city for a year. 

Large and irregular suburbs have grown up outside the walls 
since the annexation in 1849. Within the city proper, one broad 
bazar, the Chauk, runs from the Husain Gate for a quarter of a mile 
into the centre of the city, ending at the Wali Muhammad Gate, 
from which three broad streets lead to the various gates of the city. 
The other streets are narrow and tortuous, often ending in culs-de- 
sac. The principal buildings include the shrines of the Muham- 
madan saints, Baha-ud-din and Rukn-ul-alam (of the Arab tribe of 
Kuresh, to which the Prophet belonged), which stand in the citadel. 
Close by are the remains of an ancient Hindu temple of the Nara- 
singh Avatar of Vishnu, called Pahladpuri, partially blown down by 
the explosion of the powder magazine during the siege of 1848-9. 
The great temple of the Sun once occupied the very middle of the 
citadel, but was destroyed during the reign of the zealous Muham- 
madan emperor Aurangzeb, who erected a Jama Masjid or cathedral 



MULTAN CITY 37 

mosque in its place. This mosque afterwards became the powder 
magazine of the Sikhs, and was blown up. Within the fort, and 
overlooking the city, is the plain, massive obelisk, 70 feet in height, 
erected in memory of Mr. Vans Agnew and Lieutenant Anderson, 
the two British officers murdered in April, 1848, at the outbreak of 
Mulraj's rebellion. East of the city is the Amkhas, formerly the 
audience hall and garden-house of the Hindu governors of Multan, 
now used as the tahsil building. North of this is the cenotaph of 
Diwan Savvan Mai and the European cemetery. A fine public garden 
lies to the west of the city. 

The |civil station of Multan lies north and west of the native 
city, and the cantonment lies in the high stretch of land to the 
south-west. The garrison, which belongs to the Lahore division, 
consists of a company of garrison artillery, a battalion of British 
infantry, a regiment of Native cavalry, two of Native infantry, and 
a detachment of railway volunteers. The municipality was created 
in 1867. The income and expenditure during the ten years ending 
1902-3 averaged 1-7 lakhs. The income in 1903-4 was 1-9 lakhs, 
the chief source being octroi (Rs. 1,51,000); while the expenditure of 
I -8 lakhs included conservancy (Rs. 32,000), education (Rs. 29,000), 
medical (Rs. 19,000), public safety (Rs. 35,000), and administration 
(Rs. 26,000). The income and expenditure of cantonment funds 
during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 34,000. 

As a trade centre, Multan is of the first importance, being connected 
l)y rail with Lahore and Karachi, and by the Ravi, Jhelum, and 
C'henab with the whole Central Punjab. Large quantities of raw 
produce are shipped by country boats from Sher Shah, the port of 
Multan, to Karachi. The trade of Multan comprises every article of 
produce, manufacture, and consumption in the Province. The chief 
imports are cotton and other piece-goods ; while the main staples of 
export are wheat, sugar, cotton, indigo, and wool. Leaving out 
of consideration what the city requires for its own use, the function 
of Multan as a trade centre is to collect cotton, wheat, wool, oilseeds, 
sugar, and indigo from the surrounding country, and to export them 
to the south ; to receive fruits, drugs, raw silk, and spices from 
Kandahar traders, and to pass them on to the east. The Afghan 
traders take back indigo, European and country cotton cloth, sugar, 
and shoes. Multan receives European piece-goods and European 
wares generally, and distributes them to the western Districts and in 
its own neighbourhood. The chief local manufactures are silk- and 
cotton-weaving and carpet-making ; country shoes are also made in 
large quantities for exportation. The glazed pottery and enamel work 
of Multan, although not industries on a large scale, have a high 
reputation, and the manufacture of tin boxes is a growing and 



38 MULTAN CITY 

important industry. The North-Western Railway workshops give 
employment to 315 persons, and 10 cotton-ginning and three cotton- 
pressing factories have an aggregate of 657 hands. There is a branch 
of the Punjab Banking Company. 

The chief educational institutions are the three high schools, a 
middle school for European boys, and St. Mary's Convent middle 
school for girls. There are English and Roman Catholic churches in 
the cantonment, and a station of the Church Missionary Society. 
Besides the civil hospital with two branch dispensaries, the Church 
Missionary Society maintains the Victoria Jubilee Hospital for Women. 

Multhan. — Thakurdtxn the Bhopawar Agency, Central India. 

Munda. — An aboriginal tribe of the Chota Nagpur Division, Bengal, 
where they numbered 438,000 in 1901. They are mainly to be found 
in Ranch! District, and are closely akin to the Ho, Bhumij, and Santal 
tribes. The name Munda is of Sanskrit origin and denotes a ' village 
headman ' ; the people call themselves Horo (meaning ' man '). Their 
physical type is Dravidian, but their language is allied to those spoken 
by the Ho, Santal, Bhumij, and other cognate tribes. These dialects 
form a distinct linguistic family, variously known as Munda or Kol, the 
origin of which is one of the most obscure philological problems of the 
day. It was suggested by Logan that they were evolved from the con- 
tact of the southern Dravidian languages with Mon-Anam forms of 
speech brought to India by Mongolian invaders from the north-east. 
The majority of the tribe (296,000) are returned as Animists, but there 
are 85,000 Hindus and 56,000 Christians; conversion to Christianity 
has recently made rapid progress among this race. 

The village community retains its primitive form among the Mundas, 
and is provided with a complete staff of village ofificials. The munda is 
the headman ; he is responsible for the rent of the village, which he col- 
lects and pays to the mdnki or head of a group of villages, where there 
is one, or to the landlord. The niahto is an accountant, the pahn a 
priest, the bhandari the landlord's agent, and the gorait a watchman. 
These officials are remunerated by grants of land held rent-free or at 
privileged rents, or by payments in grain or in cash, as are also the ahir 
or cowherd, and the lohdr or blacksmith. The system prevails in its 
entirety in the tract of Ranch! District which borders on Singhbhum 
and is known as the vidnki-paiti. Here many of the mdnkis and 
mundas are the descendants of the original chiefs, and still hold the 
villages which their ancestors founded. These villages are cultivated 
by the descendants of the original reclaimers, and each family is re- 
sponsible for the payment of a fixed quota of the village rent. For 
many years past the landlords have been endeavouring to break down 
the prescriptive rights of these people, which they are most tenacious 
in asserting, and the discontent thus engendered culminated in the 



MUNGAOLI 39 

Munda rising of 1899. This outbreak was speedily suppressed ; but, 
in order to remove the grievances complained of, the Munda tract is 
being surveyed and settled, and an Act has been passed by the Local 
Government to protect the rights of these village communities. 

In the early part of the last century the Mundas gave a great deal of 
trouble. There were outbreaks in 1811 and in 1820; and in 1831 a 
serious insurrection took place, caused by the lease of some villages 
by the brother of the Maharaja of Chota Nagpur to Sikhs and other 
foreigners. This insurrection was suppressed with some difficulty in 
1832 by Captain (afterwards Sir Thomas) Wilkinson. 

Mundargi. — Village in the Gadag tdluka of Dharwar District, Bom- 
bay, situated in 15° 12' N. and 75° 53'' E., at the base of a hill on which 
stands a ruined fort, about 24 miles south-east of Gadag town. Popu- 
lation (1901), 4,657. Its position on the Nizam's frontier has helped 
Mundargi to grow into a large market town. At the time of the 
Mutiny of 1857, it was under an hereditary district officer named 
Bhimrao Nadgir, who corresponded with the rebel chief of Nargund 
and murdered a British guard. He subsequently fell at the siege of 
Kopal. The village contains three schools, including one for girls. 

Mundeswari. — Hill in the Bhabua subdivision of Shahabad District, 
Bengal, situated in 25° 2' N. and 83° 35' E. It is the site of an inter- 
esting Hindu temple, dating from the sixth or seventh century, which 
is said to have been built by Manda Daitya, probably a Chero chief. 

[M. Martin (Buchanan Hamilton), Eastern Itidia, vol. i (1838).] 

Mundlana {Mandldna). — Village in the Gohana tahsU of Rohtak 
District, Punjab, situated in 29° 12' N. and 76° 50' E. Population 
(1901), 5,657. It is administered as a 'notified area.' 

Mundlesoor. — Town in the Indore State, Central India. See 
Mandleshwar. 

Mundra. — Port in the State of Cutch, Bombay, situated in 22° 49' N. 
and 69° 52' E., on the coast of the Gulf of Cutch, 29 miles south of 
Bhuj. Population (1901), 10,600. There is a made road from the 
port to the town, which is 3^ miles distant. The fort, which is situated 
2\ miles north of the port, contains a white mosque distinguishable 
a good way off. The municipal income in 1903-4 was Rs. 4,000. 
The town contains a dispensary. 

Mundwa. — Town in the Nagaur district of the State of Jodhpur, 
Rajputana, situated in 27° 4' N. and 73° 49' E., on the Jodhpur-Bikaner 
Railway, 89 miles north-east of Jodhpur city. Population (i 901), 5,121. 
Mundwa is a commercial mart of some importance, noted for wooden 
toys and other fancy articles, and is the home of several prosperous 
Marwari traders having business connexions in various parts of India. 

Mung. — Village in Gujrat District, Punjab. See Mono. 

Mungaoli. — Head-quarters of the Isagarh district of Gwalior State, 



40 MUNGAOLI 

Central India, situated in 24° 25" N. and 78° 8' E., on the left bank of 
the Betvva river. Population (1901), 4,797. The town was founded 
by Chandel Rajputs and was formerly called Idrasi or Indrasi. It 
subsequently received the name of Mungavali or Mungaoll after 
Munga Shah, a Muhammadan saint who lived here. At Mirkabad, 
one mile distant, is a settlement for members of the Moghia criminal 
tribe. The export of grain from the town has increased since the 
opening of the Bina-Baran branch of the Great Indian Peninsula 
Railway, but the want of feeder roads in the neighbourhood makes 
any material improvement impossible. A municipality was constituted 
in 1904. Besides the usual offices, a school with a boarding-house, 
another special school for Moghias, a district jail, a hospital, a State 
post office, and a police station are located in the town. 

Mungeli Tahsil. — Western tahsil of Bilaspur District, Central 
Provinces, lying between 21° 53' and 22° 40'' N. and 81° 12' and 
82° 2' E. In 1901 its area was 1,794 square miles, and the population 
was 255,054. On the formation of the new Drug District, the portion 
of the tahsil south of a line drawn from the north-east corner of 
Kawardha State to the junction of the Agar and Seonath rivers was 
transferred to the Bemetara iahsll of that District. The revised area 
and population of the Mungeli tahsil are 1,452 square miles and 
177,116 persons. The population of the same area in 1891 was 
248,740. The density is 122 persons per square mile. The tahsil 
contains one town, Mungeli (population, 5,907), the head-quarters ; 
and 878 inhabited villages. It includes the zamindari estates of 
Pandaria and Kanteli, with an area of 5 1 2 square miles and a popula- 
tion of 53,937. Of the zaminddris, 263 square miles are covered with 
tree and scrub forest. The land revenue demand in 1902-3 on the 
area now constituting the tahsil was approximately i-i8 lakhs. The 
tahsil has 410 square miles of Government forest, and also contains 
a tract of black soil and the ordinary rice land of Chhattlsgarh. The 
open country is noticeably bare of trees. 

Mungeli Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name in 
Bilaspur District, Central Provinces, situated in 22° 4' N. and 81° 41' E., 
on the Agar river, 31 miles west of Bilaspur town by road. Population 
('f9oO> 5)9°7- The town is increasing in importance, and is the centre 
of trade for most of the Mungeli tahsil. Grain is generally sent to 
Bhatapara station, 32 miles distant. A station of the American Un- 
sectarian Mission, called the Disciples of Christ, has been established 
at Mungeli, which supports a leper asylum, a dispensary, and schools. 
The Government institutions comprise a dispensary, a vernacular 
middle school, and a girls' school. Sanitation is provided for by 
a small fund raised from the inhabitants. 

Mungir.— District, subdivision, and town in Bengal. See Monghyr. 



MURBAD 41 

Mungledye. — Subdivision of Darrang District, Eastern Bengal and 
Assam. See Mangaldai. 

Mungra-Badshahpur. — Town in the Machhlishalir iahsll of Jaun- 
pur District, United Provinces, situated in 25° 40' N. and 82° 12' K., 
on the Oudh and Rohilkhand Raihvay, and on the road from Jaunpur 
city to Allahabad. Population {1901), 6,130. The town is said to 
have been founded by Ibrahim Shah of Jaunpur. On the cession of 
the Benares province to the British, it became a customs post and trade 
centre between Oudh and Benares. It is still a mart for the import of 
cotton from Allahabad andTor the export of sugar. Mungra-Badshah- 
pur is administered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about 
Rs. 1,400. There is a primary school with 75 pupils. 

Munjpur.— Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Munmar. — Town in Nasik District, Bombay. See Manmad. 

Munshiganj Subdivision. — South-eastern subdivision of Dacca 
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 23° i4''and 23° 41' N. 
and 90° 10' and 90° 42' E., with an area of 386 square miles. The 
subdivision is a fertile alluvial tract, bounded on three sides by large 
rivers, the Padma on the south, the Meghna on the east, and the 
Dhaleswari on the north. The population in 1901 was 638,351, 
compared with 581,051 in 1891. It contains 978 villages, but no town ; 
the head-quarters are at Munshiganj. This subdivision, which con- 
tains the greater part of the old Bikrampur pargana, is one of the 
most thickly populated rural tracts in India, having a density of 1,654 
persons per square mile. The principal centres of trade are Munshi- 
ganj, near which a large annual fair, known as the Kartik Baruni fneia, 
is held for a month in December and January, Bhagyakul, Lohajang, 
and Mirkadim. 

Munshiganj Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Dacca District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 23° 33' 
N. and 90° 32' E., on the banks of the Meghna. Population (1901), 
964. The station possesses the usual public offices ; the sub-jail 
has accommodation for 17 prisoners. Munshiganj has been identi- 
fied as the site of the ancient Idrakpur. The Kartik Baruni meia is 
a large commercial gathering held on the banks of the Dhaleswari in 
December and January. It used to be the great centre from which 
traders in neighbouring Districts took their supplies, and is still largely 
attended ; but its importance has dechned now that the steamers 
have brought almost every village on the banks of the large rivers into 
touch with Calcutta. 

Muradabad. — District, tahsll, and city in the United Provinces. 

See MORADABAD. 

Murar. — Cantonment in Gwalior State, Central India. See Morar, 
Murbad. — South-eastern tdluka of Thana District, Bombay, lying 



42 MURBAD 

between 19° 7' and 19° 27' N. and 73° 23' and 73° 48' E., with an 
area of 350 square miles. It contains 171 villages, Murbad being 
the head-quarters. The population in 1901 was 62,569, compared with 
65,641 in 1891. The density, 179 persons per square mile, is below 
the District average. Land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted 
to more than 1-3 lakhs. The people are mostly Thakurs, Kolis, and 
Marathas. Most of the tdhika is very hilly and fairly wooded. The 
soil is poor and the uplands of little value, except as supplying brush- 
wood for manure. It suffers from the want of means of exporting its 
produce, but a good high road now bisects it. The water supplied by 
wells is fairly good but scanty. The climate is oppressive, though not 
unhealthy ; after the rains, however, it is malarious. 

Murgod. — Village in the Parasgad tdluka of Belgaum District, Bom- 
bay, and head-quarters of the Murgod mahdl or petty division, situated 
in 15° 53' N. and 74° 56' E., 27 miles east of Belgaum town. Popu- 
lation (1901), 5,655. Murgod is a considerable market for cotton and 
grain, and some business is done in printing cotton cloth. A small 
fair lasting for six days is held annually, in honour of Chitambareshwar, 
at the temple of Mallikarjun. In 1565, after the battle of Talikota, 
Murgod was taken by Vitta Cauda, the ancestor of the present Sar 
Desai of Sirsangi. After his death it was held by Sivajl. The village 
contains one boys' and one girls' school, attended by 18 and 12 pupils 
respectively. 

Murree Tahsil. — Northern tahsil of Rawalpindi District, Punjab, 
lying between 33° 42' and 34° x' N. and 73° 12' and 73° 36' E., with 
an area of 258 square miles. It is bounded on the east by the Jhelum 
river, which cuts it off from Kashmir territory. The tahsil is composed 
of three main spurs, running north and south, with intervening valleys 
and connecting ridges. The most westerly is the Murree spur, which 
rises to 7,517 feet above the sea, the highest point in the District. The 
higher hills are thickly wooded with pine and fir, while the lower 
slopes bear a plentiful growth of oak, acacia, &c. The population 
in 1901 was 52,303, compared with 45,772 in 1891. The hill station 
of Murree is the tahsil head-quarters, and it also contains 120 villages. 
The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 16,000, 

Murree Town.— Hill sanitarium and -head-quarters of the tahsil oi 
the same name in Rawalpindi District, Punjab, situated in t^-^ 55' N. 
and 73° 23' E., 39 miles from Rawalpindi town, on a spur of the 
Himalayas, at the height of 7,517 feet above sea-level. The population 
in March, 1901, was 1,844, but in the summer it probably amounts to 
over 10,000. In the hot season it is the head-quarters of the Lieutenant- 
General of the Northern Command. The Commissioner of the Rawal- 
pindi Division and the Deputy-Commissioner of Rawalpindi also reside 
here during part of the hot season, for which period an Assistant Com- 



MURSAN 43 

missioner is placed in charge of the subdivision consisting of the Murree 
iahsll. The site was selected in 1850 almost immediately after the 
annexation of the Province, and building operations commenced at 
once. In 185 1 temporary accommodation was provided for a detach- 
ment of troops ; and in 1853 permanent barracks were erected. The 
garrison generally consists of three mountain batteries. In 1873, 1874, 
and 1875 Murree was the summer head-quarters of the Punjab Govern- 
ment. It is connected with Rawalpindi town by a service of tongas. 
The houses crown the summit and sides of an irregular ridge, com- 
manding magnificent views over forest-clad hill-sides into deep valleys 
studded with villages and cultivated fields. The neighbouring hills are 
covered during the summer with encampments of British troops, while 
the station itself is filled with European visitors from the plains and 
travellers to Kashmir. A fine view of the snowy peaks of Kashmir is 
to be had on a clear day, and the crest of Nanga Parbat (26,182 feet) 
can sometimes be seen. The municipality was created in 1850. The 
income during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 49,500, and 
the expenditure Rs. 48,200. In 1903-4 the income and expenditure 
were Rs. 51,400, chiefly from octroi, and Rs. 54,400 respectively. The 
income and expenditure of cantonment funds averaged Rs. 10,000 
between 1893 and 1903. The chief educational institutions are the 
Lawrence Military Asylum for soldiers' children, and the St. Denys' and 
Convent English schools for girls. The station contains the Lady Roberts 
Home for invalid officers and a branch of the Alliance Bank of Simla. 
The Murree Brewery is the only industrial concern of any importance. 
Mursan. — Estate situated in the Allgarh, Muttra, and Etah Dis- 
tricts of the United Provinces, with an area of 60 square miles. The 
demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was a lakh and for cesses Rs. 16,000, 
while the rent-roll was 2-1 lakhs. This is the most important Jat estate 
in the United Provinces. In the sixteenth or seventeenth century a Jat, 
named Makan, came from Rajputana to the neighbourhood of Mursan 
town, and he and his descendants acquired considerable estates, partly 
by clearing waste land. The result was the formation of a number of 
talukas or baronies, linked together by the kinship of the owners. Nand 
Ram, head of the clan, submitted to Aurangzeb, when the latter had 
firmly established himself, and was appointed an administrative official. 
He died in 1695, leaving fourteen sons, the eldest of whom was called 
Zulkaran, and predeceased his father. The Jat possessions were divided 
among the other children of Nand Ram ; but Zulkaran's son, Khushal 
Singh, who obtained only two villages, attracted the notice of Saadat 
Khan, Nawab of Oudh, and was granted the farm of other property. 
In 1 749 he was succeeded by Puhup Singh, who largely increased the 
estates he had inherited by obtaining from the d7nils leases of villages 
which had fallen out of cultivation, or in which arrears of revenue were 

VOL. XVIII. D 



44 MURSAN 

due. He also acquired a considerable share in the tahikas left by 
Nand Ram, though dispossessed for a time by Suraj Mai, Raja of 
Bharatpur, and was the first of the family to assume the title of Raja. 
In 1803 Bhagwant Singh, son of Puhup Singh, was allowed to engage 
for payment of revenue of all the estates held by him, without any 
detailed inquiry into their internal circumstances, and retained some 
independent judicial authority. He also received a jdgir for services 
rendered in Lord Lake's campaign. A few years later both Bhagwant 
Singh and Daya Ram, tahikddr of Hathras, another descendant of 
Nand Ram, came into conflict with the authorities for persistent default 
in the payment of revenue and defiance of the courts, and in 181 7 
troops were sent against them. Daya Ram at first resisted, and on 
the fall of Hathras his estates were confiscated ; but Bhagwant Singh 
surrendered. He was treated leniently, and his possessions were not 
escheated, though his special police jurisdiction was cancelled. On his 
death in 1823 the process of direct engagement with the village pro- 
prietors was commenced, and his son, Tikam Singh, lost considerably. 
The separation of subordinate rights was completed in the first regular 
settlement, and was resisted in the courts by the Raja, but without 
success. Owing to his loyalty in the Mutiny, Raja Tikam Singh 
received an abatement of Rs. 6,000 in his assessment, and was also 
created C.S.L The present owner of the estate is Raja Dat Prasad 
Singh, who succeeded a grandson of Tikam Singh in 1902. 

The principal place in the estate is Mursan, a small town on the 
Cawnpore-Achhnera Railway, with a population (1901) of 4,395, 
which is administered under Act XX of 1856. A primary school 
here is attended by 120 pupils. 

Murshidabad District.—District of the Presidency Division, Ben- 
gal, lying between 23° 43' and 24° 52' N. and 87° 49' and 88° 44' E., 
with an area of 2,143 square miles. In shape it resembles an isosceles 
triangle with its apex pointing to the north-west. The northern and 
eastern boundaries are formed by the Padma, or main stream of the 
Ganges, which separates it from Malda and Rajshahi ; on the south- 
east the Jalang! divides it from Nadia ; on the south it is bounded 
by Burdwan ; and on the west by Birbhum and the Santal Parganas. 

The Bhaglrathi, which flows with many windings south-east and 
south, divides the District into two tracts nearly equal in size but differ- 
. ing in their physical features. The country to the 

aspects ^^^^ '-'^ ^^ Bhagirathi, known as Rarh, forms a con- 

tinuation of the Chota Nagpur plateau ; its general 
level is slightly undulating and higher than that of the rest of the 
District, but it is interspersed with marshes and seamed by hill torrents. 
The Bagri or eastern portion forms part of the old Ganges delta, and 
its river system consists of the Padma with its distributaries, the Bhagi- 



MURSHIDABAD DISTRICT 45 

RATHi, Bhairab, SiSlmari, and JalangT. The BhngTrathi, which forms 
the oldest known outlet of the Ganges and marks the western limit of 
the delta, has undergone great changes even in the last hundred years ; 
its head has almost silted up, and it is with difficulty kept open for 
navigation by small boats during the dry season. Its chief tributaries 
are the Bansloi and the Pagla, which rise in the Santal Parganas, the 
Chora Dekra, and the Dwarka. The Dwarka or Babla is a continuation 
of the Brahmanl, which rises in the Birbhum hills, and after uniting 
with the Mor flows eastwards through the Kandi sui^division to join the 
BhagTrathi ; like all hill streams, it is very rapid and liable to sudden 
flood. The Bhairab and Sialmari are unimportant streams flowing into 
the JalangT; this river has a general trend to the south-west and eventu- 
ally joins the BhagTrathi in Nadia District. There are many small 
lakes, the largest being the Telkar Bil west of Berhampore, which is 
about 3 miles long and 2-| miles broad, and a large horseshoe lake 
known as MotijhTl, which has been formed about 2 miles from 
Murshidabad Town by a change in the course of the BhagTrathi. 

The portion of the District east of the BhagTrathi is covered with 
recent alluvium, consisting of sandy clay and sand along the course of 
the rivers, and fine silt consolidating into clay in the flatter parts of the 
river plain. The limit between the alluvium and the higher ground 
on the west is marked by a bank of stiff clay, gravel, and nodular lime- 
stone, which disappears as it passes downwards towards BTrbhum, 
where it amalgamates with the general alluvium. In the north-w^est 
of the District are some isolated clay hillocks. 

The stretches of low-lying land under rice cultivation afford a foot- 
hold for many marsh species, while the numerous ponds and ditches 
are filled with submerged and floating water-plants. Remarkable 
among these for its rarity, and interesting on account of its distri- 
bution in Europe on the one hand and Australia on the other, is the 
floating Aldrovanda vesiculosa. The edges of sluggish creeks are lined 
with large sedges and bulrushes, and the banks of rivers have a hedge- 
like scrub jungle. The sides of embankments and village sites, where 
not occupied by habitations, are densely covered with shrubberies of 
semi-spontaneous species, interspersed with clumps of planted bamboos 
and groves of Areca, Moringa, Mangifera, and Anona, while banyan 
{Fiais indica\ pipal (^Ficus religiosd), babul {Acacia arabica), jack 
{Artocarpus inlegrifolia), bel [Aegle marmelos), plantain, and date 
trees are also common. Waysides and waste places are filled with 
grasses and weeds, usually of little intrinsic interest, but often striking 
because of their distribution. Many of them have been inadvertently 
introduced by human agency, and include European or African and 
American species, which spread more plentifully than similar weeds 
of indigenous origin. The District is famous for its mangoes. 

D 2 



46 MURSHIDABAD DISTRICT 

Big game has disappeared before the advance of cultivation, but 
leopards are occasionally met with and wild hog still abound in the 
jungles. 

During the hot season dry westerly winds alternate with the southerly 
sea-breezes of moderate temperature which characterize other parts of 
Lower Bengal; and the mean temperature, which is 79° for the whole 
year, rises from 65° in January to 88° in April, when the mean maxi- 
mum is 100°. The mean minimum is lowest (53°) in January. The 
annual rainfall averages 53 inches, of which 9-6 fall in June, 11 in July, 
10 in August, and 9 in September. 

The earthquake of 1897 caused great damage, especially along the 
banks of the Bhaglrathi river, where the old masonry buildings in the 
riparian towns suffered enormously. The cost of repairs to public 
property was estimated to exceed 2 lakhs, and the damage to private 
property at 50 lakhs. Discharges of water and black mud occurred 
from the bed of the Bhagirathi near Jangipur, and sand and water were 
also thrown up from fissures in the marshy land near Gaur and JalangT, 
one fissure extending for a length of 2 miles. The District is liable to 
annual inundation, and serious floods are only prevented by numerous 
and expensive embankments. In 1870 the embankments of the Bhagl- 
rathi were breached, and a disastrous flood occurred which destroyed 
the crops over a large area and caused great suffering. In 1886 the 
town of Murshidabad was inundated and thousands of people left 
destitute. The Dwarka is liable to sudden floods ; and a tract of low- 
lying country about 16 miles in extent at the confluence of the Mor 
and Dwarka rivers in the Kandi subdivision, known as Hejal, is inun- 
dated more or less heavily almost every year. 

In ancient times the Bhaglrathi formed an important political boun- 
dary. To the east lay Bang a or Samatata and to the west Karna 
. SuvARNA, whose capital was probably at or near 

Rangamati. Under the Sen kings the river separated 
the Rarh from the Bagri division of Bengal, traces of which remain 
in the name Bagdi. The country was conquered in 1197 by Muham- 
mad i-Bakhtyar Khiljl, and formed part of the dominions of the Muham- 
madan kings of Gaur. In the middle of the seventeenth century 
factories were founded at Cossimbazar, at that time the head-quarters 
of the silk trade; but the political importance of the District dates from 
the early part of the eighteenth century, when Murshid Kuli Khan 
moved the seat of government from Dacca to the little town of Maksud- 
abad, thenceforth called after him, where he built a palace. Historical 
interest centres in Murshidabad, Cossimbazar, and Berhampore. 
Other places of archaeological importance are Badrihat and Ranga- 
mati. When a Collector was first appointed to the charge of the 
District in 1772, its area extended over the neighbouring zavihidaris 



POPULATION 



47 



of Blrbhum and Bishnupur. These outlying tracts had always been 
noted for lawlessness ; and for the better administration of justice they 
were finally severed from Murshidabad in 1787. The District was 
thus reduced to about its present size, but the irregularity of the boun- 
dary between it and Birbhum has been a constant source of perplexity 
to the local officials. In 1875 the District was transferred from the 
Kajshahi to the Presidency Division. 

The population, which in 1872 numbered 1,214,104, increased to 
1,226,790 in 1881, to 1,250,946 in 1891, and to 1,333,184 in 1901. 
The increase between 1S72 and 1891 was very small, 
owing to the ravages of the ' Burdwan fever,' which 
devastated not only the low-lying waterlogged eastern tracts but also 
the elevated country to the west. In recent years there has been 
a great improvement in the health of the District, especially in the 
Rarh country. To the east, however, the climate is damp, and malaria 
is still prevalent ; cholera is rarely absent, and enlargement of the 
spleen and liver is almost universal. Elephantiasis and hydrocele are 
endemic. The table below gives statistics of the population by sub- 
divisions in 1 90 1 : — 



Population. 



Subdivision. 




CS 

3 . 
< 


Number of 


c 


"3 

Q. 


C-i 


JHre 
II 


Percentafje of 
variation in 

population be 
tween 1891 
and 1901. 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 




u 

> 


Berhampore 
Lalbagh 
Jangipur . 
kandi 

District total 


752 

370 

509 
512 


I 
2 
I 
I 


1,060 

632 

1,093 

883 


471,962 
192,978 
334,191 
334,053 


628 

522 

657 
652 


+ .3-7 
+ 6.2 

+ 5-4 
-1- 12-4 


22,853 
11,292 
16,955 
22,376 


2>i43 


5 


3,668 


1,333,184 


622 


+ 6.6 


73,476 



The towns are Berhampore, the head-quarters, Murshidabad, 
AziMGANj, Jangipur, and Kandi. The alluvial tract to the east of 
the Bhaglrathi is much more densely populated than the west of the 
District. In the latter tract, however, the population is now growing 
rapidly, the increase at the Census of 1901 amounting to 12.9 per cent., 
compared with 3-1 per cent, in the east of the District, and rising as 
high as 26 per cent, in the SagardTghi and Kalianganj t/idnas, which 
are still sparsely populated and attract a large number of immigrants 
from Birbhum and the Santal Parganas. The District suffers from 
diluvion along the northern boundary, and there has consequently 
been some loss of inhabitants by migration to the corresponding 
alluvial formations in Malda and Rajshahi on the other side of the 
Padma. There is a good deal of temporary immigration from Bihar 
and the United Provinces, especially during the winter months. The 



48 



MURSHIDABAD DISTRICT 



vernacular of the District is the dialect known as Central Bengali. 
Muhammadans (676,899) in 1901 outnumbered the Hindus (643,474), 
having increased from 48-1 per cent, of the population in 1881 to 
50-8 per cent, in the latter year. Hindus, however, still predominate 
to the west of the Bhagirathi. 

Most of the Muhammadans are Shaikhs (628,000). Among the 
Hindus the most numerous castes are Kaibarttas (95,000) ; Bagdis 
(40,000), chiefly in the south-west ; Sadgops (39,000), chiefly in the 
southern thanas ; Chains (38,000), along the south-east ; Brahmans, 
Ahirs, and Goalas. Agriculture supports 58 per cent, of the popula- 
tion, industries 19-3 per cent., commerce 0'6 per cent., and the pro- 
fessions 1-8 per cent. 

Christians number only 391, of whom 249 are natives. Various 
missions have established themselves in the District from time to time, 
but they have not met with much success. The only one now is a 
branch of the London Missionary Society, which began work in 1824. 

The low-lying alluvial soil to the east is very fertile ; the chief crop 
is the autumn rice, but it also grows several important cold-season 
crops. On the hard clay of the Rarh tract dman or 
winter rice is the main staple, though sugar-cane, 
mulberry, tobacco, and various vegetables are likewise grown. 

The chief agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are shown below, areas 
being in square miles : — 



Agricultixre. 



Subdivision. 


Total. 


Cultivated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Berhampore . 
Lalbagh 
Jangipur 
Kandi 

Total 


752 
370 
509 
512 


346 

205 
281 
332 


I9.S 
17 
31 

174 


2,143 


1,164 


417 



It is estimated that 30 per cent, of the cultivated area is twice 
cropped. Rice is grown over an area of 723 square miles, the winter 
rice covering 34 per cent, of the net cropped area against 28 per cent, 
under autumn rice. About 167 square miles are under wheat and 
95 square miles under barley. Other crops extensively cultivated are 
gram and other pulses and oilseeds, linseed and riiustard being the 
most important kinds. Jute, sugar-cane, indigo, and mulberry are 
grown, but the cultivation of both indigo and mulberry is now declining. 
Little use is made of the Agriculturists' Loans Act ; in the two years 
ending 1898 Rs. 40,000 was advanced. 

Pasture land is plentiful" all over the District. The chief grazing 
ground is a tract of low country in the Kandi subdivision, about 
16 miles in area, known as Hejal ; this is covered with water during 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 49 

the rains, but in the dry season it affords splendid pasturage. Cattle 
fairs are held at Panchamdi and Talibpur in the Kandi subdivision, 
and occasionally at Bhabta in the head-cjuarters subdivision. 

The necessity for irrigation is limited to the west of the District, 
where water is conducted over the fields from tanks or natural water- 
courses. A large number of tanks are used for this purpose in the 
Manigram Government estate. 

Pearl fisheries exist in a series of lakes which mark the line of an old 

river and stretch from the Gobra nullah to Rukimpur, a distance of 

about t8 miles. The mussel in which the pearls are _. , 

. . . . Fisn6ri6S« 

found is a species of Unio^ and is probably a variety 

of the pearl-bearing Unio inargaritifera. The majority of the pearls 

are seed pearls, and they have usually a golden tint. Valuable pearls 

are occasionally procured, fetching as much as Rs. 200 each ; but such 

a find is very rare, and the largest pearls found in recent years rarely 

exceed Rs. 15 or Rs. 30 in value. The fishery season is in the hot 

months, when the water is low and almost stagnant. The various 

branches of the industry furnish employment for about 300 persons 

during this period, and its annual value is estimated at Rs. 3,000. 

Iron is found, but not in sufficient quantities to repay smelting. 
Calcareous earth occurs in several places and is extensively used for 
making lime. Kankar or nodular limestone crops up generally over 
the western half of the District, and is used for road-making. 

The silk industry in this part of Bengal is of great age, and the silk 
trade is one of the earliest of the industries which occupied the servants 
of the East India Company in the District, their 
efforts being stimulated by competition with the communications. 
French, Dutch, and Armenians. Silk factories date 
from the middle of the seventeenth century, when Cossimbazar was the 
most important centre. The winding of silk is still carried on, but it 
has steadily declined since the Company closed their factory at Jangi- 
pur in 1835. The decline is due in a great measure to diseases of the 
worms, which the Bengal Silk Association, constituted in 1898, is now 
taking steps to combat. There is a nursery at Chandanpur which dis- 
tributes large quantities of selected seed to the rearers ; similar nurseries 
are being built at Rajdharpur and Kumarpur, and the use of examined 
seed is spreading in the Government estates west of the Bhagirathi. 

Silk is still largely manufactured in the head-quarters and Jangipur 
subdivisions ; a great variety of fabrics are manufactured. The best 
silks are those produced in the Mirzapur, Hariharpara, and Daulat 
Bazar thdiias ; in 1903-4 the Mirzapur weavers turned out 26,000 yards 
of silk cloth, valued at Rs. 33,000. In addition to the native artisans 
working with hand-looms, there were in that year 54 factories worked 
with machinery which had an out-turn of 396,000 lb., valued at nearly 



50 MURSHIDABAD DISTRICT 

27 lakhs, the principal firms being Messrs. Louis Payen & Co. and the 
Bengal Silk Company. Tasar and jnatkd silks are also manufactured, 
the latter being best prepared by Indian weavers on their hand-looms. 
Cotton-weaving with hand-looms is still an important occupation, and 
silk and cotton dyeing are carried on by a few families at Khagra 
Baluchar and Mirzapur. Murshidabad town has skilled embroiderers, 
who adorn clothes, gloves, slippers, and caps with gold and silver lace. 
Gold and silver wire is also made in small quantities. Bidri ware is 
produced by a few workmen at Murshidabad ; the process consists in 
inlaying with silver a sort of pewter which is blackened with sulphate 
of copper. Bell-metal and brass utensils of a superior kind are manu- 
factured in large quantities at Khagra, Berhampore, Kandi, and Bara- 
nagar ; these articles are sold in the local markets and are also exported. 
Locks, nails, and betel-nut cutters are made at Dhulian. Ivory-carving 
was formerly a considerable industry, but is now confined to a few 
workmen at Murshidabad. Blankets, shell bracelets, and pottery are 
manufactured in a few villages, and musical instruments and hukka 
pipes are also made. The indigo industry has practically disappeared, 
the out-turn in 1903-4 having fallen to 13 tons. 

The external trade is mainly with Calcutta. The chief imports are 
European piece-goods, salt, coal and coke, and kerosene oil ; and the 
chief exports are rice, wheat, gram, oilseeds, jute, silk, indigo, and 
metal ware. The District is favourably situated for trade, being served 
by two offshoots of the Padma, the Bhagirathi and the JalangI, which 
form the Hooghly and lead direct to Calcutta. The principal seats of 
trade are Jangipur, Azimganj, Jiaganj, Khagra, and Dhulian on the 
Bhagirathi, and Bhagwangola on the Ganges. Trade is carried on 
chiefly at permanent markets, and periodical fairs are also held at 
Dhulian, Jangipur, Chaltia, Suktipur, and Kandi. The Jain merchants 
of Azimganj are among the richest traders in Bengal. 

The little railway from Nalhati to Azimganj runs for about 14 miles 
within the District. The Murshidabad branch of the Eastern Bengal 
State Railway, which has recently been opened, leaves the main 
line at Ranaghat and enters the District near Plassey, whence it runs 
nearly due north through Beldanga, Berhampore, Murshidabad, and 
Jiaganj to Lalgola. There is also a proposal to bridge the Bhagirathi 
between Jiaganj and Murshidabad, and to connect the new line with 
the East Indian Railway system. The District board maintains 33 
miles of metalled and 526 miles of unmetalled roads, with 335 bridges 
and 22 ferries. The most important roads are those connecting Ber- 
hampore, the head-quarters station, with Krishnagar, Bhagwangola, 
Patkabari, Kandi, and JalangI ; Murshidabad with Panchgram ; and 
Jarur with Gambhira. 

Steamer services ply up the Padma from Goalundo throughout the 



ADMINISTRATION 51 

year, and the other big rivers are navigable by large country boats, 
except during the latter part of the dry season ; for the rest of the year 
the Calcutta Steam Navigation Company maintains a regular steamer 
service up the Bhaglrathi from Calcutta. The measures which have 
been taken from time to time to keep this river and the Jalangi open 
for traffic are described in the article on the Nadia Rivers. In 
1903-4 about Rs. 41,000 was realized as tolls, while the expenditure 
in keeping the channels open amounted to Rs. 44,000. 

The famine of 1770 is believed to have carried off three-eighths of 
the population of this District. In 1870 some distress was caused by 
high prices, and severe scarcity was felt in 1874 and 
1897. On the latter occasion Government expended 
Rs. 73,000 on flimine relief, and was aided by the munificence of local 
zamiiiddrs headed by the late MaharanI Sarnamayi, C.I. The aggre- 
gate number of units relieved, reckoned in terms of one day, was 
454,000. 

For administrative purposes the District is divided into four sub- 
divisions, with head-quarters at Berhampore, Jangipur, Kandi, and 

Lalbagh. The Magistrate-Collector is assisted at 

11 1 rr r r ^ -k k ■ Admiiiistration. 

head-quarters by a staff of four Deputy-Magistrate- 
Collectors and occasionally by a Joint or Assistant Magistrate. The 
subdivisional officers at Kandi, Lalbagh, and Jangipur belong to the 
Provincial service recruited in India, and are assisted by Sub-Deputy- 
Collectors. The Executive Engineer in charge of the Nadia Rivers 
division is stationed at Berhampore. 

Subordinate to the District and Sessions Judge for the disposal of 
civil judicial work are a Subordinate Judge at head-quarters and seven 
Munsifs, of whom two each are stationed at Berhampore, Jangipur, and 
Kandi, and one at Lalbagh. The criminal courts include those of the 
Judge, the District Magistrate, and the above-mentioned magistrates. 
The most common offences are those which arise out of disputes 
about land. 

In Todar Mai's rent-roll of 1582 the present District area formed 
portion of Audambar or Tanda, Satgaon, and other sarkdrs. In Jafar 
Khan's settlement of 1722 the nam.e Murshidabad was applied to an 
area apparently coextensive with the great zamlnddri of Rani Bhawani, 
properly known as Rajshahi. It is therefore impossible to compare 
the present land revenue of the District with that realized under 
Muhammadan rule. The whole of the District is permanently settled, 
with the exception of 72 temporarily settled estates with a current 
demand of Rs. 30,000, and 64 estates with a demand of Rs. 26,000 
held direct by Government. The average incidence of rental is Rs. 
3-1-5 per cultivated acre; but rents differ widely in various parts, being 
lowest in the head-quarters and Jangipur subdivisions, and highest in 



52 



murshidAbad district 



the Kandi subdivision, where rice and wheat lands bring in from 
Rs. 7-8 to Rs. 18, and mulberry and sugar-cane lands from Rs. 12 
to Rs. 24 per acre. In the head-quarters subdivision, on the other 
hand, the rent of rice and wheat lands ranges between Rs. 1-2 and 
Rs. 9, that of land growing pulse between Rs. 2-4 and Rs. 3, sugar- 
cane land between Rs. 3 and Rs. 7-8, and mulberry land between 
Rs. I- 1 2 and Rs. 12 per acre. 

The nibandi system of tenure is very common, especially in the 
Plassey pargana ; for a description of this tenure see the article on 
Nadia District. Aimmds or quit-rent tenures are numerous in the 
Fateh Singh estate. The average area of a tenant's holding is only 
one acre. 

The following table shows the collections of land revenue and of 
total revenue (principal heads only), in thousands of rupees :— 





i88o-i». 


1890-1. 


1900-1. 


1903-4. 


Land revenue . 
Total revenue . 


13.05 
18,12 


10,68 
16,23 


10,66 

17.78 


10,67 

17.95 



_ * Between 1880-1 and 1890-1, certain estates were transferred from Murshid- 
abad to other Districts. 

Outside the municipalities of Berhampore, Azimganj, Jangipur, 
Kandi, and Murshidabad, local affairs are managed by the District 
board, with subordinate local boards in each subdivision. The income 
of the District board in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,27,000, of which Rs. 64,000 
was derived from rates. The expenditure was also Rs. 1,27,000, 
including Rs. 69,000 spent on public works and Rs. 25,000 on educa- 
tion. A scheme for supplying the rural areas with drinking-water is in 
progress ; this was initiated by a gift of a lakh from Raja Jogendra 
Narayan Rao of Lalgola. 

There are 74 miles of embankments along the Bhaglrathi, under 
the Public Works department, to prevent the country on the east 
bank from being flooded by the spill of the river. The propriety of 
maintaining these embankments has been called in question, on the 
ground that the land which would otherwise be flooded is thereby 
deprived of its supply of fertilizing silt, while the river, being confined 
to its bed, deposits its silt there, and thus gradually raises itself above 
the level of the surrounding country. 

Murshidabad contains 24 police stations and 26 outposts; and in 
1903 the force subordinate to the District Soperintendent consisted 
of 4 inspectors, 53 sub-inspectors, 51 head constables, and 675 con- 
stables. In addition, there is a rural police of 264 daffaddrs and 2,947 
chauklddrs. The District jail at Berhampore has accommodation for 
340 prisoners, and subsidiary jails at the three subdivisional out- 
stations have accommodation for 62. 



MURSHIDABAD TOWN 53 

In spite of the proximity of the District to Calcutta, only 5-5 per 
cent, of the population (io-6 males and o-6 females) could read and 
write in 1901. The total number of pupils under instruction increased 
from 12,000 in 1S83 to 22,994 in 1892-3, and 24,837 in 1900-1. In 
1903-4, 24,015 boys and 1,531 girls were at school, being respectively 
24-5 and 1-5 per cent, of the children of school-going age. The number 
of educational institutions, public and private, in that year was 661, 
including one Arts college, 58 secondary, 582 primary, and 20 special 
schools. The expenditure on education was 2-17 lakhs, of which 
Rs. 44,000 was met from Provincial funds, Rs. 25,000 from District 
funds, Rs. 2,000 from municipal funds, and Rs. 84,000 from fees. 
The principal institutions are the college and Sanskrit tol at Berham- 
pore, and the Nawab's inadrasa and high school at Murshidabad. 
The London Missionary Society maintains a high school at Khagra 
near Berhampore. 

In 1903 the District contained 7 dispensaries, of which 5 had accom- 
modation for 115 in-patients. The cases of 65,000 out-patients and 
1,335 in-patients were treated during the year, and 3,320 operations 
were performed. The expenditure was Rs. 27,000, of which Rs. 2,000 
was met by Government contributions, Rs. 3,000 from Local and 
Rs. 11,000 from municipal funds, and Rs. 3,000 from subscriptions. 
The hospital at Kandi, which is maintained from an endowment fund, 
now amounting to 1-59 lakhs, left by Kumar Giris Chandra Sinha of 
Paikpara, is the best equipped in the District. There is a lunatic 
asylum at Berhampore. 

Vaccination is compulsory only in the municipal towns. In 1903-4 
the number of successful vaccinations was 37,000, representing 36 per 
1,000 of the population. 

[Sir W. W. Hunter, Statistical Account of Bengal, vol. iii (1876); 
Beveridge, ' Note on the Parganas of Murshidabad,' Proceedings of the 
Asiatic Society (1892) ; Major Walsh, I. M.S., History of Murshidabad 
(1902); G. C. Dutt, Monograph on Ivory Carving in Bengal (Calcutta, 
1901) ; N. G. Mukerji, Monograph on the Silk Fabrics of Bengal 
(Calcutta, 1903) ; P. C. Majumdar, The Musnud of Murshidabad 
(Murshidabad, 1905).] 

Murshidabad Subdivison. — Subdivision of Murshidabad District, 
Bengal. See Lalbagh. 

Murshidabad Town. — Head-quarters of the Lalbagh subdivision 
of Murshidabad District, Bengal, situated in 24° 12' N. and 88° 17' E., 
on the left bank of the Bhaglrathi. The town, which possesses great 
historical interest, was formerly known as Makhsusabad or Maksudabad, 
and is stated by Tieffenthaler to have been founded by the emperor 
Akbar. In 1696 the Afghans from Orissa in the course of their rebel- 
lion defeated the imperial troops and plundered the place. In 1704 



54 MURSHIDABAD TOWN 

Nawab Murshid Kuli Khan moved the seat of government from Dacca 
to Maksudabad, which he then called, after himself, Murshidabad ; the 
old name, however, still lingers, and the spelling Muxudavad is found 
in the early English records as late as 1760. Tradition relates that 
Murshid Kull Khan moved his government to this place through fear 
of prince Azim-ush-shan, who had attempted to assassinate him at 
Dacca. It seems more probable that he was induced to do so by 
political considerations. Dacca had lost its importance, for the Maghs 
and the Portuguese were no longer dangerous ; and the banks of the 
Bhagirathi afforded a more central position for the management of the 
three provinces of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa. The new city was also 
situated on the main line of communication between the Upper Ganges 
valley and the sea, along which the treasures of India were now begin- 
ning to find their way to the European settlements on the Hooghly ; 
and it commanded the tovvn of Cossimbazar, where all the foreigners 
had important factories. Moreover, the situation in those days was 
regarded as very healthy. Murshid Kuli Khan, by birth a Brahman 
and by education a courtier, was one of the most able administrators 
that ever served the Mughal empire in time of peace. Second only to 
the Nawab in establishing the importance of Murshidabad was the 
Jain banker, Manik Chand Jagat Selh, by whose predominating influence 
as a financier the residence of the governor became also the centre of 
the revenue collections for Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa. 

The dynasty founded by Murshid Kuli Khan did not continue in 
the direct line beyond two generations. All Vardi Khan won the 
governorship by conquest in 1740. Troublous times followed ; in 
1742 Maratha invaders sent by the Bhonsla Raja of Berar plundered 
the suburbs of Murshidabad and obtained a booty of 3 lakhs from Jagat 
Seth. In the next year two separate armies of Marathas came, and 
All Vardi avoided battle only by playing off one chief against the other, 
and at last got rid of the stronger by paying a large sum of money. 
From this date till 1751, when he ceded to the Marathas the province 
of Orissa and agreed to pay an annual tax of 1 2 lakhs. All Vardi was 
continually pressed by both the Marathas and the Afghans. He was 
succeeded in 1756 by his grandson Siraj-ud-daula, who in the following 
year captured the English factory at Cossimbazar. During this period 
the city itself never suffered either from domestic or foreign war. Each 
successive prince, after the Eastern fashion, built for himself one or 
more new palaces ; and the great family of Jagat Seth preserved their 
position as State bankers from generation to generation. On entering 
Murshidabad after the victory of Plassey, Colonel Clive wrote : — 

' This city is as extensive, populous, and rich as the city of London, 
with this difference, that there are individuals in the first possessing 
infinitely greater property than in the last city.' 



MURSHIDABAD TOWN 55 

Even after the conquest of Bengal by the British, Murshidabad 
remained for some time the seat of administration. Plassey was 
fought in 1757, just beyond the present southern Hmits of Murshidabad 
District ; but that battle was not regarded at the time as interfering 
with the Muhammadan government, beyond the substitution of a 
subservient Nawab for the savage Siraj-ud-daula. The only apparent 
result was that the Commercial Chief of the factory at Cossimbazar was 
superseded by a Political Resident to the Darbar, who took up his 
c}uarters nearer the city, at Motijhil ('the pearl lake'), in the palace 
of a former Nawab. In 1765 the East India Company received the 
grant of the Diwani or financial administration of Bengal, Bihar, and 
Orissa from the Mughal emperor. Shah Alam, as the prize of the 
victory at Buxar ; and in the following year Lord Clive, as Governor 
of Bengal, presided in person at the punyd or annual settlement of the 
revenues. But even on this occasion the young Nawab sat on the 
masftad, with the Governor on his right hand. The entire work of 
government still remained, without serious check or supervision, 
in the hands of the Muhammadan officials ; and Jagat Seth continued 
to be the State banker. The first great reform was effected in 1772 by 
Warren Hastings, who removed the supreme civil and criminal courts 
from Murshidabad to Calcutta. After an experience of three years, 
the tribunal of criminal justice was retransferred to Murshidabad ; and 
it was not till 1790, under Lord Cornwallis, that the entire revenue and 
judicial staff was ultimately fixed at the present capital of India. The 
mint was abolished in 1799. About the same date, the civil head- 
quarters of the District were transferred to Berhampore, which had 
been from the first the site of the military cantonment. Murshidabad 
city was thus left only as the residence of the Nawab Nazim, a descen- 
dant of Mir Jafar, who till 1882 retained certain marks of sovereignty 
within his palace, and received a pension of 16 lakhs a year. The last 
holder of the title was for many years resident in England. On his 
return to India, he abdicated his position in favour of his son, who 
succeeded him, but without any sovereign rights, and on a diminished 
pension. The title of the present descendant of the once independent 
rulers of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa is now simply that of Nawab 
Bahadur of Murshidabad. 

With the loss of its political importance the size and population of 
Murshidabad also declined. The largest dimensions of the city proper 
in 1759 are said to have been 5 miles along the Bhaglrathi in length 
and 2^ miles in breadth on each bank of the river, while the circum- 
ference of its extensive suburbs has been put as high as 30 miles. In 
the beginning of the nineteenth century, by which time the decay of 
the city had already set in, we have several estimates of the population ; 
but we know neither the area which the city was then supposed to 



56 MURSHIDABAD TOIVT^ 

cover, nor the modes of enumeration adopted. In 1815 the number 
of houses was estimated at 30,000, and the total population at 165,000 
souls. In 1829 the Magistrate, Mr. Hawthorn, returned the population 
at 146,176. In 1837 Mr. Adam found the inhabitants of Murshidabad 
city to amount to 124,804 persons, which shows a decrease of nearly 
15 per cent, in eight years. At the time of the first regular Census 
in 1872 the population of the town was 46,182, and it has since still 
further diminished. In 1901, excluding its suburb Azimganj, which 
was formed into a separate municipality in 1896, its inhabitants 
numbered only 15,168. 

Murshidabad exhibits at the present day but few traces of its former 
grandeur. The chief object of attraction is the palace of the Nawab 
Bahadur on the banks of the Bhaglrathi. This is an imposing pile 
of buildings in the Italian style, designed by Colonel Macleod of 
the Bengal Engineers, but executed entirely by natives and finished 
in 1837. The edifice itself is called the Hazar Duari, or 'house 
of one thousand doors,' and together with other buildings enclosed 
within the same wall is known as the Nizamat Kila or fort. The palace 
is 425 feet long, 200 feet wide, and 80 feet high. The ground floor 
is of stone, the first floor of marble, and the second floor of wood. 
The banqueting hall is 191 feet long and 55 feet wide. In the centre 
of the building is a dome, from which hangs a superb chandelier of 
no branches. The palace contains many rare old pictures, costly 
jewellery, china, and arms. The residences of the Nawab Bahadur 
and the members of the Nizamat family are a series of one-storeyed 
buildings, devoid of beauty and unsafe to live in. 

The Imambara (house of prayer), which was built directly in front 
of the northern principal door in the year 1847, is a fine structure, 
considerably larger than the Imambara at Hooghly. It stands on 
the site of a more celebrated building erected by Siraj-ud-daula, which 
was accidentally burnt down in 1840. 

About li miles to the east of the palace is the Topkhana, the site of 
the artillery park of the Nawab Nazim, and the east entrance to the 
old city. Here is a large gun, 1 7^ feet long with a girth of 5 feet at the 
breech, weighing 2^ maunds, which was made at Dacca during the 
reign of Shah Jahan. The gun is now embedded in a/J/«/-tree, which 
has lifted it many feet above the ground. In the palace armoury is 
another gun, cast by Kishor Das Karmakar, formerly the property 
of Maharaja Krishna Chandra Rai of Nadia. 

One and a half miles south-east of the palace is the MotijhTl ('pearl 
lake'), built in an old bed of the Bhaglrathi, in the shape of a 
horseshoe, by Nawazish Muhammad Khan, nephew and son-in-law 
of All Vardi Khan, who, with materials brought from the ruins of Gaur, 
built a stone hall (Sangi-Dalan), Mahalsarai (harem), a mosque and 



MURSHIDABAD TOWN 57 

out-offices, and lived here with his beautiful wife, Ghaseti Begam, 
Motijhll was taken by Siraj-ud-daula in 1756 on the death of Nawazish 
Muhammad, and it was from here that he marched for the battle 
of Plassey. Mir Jafar built a garden-house here in 1758. Lord Clive 
stayed at Motijhll in 1765 to negotiate the transfer of the Dlwani to the 
Company, and again in 1766, when the first English piinyd or revenue 
collection was held here. Motijhll was also the residence of Warren 
Hastings when he became Political Resident at the court of Murshid- 
abad, and of Sir John Shore in a similar capacity. 

A mosque at Katra to the north-east of Motijhll, about \\ miles 
from the town of Murshidabad, contains the mausoleum of Murshid 
Kuli Khan. This was for a long time the chief mosque of the city, 
and was a place of pilgrimage for devout Muhammadans, Murshid 
Kull Khan being regarded as a saint. 

Jafarganj, situated at a distance of about a mile from the palace at 
Murshidabad, contains the old residence of Mir Jafar when he was 
commander-in-chief. His audience hall, since turned into an Imam- 
bara, and his dwelling-house still exist. Here the last secret conference 
before the battle of Plassey took place between him and Mr. Watts, the 
chief factor at Cossimbazar, who entered the house in a palanquin as 
z pardanishln woman. It is said that Siraj-ud-daula was murdered here. 

The Mubarak Manzil is a garden-house 2^ miles south-east of the 
palace ; the main buildings and the out-offices were built by the East 
India Company, and the Sadar Dlwani Adalat was held here from 
1765 to 1 781. Nawab Humayun Jah bought these buildings in the 
year 1831, and converted them, together with extensive adjoining 
lands, into a garden-house now known as the Lai Bangala ('red bunga- 
low '). On the terrace stood the throne of the Subahdars of Bengal, 
which was made in 1643 at Monghyr ; it is a round table of black 
stone 6 feet in diameter and 18 inches high, with four thick pedestals, 
the whole hewn out of one block. This has been removed to Calcutta, 
where it is to find a place in the Victoria Memorial Hall. 

About 2 miles north of the city of Murshidabad is Mahimapur, 
once the residence of the famous banker Jagat Seth. Here Watts 
and Walsh met Mir Jafar and Raja Rai Durlabh, three days after the 
battle of Plassey, and conferred concerning payment of the amounts 
stipulated for by them before the battle was fought. Clive, Watts, 
Scrafton, Meeran, and Rai Durlabh were again present here on June 
29j i757j when Clive repudiated the agreement with Umichand. A 
portion of the house has been washed away by the river ; the old place 
of worship, however, and some ruins remain to this day. 

On the right bank of the river opposite Motijhll is the Khushbagh 
('the garden of happiness'), the old cemetery of Ali Vardi Khan, 
Siraj-ud-daula, and their family. It consists of three walled enclosures. 



58 MURSHIDABAD TOWN 

in the centre of which is the principal cemetery, containing the tombs 
of Ah Vardi Khan and Siraj-ud-daula. The grounds are laid out as 
gardens with hedges bordering the walks, and contain many fine 
trees. On the same side of the river, opposite Jafarganj, are the pleasure- 
grounds of Hirajhll ('lake of diamonds '), and the palace at Mansurganj 
constructed by Siraj-ud-daula before he became Nawab. It was at 
Mansurganj palace that Clive seated Mir Jafar on the masnad of 
Bengal after the battle of Plassey. Near this was the palace of Murad- 
bagh, where Clive stayed on his entrance into the city after the battle. 
Only a portion of the foundation remains, and the greater portion of the 
Hirajhll has been cut away by the Bhaglrathi. Also on the same side 
of the river is the Roshnlbagh, consisting of beautiful gardens contain- 
ing the mausoleum of Shuja Khan, Murshid Kuli Khan's son-in-law 
and successor. 

The principal industries of Murshidabad are those fostered by the 
luxury of the native court. Carving in ivory is an old speciality of the 
place ; and the artificers, though now few in number, still produce 
highly finished work. Other manufactures are the embroidery of 
fancy articles with gold and silver lace, the weaving of silk goods, 
and the making of musical instruments and hiikkas. 

Murshidabad was constituted a municipality in 1869. The income 
during the decade ending 190 1—2 averaged Rs. 24,000 and the ex- 
penditure Rs. 23,000. In 1903—4 the income was Rs. 19,000, of which 
Rs. 5,500 was obtained from a tax on persons; and the expenditure 
was Rs. 18,000. The official name for Murshidabad is Lalbagh as the 
head-quarters of the Lalbagh subdivision, and it contains subdivisional 
offices, a sub-jail with accommodation for 1 2 prisoners, and a dispensary 
with 22 beds. The most important educational institutions are the 
Nawab's madrasa, intended exclusively for the relatives of the Nawab 
Bahadur, and the Nizamat high school maintained by the Nawab. 

Murtazapur Taluk. — Taluk of Akola District, Berar (to which it 
was transferred from Amraoti District in August, 1905), lying between 
20° 26' and 20° 53' N. and 77° 18' and 77° 47' E., with an area of 
610 square miles. The population fell from 121,657 in 1891 to 
118,022 in 1901. The density is 193 persons per square mile. The 
taluk contains 260 villages and two towns, Murtazapur (population, 
6,156), the head-quarters, and Karanja Bibi (16,535). The demand 
for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 4,11,000, and for cesses Rs. 33,000. 
The taluk lies almost entirely in the Payanghat, the fertile valley of 
Berar, but the extreme south extends to the slopes of the southern 
plateau. 

Murtazapur Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name 
in Akola District, Berar, situated in 20° 44' N. and 77° 25' E., on the 
Nagpur branch of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, 386 miles from 



MUSAFTRKTJANA 59 

Roiiihay. Population (1901), ^), 156. Aruitazapur. piol)al)ly named 
after Murtaza Nizam Shah of Alimadnagar, has outstripped the neigh- 
bouring village of Sirson, which in the days of Akbar was the head- 
quarters of the pargana. Large (quantities of cotton are sent here from 
Karanja and other places for carriage to Bombay, and the town has 
seven cotton-presses and ten ginning factories. 

Murwara Tahsil. — Northern tahsll of Jubbulpore District, Central 
Provinces, lying between 23° 36' and 24° 8' N. and 79° 58' and 80° 
58' E., with an area of 1,196 square miles. The population decreased 
from 173,308 in 1891 to 161,673 in 1901. 'I'he density in the latter 
year was 135 persons per square mile, which is considerably below the 
District average. The tahsil contains one town, Murwara (popula- 
tion, 14,137), the head-quarters; and 516 inhabited villages. Exclud- 
^""g ^37 square miles of Government forest, 66 per cent, of the available 
area is occupied for cultivation. The cultivated area in 1903-4 was 
607 square miles. The demand for land revenue in the same year was 
Rs. 1,29,000, and for cesses Rs. 14,000. The country is broken and 
uneven, being occupied by outlying spurs of the Vindhyan and Satpura 
ranges. The north-eastern portion, forming part of the Bijeraghogarh 
pargana., is the most fertile. In contradistinction to the rest of the 
District, the prevalent soil is sandy, and autumn crops are principally 
grown. 

Murwara Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name 
in Jubbulpore District, Central Provinces, situated in 23° 50' N. and 
80" 24' E., 56 miles from Jubbulpore city by rail. The station for 
Murwara is Katni junction, so called from the river KatnT on which the 
town stands. Population (190 1), 14,137. The town is rapidly growing 
in importance, and is one of the leading goods stations on the East 
Indian Railway. Murwara was created a municipality in 1874. The 
municipal receipts during the decade ending 1901 averaged Rs. 9,100. 
In 1903-4 the receipts were Rs. 10,000, chiefly derived from a house 
tax and brokers' fees. Sixteen lime factories are situated near Murwara, 
in which the large local deposits of limestone are burned, employing 
some 2,500 labourers. Besides, a number of sandstone quarries and 
a fuller's earth quarry are worked, and mills have been established for 
the manufacture of paint. These, as well as eight small flour-mills, are 
worked by water-power from the Katnl river. The town contains an 
English middle school and a Zanana Mission girls' school, besides 
branch schools and a dispensary. 

Musafirkhana. — North-western /^/w// of Sultanpur District, United 
Provinces, comprising the pa rga?/ as of Jagdispur, Gaura Jamon, Isauli, 
and Musafirkhana, and lying between 26° 13' and 26° 40' N. and 8t° 
32' and 81° 59' E., with an area of 397 square miles. Population 
increased from 251,221 in 1891 to 261,036 in 190T. There are 

VOT,. XVIII. E 



6o MUSAFIRKHANA 

434 villages, but no town. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 
was Rs. 3,51,000, and for cesses Rs. 57,000. The density of popula- 
tion, 658 persons per square mile, is slightly above the District average. 
Part of the northern boundary is formed by the GumtT, which then 
crosses the fa/is'i/, and occasionally causes heavy floods. The banks of 
this river, and of its small tributary the Kandu, are cut up by ravines ; 
but a short distance away the soil becomes more fertile. In 1903-4 
the area under cultivation was 231 square miles, of which 96 were irri- 
gated. Wells are the most important source of supply. 

Musa Khel. — Tahs'il of the Musa Khel-Barkhan subdivision, in 
the north-eastern corner of Loralai District, Baluchistan, situated 
between 30° 17' and 31° 28' N. and 69° 28' and 70° 15' E. Its area 
is 2,213 square miles, and population (1901) 15,537 ; the land revenue 
in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 24,000. The head-quarters station is Musa 
Khel Bazar ; the only other place worth mention is Drug (population, 
586). Fifty-four other villages are shown on the revenue rolls, but they 
seldom contain any permanent houses. Cultivation is in its infancy, 
and cattle-grazing is the chief occupation, the pasture grounds around 
Khajuri affording much fodder. 

Musa Khel-Barkhan. — Subdivision of Loralai District, Baluchistan, 
comprising the two tahs'ih bearing the same names. 

Musi. — River of Hyderabad State, rising in the Anantagiri hills in 
the Patlur tahik of the Atraf-i-balda District. It flows almost due east 
for a distance of 112 miles, when it receives the Aler on the left, near 
Chittur, and thence flows in a south-easterly direction until it falls into 
the Kistna, after a total course of about 150 miles. Several channels 
have been made at different parts of the course of this river, which 
act as feeders for large tanks or supply direct irrigation. The city of 
Hyderabad stands on its right bank. 

Musiri Subdivision. — Subdivision of Trichinopoly District, Madras, 
consisting of the Musiri and Kulittalai taluks. 

Musiri Taluk. — Taluk in Trichinopoly District, Madras, lying be- 
tween 10° 54' and 11^ 23' N. and 78° 10' and 78° 52' E., with an area of 
762 square miles. The population rose from 282,619 in 1891 to 294,383 
in 1901. The taluk contains one town, Turaivur (population, 12,870), 
and 156 villages. The demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 
amounted to Rs. 5,02,000. The taluk is bounded on the south by the 
Cauvery river. The Pachaimalai Hills occupy the northern part, and 
the Kollaimalais, which lie entirely within Salem District, form the 
boundary at the north-west corner. South-west of the Kollaimalais 
is a detached hill, the Talamalai, which is a prominent object in the 
landscape, and commands a fine view. An attempt was once made to 
make it a hot-season residence for the Collectors of Trichinopoly. 
There is another small hill (Tiruvengimalai) about 3 miles to the west 



}r(rssooRrE 6t 

of Musiri, from the top of \vhi(-h a good paiiornma of the ( "aiiwry valley 
can be obtained. 'I'he Turaiyui- zamlnddri lies in this fd/iik. The 
Kattuputtur viHtah in the south-western corner is the only estate of 
this description in the District, and was transferred from Salem in 
185 r. It comprises '^wo^ villages, and pays an annual peshkjsh of 
Rs. 15,900. It was created by Government in 1802 and given to 
Sarvottama Rao, then head sheristaddr of Salem. 

Mussoorie (^^ans^trl).— \\'^\ station and sanitarium in Dehra Dun 
District, United Provinces, situated in 30° 37' N. and 78° 5' E. It 
stands on a ridge of the Outer Himalayas at a height of 6,000 to 7,500 
feet above sea-level, among beautiful and varied mountain scenery, and 
forms practically one town with Landour, where there is a convalescent 
depot for troops. The population of the municipality and cantonment 
in the cold season has varied from 2,753 i" 1872 to 4,852 in i88r, 
7,175 in 1891, and 6,461 in 1901. In September, 1900, the population 
within municipal limits was 14,689, of whom 7,420 were Hindus, 3,424 
Musalmans, and 3,660 Christians (mostly Europeans and Eurasians). 
The cantonment population was 3,711, of whom 1,516 were Christians. 

Mussoorie became a sanitarium in 1826, the year before Landour 
was made a convalescent depot for troops, and has gradually become 
one of the most popular health resorts in Northern India. Up to 1900 it 
was reached by road from Saharanpur, 58 miles away, but the opening 
of the Hardwar-Dehra Railway has made it more accessible. Dehra is 
about 7 miles from Rajpur, at the foot of the hills, from which Mus- 
soorie is reached by a bridle-path 7 miles long or by a cart-road of 
14 miles. During the hot season the members of the District staff 
reside for part of each month at Mussoorie, and it is the summer head- 
quarters of field parties of the Trigonometrical Survey of India. The 
Mussoorie municipality was constituted in 1850. During the ten years 
ending 1901 the receipts averaged Rs. 71,800, besides loans from 
Government, amounting to Rs. r, 16,000, for water-works and sewerage. 
In 1903-4 the receipts were i-6 lakhs, including tax on houses and 
land (Rs. 32,000), tolls (Rs. 50,000), conservancy tax (Rs. 19,000) ; 
and the expenditure was 1-4 lakhs, including conservancy (Rs. 28,000), 
water-supply (Rs, 13,000), general administration (Rs. 22,000), roads 
(Rs. 26,000), interest and debt (Rs. 7,000). The Bhilaru sewage 
shoot for the disposal of refuse is the most important sanitary work, 
carried out recently at a cost of Rs. 70,000 ; schemes for an improved 
water-supply and electric lighting are under consideration. 

Mussoorie exists chiefly as a health resort, and the only manufacture 
is that of beer at two breweries, which employed 131 men in 1903 and 
made nearly half a million gallons of beer. It is of great importance as 
an educational centre for European and Eurasian children ; and there 
are nine schools for boys and five for girls of these classes, with about 

E 2 



62 .^rrssooKiE 

600 hoarders and 200 day scholars, hosides a school at Landour. 
A Roman Catholic cathedral is under construction. 

Mustafabad.— North-western fa/isi/ of Mainpuri District, United 
Provinces, conterminous with the pargana of the same name, lying 
between 27° 8' and 27° 31' N. and 78° 27' and 78° 46' E., with an 
area of 318 square miles. Population increased from 155,253 in 1891 
to 163,180 in 1 90 1. There are 265 villages and only one town, which 
contains less than 5,000 inhabitants. The tahstl head-quarters were 
formerly at Mustafabad, but were moved to Jasrana in 1898. The 
demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,90,000, and for cesses 
Rs. 46,000. The density of population, 513 persons per square mile, 
is slightly above the District average. Three rivers — the Arind, Sengar, 
and Sirsa — cross the fahsJl, the Sengar having two branches known as 
Sengar and Senhar. A sandy ridge runs transversely from north-west 
to south-east, but most of the soil is a fertile loam. In the south- 
western half the wells are often brackish, and the weed haisurl {Pluchea 
lanceolatd) is common. Irrigation is supplied by three branches of the 
Lower Ganges Canal. In 1902-3 the area under cultivation was 
181 square miles, of which loi were irrigated. Canals serve about 
one-fifth of the irrigated area, and wells supply most of the remainder. 

Mutha Canals. — Two canals on the right and left bank of the 
Mutha river, in Poena District, Bombay, with a total length of 88 miles, 
commanding 26 square miles in the Haveli taluka and the Dhond 
petha of Poona District. The canals, which were constructed between 
1873 and 1878— the Right Bank Canal in 1873-4 and the Left Bank 
in 1877-8 — are fed by Lake Fife. The capital outlay on the canals 
was originally 26i lakhs ; but the canals and the reservoir of Lake 
Fife have involved a total expenditure, up to 1904, of 71 lakhs. 
The maximum hitherto irrigated has been 22 square miles. One 
of the main objects of the Mutha Canals is the supply of drinking- 
water to Poona and Kirkee. ^^'ater rates are charged according to the 
nature of the crops. The gross assessment on crops, and the revenue 
expenditure on the canals, have been, in thousands of rupees :— 

1880-90 (average) . 
1890-1900 (average) 
1903-4 



Assessment. 


Expenditure. 


1,62 


69 


2,54 


82 


2,92 


1,00 



The percentage of net profits on these works varies from 2^ to a little 
over 3 per cent. 

Muttra District {MatJnira). — North-western District of the Agra 
Division, United Provinces, lying between 27° 14' and 27° 58' N. and 
77'^ 17' and 78° 13' E., with an area of 1,445 square miles. It is 
bounded on the north by the Punjab District of Gurgaon and by 
Aligarh ; on the east by Aligarh and Etah ; on the south by Agra ; and 



MUTTRA DISTRICT 63 

on the west by ihc liluuuLpur Stale. Multra lies (jn both sides of 

the Jumna, whieh is fringed with ravines. In the centre of the western 

border the outlying spurs of the Aravallis penetrate 

the District, but do not rise more than 200 feet above y^\z^ 

aspects. 
the plain. Muttra is remarkable for the absence 

of rivers. Besides the Jumna there are no channels, except the Karon 

or Karwan which flows across the east of the District, and the Patwai 

or Patwaha which joins the Jumna in the Mat tahsil. The Jumna has 

left a chain of swamps, representing an older channel, east of its present 

bed. One of these is called Nohjhil, a shallow marsh, which before it 

was drained sometimes attained a length of 6 miles in the rains. There 

is a curious depression in the west of the District, which extends from 

the Bharatpur and Alwar States, but there is no flow of water. 

The greater part of the District is the ordinary alluvium of the 
CJangetic plain, but the western hills are chiefly composed of quartzite. 
Kankar or nodular limestone is common, especially in the Jumna 
ravines. While the water in many wells is brackish, saline efflorescences 
are less common than elsewhere in the Doab. 

The flora of the western half of the District resembles that of Raj- 
putana. Early in the nineteenth century Bishop Heber was struck by 
the wildness of the country. There are still large stretches of waste 
land, especially in the Chhata tahsti, covered with jungle in which the 
ber {Zizyphiis Jujiiba) is the largest tree. Along the canal the babul 
{Aaia'a arabicd) has been largely planted, and the ////// {Melia Aza- 
dirachta) is fairly common, but (Jther trees are scarce '. The total area 
of grove land is less than 9 square miles. 

Leopards, wolves, hyenas, and nilgai are found chiefly in the hilly 
tracts near the Bharatpur border ; and wild cattle from Bharatpur 
State formerly did much damage, but are now kept out by a continuous 
fence and ditch. Wild hog are plentiful in the Juauia ravines and 
khadar, and Muttra is celebrated for ' pig-sticking.' Antelope are very 
common, and the chiitkdra or 'ravine deer' is also found. In the cold 
season sni[je and duck abound in the swamps and small tanks. Fish 
are found in the Jumna and in many tanks, but are not much used 
for food. 

The climate is very dry and hot, owing to the proximity of sandy 
deserts to the west. Great extremes of temperature occur. In January 
the mean temperature falls to 60°, while in June it rises to over 93°. 
In winter ice is not uncommonly formed in shallow puddles in the 
early morning, while in April, May, and June hot winds blow with 
great force. 

The annual rainfall during the last seventeen years has averaged 
26 inches, which is evenly distributed, tluHigh the Jumna valley receives 
' A list of tiees is ijivcn in Mr. !•'. S. Growsc's Mathiird ij\ 421,. 



64 MUTTRA DISTRICT 

slightly mure than the poitions of the District on either side. Varia- 
tions from year to year are large ; the fall has been less than. i6 inches, 
and has reached nearly 36. 

Muttra was the capital of the ancient kingdom of .Sukasena, and its 
importance as a religious centre is referred to by Ptolemy, who calls it 
' Modoura of the gods.' Arrian and Pliny describe 
it as Methora. 'J'he earliest facts relating to its 
history are derived from the coins found here, which indicate that 
Muttra was ruled by a series of Hindu Rajas in the second and first 
centuries B.C., followed by Saka Satraps, who gradually assume Hindu 
names. In the first and second centuries a.d., the inscriptions, found 
in considerable numbers, prove that the sway of the great Kushan 
kings was recognized here, and Muttra was a stronghold of the 
Jains. In the sixth century Hiuen Tsiang found a large city, containing 
20 monasteries with 2,000 priests. Muttra was probably one of the 
places sacked by Mahmud of Ghazni in 10 18-9, but the District plays 
little part in the early Muhanmiadan period, when it was largely held 
by Mewatis. While its political history is slight, Muttra is important in 
the religious history of modern Hinduism. The reformed Vaishnava 
creeds had their origin in Southern and Eastern India ; but in the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries several new sects were founded here, 
which still influence Hindu thought. The western side of the District 
is celebrated as the Braj Mandal or country of Krishna, and almost 
every grove, mound, and tank is associated with some episode in his 
life. Throughout the year, and especially in the rains, bands of pilgrims 
from all parts of India may be seen reverently visiting the holy shrines. 
The increased religious zeal of the Hindus attracted the notice of Shah 
Jahan and Aurangzeb, who took measures to repress it. 

As the Mughal empire fell to pieces, the history of the District 
merges in that of the Jats of Bharatpur, and only acquires a separate 
individuality with the rise of Suraj Mai. In 1 7 1 2 Badan Singh, father 
of the famous adventurer, proclaimed himself leader of the Jats, and 
took up his residence at Sahar, where he built a handsome palace. In 
his old age he distributed his possessions among his sons, giving the 
south-western portion of Bharatpur to his youngest, Pratap Singh, and 
the remainder of his dominions, including Muttra, to his eldest, Suraj 
Mai. On Badan Singh's death, Suraj Mai moved to Bharatpur and 
assumed the title of Raja. In 1748 the Mughal emperor, -Ahmad Shah, 
invited the Jat leader to join with Holkar under the command of 
Nawab Safdar Jang in suppressing the Rohilla rebellion. When Safdar 
Jang revolted {see Oudh), Suraj Mai and his Jats threw in their lot with 
him, while Ghazi-ud-dln, the Wazir, obtained the help of the Marathas. 
Safdar Jang retreated tc; Oudh, whereupon Ohazi-ud-din laid siege to 
Bharatpur, but, mistrusting his Maratha allies, shortly returned lo Delhi, 



niSTORY r.5 

deposed Ahmad Shah, and raised Alanigir 11 lo the ihionc. When 
Ahmad Shah Durrani invaded India in 1757, Sardar Jahan Khan 
endeavoured to levy tribute from Muttra ; but finding that the people 
withdrew into their forts, he fell back upon the city, plundered its 
wealth, and massacred the inhabitants. Two years later the new 
emperor was murdered, and the Afghan invader once more advanced 
upon Delhi. Ghazl-ud-din fled to Muttra and Bharatpur, and joined 
the Hindu confederacy of Marathas and Jills which shattered itself in 
vain against the forces of Ahmad Shah at I'anlpat in January, 176). 
Siiraj Mai, however, withdrew his forces before the decisive battle, 
marched on Agra, ejected the Marathas, and made himself master also 
of Muttra. 

Ahmad Shah having returned to Afghanistan, Suraj Mai thought it 
a favourable opportunity to attack the Rohilla chief, Najib-ud-daula. 
Marching to Shahdara, 6 miles from Delhi, he was, however, surprised, 
captured, and put to death in 1763 by a small party of the imperialists. 
Two of his sons, who succeeded to his command, were successively 
murdered, and the third, Nawal Singh, aflar losing Agra during Zabita 
Khan's rebellion, died in 1776. The fourth son, Ranjit Singh (not 
to be confounded with the more famous Sikh Maharaja), inherited 
Bharatpur with only an insignificant strip of territor)'. 

During the contest between Sindhia and the Rajput princes in 1788, 
the former obtained the aid of the Jats in raising the siege of Agra, 
then held by Sindhia's forces, and besieged by Ghulam Kadir. In 
1803 Ranjit Singh of Bharatpur joined Lord Lake in his campaign 
against Sindhia, with a force of 5,000 Jat horsemen ; and upon tlie 
defeat of the Marathas he received as a reward the south-western 
portion of Muttra, with Kishangarh and Rewari. But in the following 
year he gave shelter to Holkar, when a fugitive after the battle of Dig. 
This led to the first siege of Bharatpur by Lord Lake, and, although 
his capital was not taken, Ranjit Singh lost the territory granted to 
him in 1803. 

Thenceforward Muttra remained free from historical incidents till 
the Mutiny of 1857. News of the Meerut outbreak reached Muttra 
on May 14 in that year. Two days later, some Bharatpur troops 
arrived, and marched for Delhi under British officers. The force 
halted at Hodal on the 26th ; and on the 30th the sepoys sent to escort 
the treasure from Muttra to Agra proved mutinous, so that the officials 
were compelled to fly and join the troops at Hodal. Shortly afterwards 
the Bharatpur force likewise mutinied, and the Luropeans fled for their 
lives. The Magistrate returned to Muttra, and after vainly visiting 
Agra in search of aid, remained with the friendly Seths (native bankers) 
till June 14. After the mutiny of the Gwalior Contingent at Aligarli 
on July 2, the Nmiach insurgents, marching on Muttra, dro\e all ihe 



66 



MUTTRA DISTRICT 



Europeans into Agra. The whole eastern portion of the District then 
rose in rebelHon, till October 5, when the Magistrate made an expedi- 
tion from Agra, and captured the rebel leader, Deokaran. Colonel 
Cotton's column shortly afterwards proceeded through the District to 
KosI, punishing the insurgent villages ; and after its return to Agra 
through Muttra no further disturbances took place. In the nine- 
teenth century the religious teaching of Muttra affected Dayanand, 
founder of the Arya Samaj, who studied here for a time. 

The city of Muttra and its neighbourhood are rich in archaeological 
remains, and the exi)loration of the \a\\\ sfTipa in the Kankali tlla or 
mound has yielded valuable dated inscriptions of the Kushan kings \ 
The finest Hindu temples at Muttra were demolished or converted 
into mosques by the Muhammadans, but some have survived at 
Brindaban and Mah.\1!An. There are also fine specimens of the Jat 
architecture of the eighteenth century at Gobaruhan. 

Muttra contains 14 towns and 837 villages. Population has hardly yet 
recovered from the effects of the famine of 1877-8. 
opu a 1 . rj,j^^ number at the four enumerations was: (1872) 
782,460, (1881) 671,690, (1891) 713,421, and (1901) 763,099- 
The District is divided into five tahslh — Muttra, Chhata, Mat, 
Mahaban, and Sadabad — the head-quarters of each being at a place 
of the same name. The principal towns are the municipalities of 
IMuttra, Brindaban, and KosI. 

The following table gives the chief statistics of population in lyoi : — 





Area in square 
miles. 


Number of 


1 

c. 


U 


Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1901. 





Tahs'il. 


c 


H 

6 

2 

4 
2 




E C B tf 

3 (L 

Z 2; '- 


MuUra 
Chhala 
Mat . 
Mahabau . 
Sadabad 


3y6 

-106 
223 
240 

iSo 


218 
158 
142 
192 
127 


246,521 
173,7.-6 

97-370 
136,566 
108,886 


623 
428 

437 
569 
605 


+ 5-0 

+ 13.2 

+ 8-9 

, + 2.3 

+ 6.6 


17,100, 
5,463 ! 
2,683 

4,934 

2,Si8 


District total 


1,445 


14 


837 


763,099 


528 


-(- 7-0 


32,998 



Of the total, 89 per cent, are Hindus and 10 per cent. Musalmans. 
The density of population is higher than the Provincial average, but 
lower than in the other Doab Districts. Between 1891 and 1901 the 
rate of increase was higher than in the Provinces as a whole. About 
99 per cent, of the people speak Western Hindi, the prevailing dialect 
being Braj. 

'I'he most numerous Hindu caste is that of Chamars (leather-workers 
and labourers), 120,000. Brahmans number 115,000; Jats, 102,000; 

' Epi^yapliia Iiidica, vols. 1 and ii ; V. A. Smith, The Jain Sliipa at I\Iatkuru. 



AGRICULTURE 



67 



and RajpuU, 07,000. I'lic number.s then dccrea.sc, and ihc largest 
castes arc: Koris (weavers), 17,000; Gadarias (shepherds), 16,000; 
and Clujars, 14,000. The Jats, Gujars, and Ahcrias (14,000) belong 
to the western Districts : and the Ahivasis, who claim to be Brahnians 
and number 1,400, are hardly found outside this District. Among 
Muhammadans, Shaikhs number 13,000; Rajputs, 9,000 ; and Pathans, 
7,000. The agricultural population forms 53 ])er cent, of the total, 
while general labourers form 10 per cent., and those sup[)()rted by 
personal services 8 per cent. 

'Inhere were 2,031 nati\e Christians in lyoi. The earliest mission 
was that of the Baptists, who commenced work early in the nineteenth 
century. It was followed in i860 by the Church Missionary Societ}', 
and in 1887 by the American Methodist Church. The last of these 
has been most successful, and 1,887 of the native Christians in 1901 
were Methodists. 

A considerable difference is to be noted between the tracts east and 
west of the Jumna. The latter is less fertile, and irrigation was 
difficult before the construction of the Agra Canal, as 
the subsoil water is often brackish. Hamlets, apart 
from the main village site, are almost unknown ; and this cust(;m, 
which had its origin in the troubled times when the cultivator ploughed 
with sword and shield lying in a corner of his field, affects culti\ation, 
as manure is applied only to the home land near the village. On 
the other hand, Jats, who are the best cultivators, are chiefly found 
west of the Jumna, and the eastern tahslls are plagued by a weed 
called baisun {^Pluchca laitcco/ata). Besides tlie barren land bordering 
on the Jumna ravine, there is a strip of sandy soil along the foot ot 
the hills on the western border. 

The tenures are those commonly found in the Provinces. In 1883, 
out of 1,375 iiiahals 478 were zaini/tddri, 492 patilddri and imperfect 
pattiddri, and 505 bhaiydcJuira. West of the Junma some villages 
belong to lalukddri estates, chiefly to Mlks.v.n. The main agricultural 
statistics for 1903-4 are given below, in square miles : 



Agriculture. 



Tahsil. 


Total. 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Muttra . 
Chhata . 
Mat 

Mahabaii 
Sadabad . 

Total 


396 
406 

223 
240 
180 


297 

329 

170 

195 
154 


'I7 

''3 

53 

47 

59 


53 
44 
30 
20 
8 


1,44.') 


1,145 


389 


155 



The chief fojd-crops arey'c^^'rtr and barley, which occupied 268 and 
205 square miles respectively, or 2-^ and 18 per cent, of the net area 



68 MUTTRA DISTRICT 

cropped. Gram (193), wheat (153), and bajra (93) are also important, 
while cotton covered an area of 131 square miles. The small area 
under specially valuable crops^sugar-cane, tobacco, and vegetables — 
is striking. 

There have been no improvements of recent years either in methods 
or in the introduction of new seed. The principal change has been 
the substitution of wheat for cotton, largely owing to the extension of 
canals. A small but steady demand exists for loans under the Land 
Improvement and Agriculturists' Loans Acts, which amounted to 
Rs. 96,000 and Rs. 1,16,000 during the ten years ending 1900 ; but 
advances in the famine year 1896-7 account for Rs. 48,000 and 
Rs. 39,000 respectively. In 1903-4 the loans were only Rs. 1,500 and 
Rs. 1,065. With the extension of canal-irrigation, drainage has also 
been improved, especially in the Chhata tahsil^ and the Patwai or 
Patwaha in Mat has been deepened. I'rivate enterprise has drained 
the lake known as Nohjhil, while a few miles south of Muttra a dam 
has been built by the zaminddrs near Koela to keep out the Jumna. 

The Jumna ravines and the khddar provide ample grazing ground, 
but there is no indigenous breed of cattle. Kosi is a great cattle mart, 
at which animals are sold which have been imported from the Punjab 
or Bharatpur State. Horse- and mule-breeding are becoming popular, 
and three horse and two donkey stallions have been provided by 
Government. The sheep are of the ordinary type. 

In 1903-4 the area irrigated was 389 scjuare miles, out of a cultivated 
area of 1,145 square miles. Canals supplied 201 square miles, and 
wells 188. The western division of the District is amply served by the 
Agra Canal and its distributaries. Up to 1903 the eastern portion had 
no canal-irrigation except in a few villages of the Mat tahsll; but the 
Mat branch of the Upper (ianges Canal now supplies every part, 
irrigating 25,000 acres in the spring of 1904 and more than 20,000 in 
the autumn. Tanks and rivers are not used at all for irrigation, and 
the use of the former is forbidden by the religious sanctity attaching 
to most of them. 

Sandstone is obtainable from the low hills in the Chhata tahsll, but 
most of the stone used in the District is brought from Agra or Bharat- 
jHir. The Giri Raj, which is of sandstone, is considered so holy that 
to quarry it would be sacrilege. Kcvikar or nodular limestone is found 
in all parts, and occurs in block form in the Sadabad tahsll. 

The manufactures of the District are not very important. Calico 

printing is carried on at Brindaban, and old flannel is skilfully repaired. 

The masons and stone-carvers of Muttra are justly 

communications ^"^l^^brated, and many houses and temples are adorned 

with the graceful reticulated patterns which they 

produce. A special paper used for native account-books is made here, 



FAMINE 6g 

and the Di^liict is noted for the iiuainl silver models of animals 
produced at Gokul. In 1903 there were 10 cotton-gins and presses, 
employing about 970 hands. A few small indigo factories are still 
worked, but the industry is not thriving. 

Grain and cotton are the chief exports, and the imports include 
sugar, metals, oilseeds, and piece-goods, most of the trade being with 
Hathras. Muttra city is an important depot for through traffic. Thus 
cotton and oilseeds from Bharatpur State pass through here to Hathras, 
while sugar, salt, and metals are returned. Kosi, in the north of the 
District, is a great cattle market, where the peasants of the Upper Doab 
purchase the plough-animals brought from Rajputana or the Punjab. 

The East Indian Railway runs for 7 miles across the east of the 
District, with one station. The narnnv -gauge Cawnpore-Achhnera line 
enters the District at the centre (jf the eastern boundary, crosses 
the Jumna, and then turns south. It provides communication with 
Hathras on the east and Agra on the south, and from Muttra city 
a short branch serves the pilgrim traffic to Brindaban. An extension 
of the Midland section of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway from 
Agra to Delhi, passing through Muttra, was opened in 1905. 

The District is well supplied with roads. Out of 500 miles, 1 7 1 are 
metalled and 329 unmetalled. Excluding 57 miles of metalled roads, 
all of these are maintained at the cost of Local funds. Avenues of 
trees are kept up on 31 miles. The main route is that from Agra to 
Delhi, a famous road under native rule, which traverses the western 
half of the District from south to north. Other roads pass from 
Muttra west to Dig and Bharatpur, east through Hathras to the 
Ganges, and south-east to Jalesar and Elah. The v\gra Canal was 
used for navigation, but has been closed for this purpose since 1904. 

Though precise records do not exist, famine must have been frequent 

before British rule began, and the awful disaster of 17CS3-4 was 

especiallv severe in this tract. In 181^ the north of ^ 
1 IX ' • r T TV, Famine, 

the District was a centre of great distress. Many 

persons perished of hunger, or sold their wives and children for a few 

rupees or a single meal. In 1825-6 a terrible drought affecting the 

neighbouring country was especially felt in the Mahaban tahstl. In 

1837-8 there was scarcity in all parts of the District, but it was not 

so severe as in the Central Doab; and in 1860-1 and 1868-9 Muttra 

again suffered less than other Districts, though distress was felt. The 

famine of 1877-8 struck this tract more heavily than any other District 

in the Division, and mortality rose to 71-56 per 1,000. The monsoon 

fall in 1877 was only 4-3 inches, and the deficiency chiefly affected the 

main food-crops which are raised on unirrigated land. As usual, 

distress was aggravated by an influx of starving people from Rajputana. 

In 1896-7 famine was again felt, especially in the Mahaban and 



70 MUTTRA DISTRICT 

Sadabad tahsils, which had no canal-inigatiun. la June, 1897, the 

number on reUef works amounted to 23,000. About Rs. 86,000 was 

advanced for the construction of temporary wells, chiefly east of the 

Jumna, and i-8 lakhs of revenue was remitted or suspended. There 

was scarcity in 1899- 1900, and advances were freely made, but relief 

works were not found necessary. The canal extensions of 1903 have 

probably secured the District against serious famine in the future. 

The ordinary staff of the District includes a member of the Indian 

Civil Service and three Deputy-Collectors recruited in India. A tahsil- 

. , . . . ddr resides at the head-quarters of each of the five 

Administration. ^ , _, „, ,, . ,^ . c ^ ,^ ^ 

tansils. 1 wo li^xecutive Lnguieers 01 the Canal 

department are stationed at Muttra city. 

Muttra is included in the Civil and Sessions Judgeship of Agra. 
There are two Munsifs, one at Muttra and one at Mahaban. Owing 
to its situation near a Native State, serious dacoities are not infrequent, 
and cattle-theft is common. Jats, and in some places Gujars, are the 
chief cattle-lifters ; and languri is regularly practised, a system by 
Avhich the owner recovers his stolen property on payment of a certain 
proportion of its value. The Mallahs (boatmen and fishermen) of 
the north of the District are noted pickpockets and railway-thieves, 
frequenting all the large fairs of the United Provinces, and even visiting 
Bengal. 

Most of the District came under British administration at the end 
of 1803, and was then distributed between the surrounding Districts 
of Farrukhabad, Etawah, and Agra. In 1804 the pargaiias included 
in Farrukhabad and Etawah were made over to Aligarh ; but in 1823 
the nucleus of the eastern part of the District was formed with head- 
quarters at Sadabad, and in 1832 Muttra, which had always been 
a cantonment, became the civil capital. Tliere are still enclaves 
belonging to Bharatpur State, the Raja of which held part of the 
present District up to 1826. The early settlements were made under 
the ordinary rules for short periods of one, three, or five years, and 
were based on estimates. In the western part of the District the 
farming and talukddri system was maintained for some time as in 
Aligarh, and was even extended, as talukddri rights were sometimes 
granted in lieu of farms. In the eastern portion farmers and talukddrs 
were set aside from the first. The first regular settlement under 
Regulation VII of 1822 was made on different principles. West of the 
river an attempt was made to ascertain the rental 'assets,' while in 
the east the value of the crops was estimated. The former settlement 
was not completed when Regulation IX of 1833 was passed, and the 
latter broke down from the excessive demand imposed. The revenue 
of the whole District (excluding 84 villages transferred from Agra 
in 1878J was therefore revised under Regulation IX of 1833, and 



.m.]//.v/srA'.ir/ox 



an iissessnicnt of i^^-() kikhs fixed. I'lic iu*\i seltUmcnl was made 
lietween 1872 and 1S79. 'I'he method adopted was to assess on what 
were considered fair rents, arrived at by selection from actual rents 
paid. These were applied to the different classes of soil into which 
each village was divided. The revenue sanctioned amounted to 
15-3 lakhs, to which must be added i lakh, the revenue of villages 
transferred from Agra in 1878. The incidence of revenue fell at 
Rs. 1-13 per acre, varying from Rs. 1-4 to Rs. 2-14. The bad 
years following the famine of 1877-8 and the fever of 1879 led to 
a decline in cultivation ; and revisions of settlement were made 
between 1887 and 1891, which reduced the demand by a lakh. The 
settlement has now been extended for a further period of ten years. 
Collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all 
sources are shown below, in thousands of rupees : — 





1880-1. 


1890-1. 


1900-1. 


i9"3-4- 


Land revenue . . . 15:95 
Total revenue . . . 1 19,73 


15,08 
20,72 


15,41 14,90 
21,66 21,22 



Outside the three municipalities — Muttra, Brindaban, and Kosi-^ 
and eleven towns administered under Act XX of 1856, local affairs are 
managed by the District board, which has a total income and expendi- 
ture of about 1-3 lakhs, chiefly derived from rates. About half the 
expenditure is incurred on the maintenance of roads and buildings. 

There are 24 police stations, and the District Superintendent of 
police is assisted by 4 inspectors. In 1904 the force consisted of 91 
subordinate officers and 392 constables, besides 320 municipal and 
town police, and 1,640 rural and road police. The District jail has 
accommodation for 318 prisoners. 

Muttra takes a fairly high place in the Provinces in regard to literacy, 
4-3 per cent, of the population (7-8 males and 0-3 females) being able 
to read and write in 1901. This is largely owing to its importance 
as a religious centre. The number of public schools fell from 165 in 
i88o-r to 132 in 1900-1, but the number of pupils increased from 
5,505 to 6,511. In T 903-4 there were 197 public schools with 8,981 
pupils, including 478 girls, besides 82 private institutions with 1,781 
pupils. All of these schools were primary, except nine of the public 
and two of the private schools. The expenditure on education in 
1903-4 was Rs. 43,000, of which Rs. 31,000 was provided from Local 
and municipal funds and Rs. 8,300 by fees. Most of the schools are 
managed by the District and municipal boards. 

There are eight hospitals and dispensaries, which contain accommo- 
dation for 77 in-patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 
58,000, of whom 995 were in-patients, and 3,600 operations were 



72 }rUTTRA DISTRICT 

performed. The total expenditure was Rs. 16,000, chiefly from Local 
funds. 

In 1903-4 the number of persons vaccinated was 24,000, representing 
31 per 1,000 of population. Vaccination is compulsory only in the 
municipalities and the cantonment. 

I R. S. Whiteway, Settlement Report (1879): F. S. Growse, Mathurd 
(Allahabad, 1883); District Gazetteer (1884, under revision); V. A. 
Smith, The Jain Stupa at Mathurd7\ 

Muttra Tahsil. — South-western tahsil of Muttra District, United 
Provinces, conterminous with the pargana of Muttra, lying between 
27° 14' and 27° 39' N. and 77' 20' and 77° 51' E., with an area of 
396 square miles. Population rose from 234,914 in 1891 to 246,521 in 
1901. There are 218 villages and six towns, the largest of which are 
Muttra (population, 60,042), the District and tahsil head-quarters, 
Brindaban (22,717), and Gobardhan (6,738). The demand for 
land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,94,000, and for cesses Rs. 55,000. 
The density of population, 623 persons per square mile, is the highest 
in the District. The tahsil extends from the Jumna to the low hills on 
the Bharatpur border, and contains the celebrated hill called Giri Raj. 
To the east the influence of the Jumna extends for three miles inland, 
low alluvial soil, ravines, and sandy dunes being found along its banks. 
From the edge of this broken ground a flat uniform plain stretches to 
the hills, without a single stream. The principal autumn crops are 
Jo7vdr, cotton, and bdj)-a ; the spring crops are gram and wheat. In 
1903-4 the area under cultivation was 297 square miles, of which 117 
were irrigated. The Agra Canal supplies an area twice as large as that 
served by wells. 

Muttra City. — Head-quarters of the District of the same name, 
with cantonments, in the United Provinces, situated in 27° 30' N. and 
77° 41' E., on the right bank of the Jumna, on the main road from 
Agra to Delhi, and on the Cawnpore-Achhnera Railway, 886 miles 
from Calcutta and 914 from Bombay. A new broad-gauge line from 
Agra to Delhi, passing through Muttra, has recently been completed, 
and another towards Bombay is under construction. Population has 
fluctuated in the last thirty years: (1872) 59,281, (1881) 57,724, (1891) 
61,195, and (1901) 60,042. In 1901 Hindus numbered 46,523, and 
Musalmans 12,598. 

The city of Muttra is one of the great centres of Hindu religious 
life, being famous as the birthplace of Krishna, who is now reverenced 
as the eighth incarnation of Vishnu. Its early history has been narrated 
in that of Muttra District. Inscriptions and other relics prove that 
early in the Christian era it was a centre of Buddhism and Jainism, 
and in the seventh century the Chinese pilgrim still found Buddhist 
priests and monasteries, Muhammadan historians chiefly refer to 



MUTTRA CITY 73 

it as a town to he plundered, or as a seat of idolatry with huildings 
to be destroyed. A town called Maharat-ul-Hind, identified as Muttra, 
was sacked by Mahmfid of Ghazni in 1018-9. About 1500 Sultan 
Sikandar Lodi utterly destroyed all the shrines, temples, and images. 
During Akbar's reign religious tolerance led to the building of new 
temples; but in 1636 Shah Jahnn appointed a governor to 'stamp out 
idolatry 'in Muttra. In 1669-70 Aurangzeb visited the city, changed 
its name to Islamabad, and destroyed many temples and shrines, 
building mosques on two of the finest sites. Muttra was again 
plundered by the Afghan cavalry of Ahmad Shah Durrani in 1757, 
when a crowd of defenceless pilgrims were slaughtered. The city fell 
into Eritish hands in 1 803 and was at once occupied as a cantonment, 
but did not become the civil head-quarters hi the District till 1832. 
Archaeological remains of the greatest value have been discovered in 
and near Muttra ^ 

The native city lies along the Jumna, presenting a highly picturesque 
appearance from the railway bridge or the opposite bank. From the 
water's edge rises a continuous line of stone ghats, thronged in the early 
morning by crowds of bathers. Fine stone houses and temples line 
the narrow road which passes along the g/idts ; and above these are 
seen, tier upon tier, the flat-roofed houses of the city, which stand on 
ground rising up from the river bank. At the north end is the old 
ruined fort where was situated one of the observatories erected by Raja 
Man Singh of Jaipur, which has now disappeared. In the centre the 
white minarets of the Jama Masjid, built in 1662, crown the picture. 
The main streets are wider and straighter than is usual in an Indian 
city, and they are paved continuously with stone flags, raised in the 
centre to secure good drainage. The numerous temples for which 
the city is noted are usually quadrangles, the walls and entrances of 
which are adorned with handsome stone carving and reticulated 
screens. The existing buildings are chiefly modern, and new temples 
and dharmsdlas or shelters for pilgrims are still being added by wealthy 
bankers and the rulers of Native States. West of the city stands the 
mosque of Aurangzeb, built about 1669, on the lofty site of the temple 
of Kesava l^eva, which was formerly the finest temple in Muttra and 
was celebrated throughout India. On the ghats towers the Sat! Burj or 
pillar commemorating the satl of a Rani of Jaipur, built about 1570. 
The Hardinge Gate at the principal entrance to the city, which is 
a fine specimen of stone carving, was erected by public subscription in 
memory of a former Collector. South of the city and a little distance 
from the river lie the cantonments and civil station. Muttra is the 
head-quarters of the ordinary District staff and also of an Executive 
Engineer of the Agra Canal. Close to the District offices stands 

' Epigraphia Indua. vols, i and ii ; V. A. Smith, The Jain Stfipa at Maihiird. 



74 .VUTTRA CTTY 

a museum fared with stone, carved in the usual manner, which contains 
a number of sculptures and other objects found in the District. Muttra 
is the chief station of the Baptists, of the Church Missionary Society, 
and of the Methodist Episcopal Mission in the District. 

Muttra was constituted a municipality in 1866. During the ten 
years ending 1901 the income and expenditure averaged Rs. 61,000. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 89,000, chiefly derived from octroi 
(Rs. 64,000); and the expenditure was Rs. 81,000. The sewage of the 
city is collected in tanks and carried by carts to a distance. Solid 
matter is trenched on the grass farm in cantonments. 

While the prosperity of the city chiefly depends on its religious 
attractions, its commercial importance is increasing. Throughout 
the nineteenth century it was the head-quarters of the great banking 
firm of the Seths, Mani Ram and Lakshml Chand, one of the most 
celebrated in India, which has now collapsed. Four cotton-gins and 
presses employed 392 hands in 1903, and there is a considerable export 
of cotton and grain, while sugar, piece-goods, and metals are imported. 
The city is noted for the production of paper for native account-books, 
and also for the manufacture of brass idols and other small articles 
sold to pilgrims. It contains a large number of schools, including 
a high school with 170 pupils, a tahs'ill school with 150, the American 
Methodist school with 140, besides seven schools for boys and eleven 
for girls, aided by the District or municipal boards, and twenty private 
schools ^wdi pathsdl as. 

The population of the cantonments in 1901 was 2,928, and the 
ordinary garrison consists of a regiment of British cavalry. In 1903-4 
the income and expenditure of cantonment funds were both about 
Rs. 7,000. 

Muttupet. — Town in the Tirutturaippiuidi taluk of Tanjore District, 
Madras, situated in 10° 24' N. and 79° 30' E., with a station on the 
District board railway. Population (1901), 9,099. It is about 6| miles 
from the sea, but communicates with it by the navigable river Koraiyar, 
a branch of the Cauvery. Possessing the advantage of a protected ba\' 
where native craft can moor during bad weather, the town carries on an 
active trade with Ceylon all the year round, the chief export being rice. 

Muzaffargarh District. -District in the Multan Division of the 

I^mjab, lying between 28° 56' and 30° 47' N. and 70° 31' and 7i°47'E., 

with an area of 3,635 square miles. It occupies 

Physical ^y^^^ extreme southern apex of the Sind-Sagar Doab, 

aspects. ' 

the wedge-shaped tract between the Indus and the 

Panjnad or united waters of the ' five rivers,' stretching northward from 

their confluence in a narrow wedge of land, which gradually widens for 

about 130 miles, until at its northern border a distance of 55 miles 

intervenes between their channels. Its shape is therefore that of a 



MUZAITARGARH DISTRICT 75 

tolerably regular triangle. The adjoining Districts are Dera (Ihazi 
Khan on the west, Mianwali and J hang on the north, and Multan on 
the east, while on the south-east it is bounded by the State of Bahawal- 
pur. The northern half of the District comprises the valley of the 
Indus on the west and that of the Chenab on the east, the wild Thai 
or central steppe of the Sind-Sagar Doab extending for a considerable 
distance down its midst. This arid plateau, rising like a backbone in 
the centre of the wedge, has a width of 40 miles in the extreme north, 
and terminates abruptly on either side in a high bank, about 20 miles 
from the present bed of the Indus, and 3 miles from that of the Chenab. 
As the rivers converge, the Thai gradually contracts, until about 20 miles 
south-west of Muzaffargarh town it disappears altogether. Though 
apparently an elevated table-land, it is really composed of separate 
sandhills, whose intermediate valleys lie at a level not much higher than 
that of the Indus, and some of them at the extreme west were at one 
time flooded by the bursting of the western barrier ridge or bank. 
Scattered amid this waste of sand-heaps a few plots of good land occur, 
which the ceaseless industry of the cultivators has converted into fields 
of grain. South of the Thai plateau, the space between the rivers con- 
tracts to a width of 20 miles, part of which is subject to inundation 
from either side. The middle tract lies sufficiently high, as a rule, to 
escape excessive flooding, and is further protected by embankments, 
while it remains, on the other hand, within the reach of easy irrigation. 
This portion of the District, accordingly, consists of a rich and pro- 
ductive country, thickly studded with prosperous villages. But in the 
extreme south, the floods from the two rivers spread at times across the 
whole intervening tract. On abating, they leave luxuriant pasturage for 
cattle ; and if their subsidence takes place sufficiently early, magnificent 
crops of wheat, pulse, and gram are raised in the cultivated portion. 
The towns stand on higher sites or are protected by embankments ; 
but the villages scattered over the lowlands are exposed to annual 
inundation, during which the people abandon their grass-built huts, and 
take refuge on wooden platforms attached to every house, where they 
remain till the floods subside. The Indus, which forms the western 
boundary of the District, at one time flowed down the centre of the 
Thai desert. In the middle of the District are numerous villages, 
now far away from the Indus, whose names denote that at one time 
they stood on or near the river bank ; and the inland portion is full 
of watercourses which were once beds of the Indus. The Chenab 
forms the eastern boundary for a length of 127 miles. 

The District contains nothing of geological interest, as it lies entirely 
on the alluvium. The flora is that of the Western Punjab, w'ith an 
infusion of the desert and trans-Indus elements. Popuhis euphratica 
occurs by the river. The date-palm and mango are cultivated. The 

VOL. XVIII. F 



76 MUZAFFARGARH DISTRICT 

tali [Dali'crgia Sissoo) is abundant near the Indus, and in most parts 
the van {Saivadoni) and the farwani {Taniarix articu/a/a) are 
l^lentiful ; but otherwise trees exist only where planted. 

Tigers were seen in the dense jungles near the Indus as late as 1S79. 
A\'olves and wild hog are common. The hog deer and ' ravine deer ' 
(Indian gazelle) are found ; and feathered game, including geese, ducks 
of all sorts, florican, sand-grouse, and partridges, is plentiful. 

The chief feature of the climate is its extreme dryness. The heat 
from May to September is intense, but a cool wind springs up regularly 
about II p.m., which makes the nights endurable. From November to 
February severe frosts occur, causing great injury to cotton, mangoes, 
and turnips. The District is healthy for Europeans, but the natives 
suffer from malarial fever in the autumn, and from diseases of the eyes 
and skin in the hot season. The rainfall is very scanty, averaging 
slightly less than 6 inches in the year. It is in fact impossible to raise 
crops on land dependent solely on the rainfall. 

Muzaffargarh hardly possesses any distinct annals of its own, having 
always formed part of the IMultan province, whose fortunes it has in- 
variably followed. In ancient times this tract was 
probably ruled by the Hindu d}nasty of the Rais, 
to which succeeded the Brahman line of Chach. The Arabs made 
their first appearance in 664, and in 712 it was overrun by Muhammad 
bin Kasim. For the next three centuries the country was in the 
military occupation of the Muhammadans, but it is unlikely that any 
considerable conversion of its inhabitants or settlements of Muham- 
madan invaders took place until the Ghaznivid supremacy. Muzaffar- 
garh probably fell under the influence of the Sumra dynasty which 
arose in Sind about 1053 and of their successors the Sammas, and 
under their rule an immigration of Rajput tribes from Hindustan is 
said to have taken place. During the rule of the Langah dynasty in 
Multan the independent kingdom of Sitpur was established in the south 
of the District; and from that time till the end of the eighteenth 
century it was held by four separate governments or principalities, 
which were, during the Mughal period, included in Akbar's sarkdr of 
Multan. In the southern angle was Sitpur, founded under a grant 
made by Bahlol Lodi in 1450, and first held by the Nahar family, then 
by the niakhdums of Sitpur, and finally, about 1790, annexed by 
Bahawal Khan II, of Bahawalpur. The west central part was governed 
by the rulers of Dera Ghazi Khan. A line of Mirani Balochs, who had 
settled on the left bank of the Indus at the end of the fifteenth century, 
ruled till 1769, when one Mahmud Gujar, with the aid of the Kalhora 
governor of Sind, obtained the governorship of Dera Ghazi Khan. He 
appears to have been a good ruler, and built the fort of Mahmud Kot. 
Shortly after his death l^ahawal Khan II invaded this tract, which had 



POPULATION 11 

been thrown open to him by the shifting of the Indus to the west, and 
by the end of the century the whole of the south was in the possession 
of Bahawalpur. The eastern part was nominally ruled by the governors 
of Multan, and has the same history as that District ; and when the 
Durrani empire superseded that of Delhi in North-Western India, 
Muzaffargarh fell to the new power, with the rest of the province. The 
town of Muzaffargarh was founded in 1794 by the Falhan governor, 
Muzaffar Khan, and Khangarh and Ghazanfargarh by members of his 
family. The north of the District, with the west, was under the Baloch 
governors and xMahmud Gujar, to whom succeeded a family of Jaskani 
Balochs and the Kalhoras of Sind. In 1792 a subordinate of Muzaffar 
Khan was appointed ruler of this part with the title of Nawab of 
Mankera, defeating the Kalhora chief in a battle. 

Ranjit Singh took Multan, Muzaffargarh, and Khangarh in 18 18, 
Dera Ghazi Khan in 18 19, and Mankera in 1821 ; and the northern 
part of the District passed under the rule of the Sikhs, being adminis- 
tered partly from Mankera, and partly from Multan by Diwan Sawan 
Mai. The southern half, however, still remained in the hands of the 
Bahawalpur Nawabs, who accepted a lease of their conquests from the 
Sikh Maharaja ; but when the Nawab failed to remit the annual amount 
in 1830, Ranjit Singh sent General Ventura to take charge of his con- 
quests, and the river Sutlej was accepted as the boundary between the 
Sikh kingdom and the territories of Bahawalpur. The whole of the 
present District was then united under Sawan Mai. He was succeeded 
in 1844 by his son Mulraj, and the Sikh supremacy, remained unshaken 
until the Multan rebellion and the annexation of the Punjab in 1849. 
At the first division of the Province for administrative purposes by the 
British authorities, the town of Khangarh, 1 1 miles south of Muzaffar- 
garh, was selected as the head-quarters of a District, but was abandoned 
in favour of Muzaffargarh. Subsequent transfers of territory to and 
from Leiah and Jhang brought the District into its present shape in 
1861 ; and the name was then changed from Khangarh to Muzaffargarh. 

The principal remains of antiquarian interest are the tombs of Nawab 
Tahir Khan Nahar at Sitpuk, and of Abdul Wahhab Din Panah 
{pb. 1603) at Daira DIn Panah. The former, which dates from the 
fifteenth century, is a fine specimen of the late Pathan style. 

The population at the last three enumerations was: (1881) 338,605, 

(1891) 381,095, and (1901) 405,656, dwelling in 4 towns and 700 

villages. During the last decade the population in- _ , ^. 

, . . rr., 1.- • • J- -J J Population. 

creased by 6-4 per cent. Phe District is divided 

into three tahsils — Muzaffargarh, Alipur, and Sanawan — the head- 
quarters of each being at the place from which it is named. The 
towns are the municipalities of Muzaffargarh, the administrative 
head-quarters of the District, Khangarh, Ai.ifur, and Khaikpur. 

F 2 



78 



MUZAFFARGARH DISTRICT 



The following table shows the chief statistics of population in 
1901 : — 



Tahsil. 


3 

■~ 'c 

V. 
< 


Nuir 

•!: 

C 

is 


H 


ber of 

, 

be 

> 


Population. 


Population per 
T square mile. 


Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and iQoi. 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 


Muzaffargarli 


913 


378 


174.970 


+ 6.2 


6,226 


Sanawan 


1,3^1 




140 


130,091 


75-8 


+ 6.2 


3,343 


Allpur 

District total 


921 


2 

4 


1S2 
700 


13^.595 


141.8 


+ 7.0 


5.-87 


3,635 


405,656 


111-6 


+ 6.4 


14.656 



NOTK. — The figures for the areas of fahsils are taken from revenue returns. The 
total District area is that given in the Census Report. 

Muhammadans number 350,177, or over 86 per cent, of the total; 
Hindus, ^'^,221 ; and Sikhs, 3,225. The density of population is very 
low. The language of the people is a form of ^^'estern Punjabi. 

The most numerous tribe is that of the agricultural Jats, who num- 
ber 117,000, or 29 per cent, of the total population. Next to them 
come the Baloch (77,000). Other important agricultural castes are the 
Rajputs (17,000) and Arains (9,000). Saiyids number 8,000. The 
Aroras (36,000) are the only commercial and money-lending class of 
importance, the Khattris being very few. Of the artisan classes, the 
Mochis (.shoemakers and leather-workers, 13,000), Julahas (weavers, 
12,000), Tarkhans (carpenters, 10,000), and Kumhars (potters, 7,000) 
are the most important ; and of the menial classes, the sweepers, mostly 
known as Kutanas (16,000), and Dhobis, known as Charhoas (washer- 
men, 8,000). The District being surrounded by rivers, the Mallahs 
(boatmen) are numerically strong, numbering 10,000. Other tribes 
worth mention are the Mahtams (4,000), mostly Hindus ; Ods (3,000), 
a wandering caste living by labour in the fields ; Marechas (800), 
a class of wandering beggars from Marwar and Bikaner, found in this 
District in larger numbers than elsewhere ; and Kehals (600), a vagrant 
fishing tribe found only here and in Dera Ghazi Khan. The District 
contained 17 native Christians in 1901. About 58 per cent, of the 
population are supported by agriculture. 

The soil consists chiefly of alluvial loam, more or less mixed with 
sand, and interspersed with patches of clay, sand, and salt-impregnated 
soil. On the whole it is uniformly good, but agri- 
cultural conditions depend, not on distinctions of 
soil, but on facilities for irrigation. The District has practically no 
unirrigated cultivation, and from an agricultural point of view may be 
regarded as falling into three divisions : the alluvial tract, the canal 
tract, and that irrigated by wells. 



Agriculture. 



icRrcur.ruRK 



79 



The land is held almost entirely on the hhaiydchara and zamlndari 
tenures. The area for which details are available from the revenue 
records of 1903-4 is 3,157 square miles, as shown below : — 



TahsU. 


Total. 


Cultivated 


Irrigated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Muzaffargarh 

Sanawan 

AlTpur 

Total 


912 
924 


212 

2S7 


250 
176 
.89 


409 

1,015 

400 


.^.'.^7 


816 


615 


1,824 



Wheat is the chief crop of the spring harvest, covering in 1903 4 365 
square miles ; barley covered 21 square miles, and gram n. Rice and 
spiked millet {bdjra) are the principal food-crops of the autumn harvest, 
covering 51 and 29 square miles respectively; while pulses covered 
39 square miles, indigo 28, cotton 36, and great millet {Jou'dr) 24. 

In the twenty-two years following the settlement of 1873-S0 the 
cultivated area increased by 28 per cent., chiefly owing to the extension 
of canal-irrigation. Nothing has been done to improve the quality of 
the crops grown. The tendency is for the cultivation of indigo and 
cotton to decline, and for rice to take their place. Loans for the con- 
struction of wells are popular, and over Rs. 16,000 was advanced during 
the five years ending 1903-4 under the Land Improvement Loans Act. 

Muzaffargarh is not a cattle-breeding District, the local breed being 
distinctly inferior, and cattle are bought from Dera Ghazi Khan, Sind, 
and Bahawalpur. An annual cattle fair is held at Muzaffargarh. The 
mares of the District are above the average and show traces of the 
Raloch strain ; four pony and five donkey stallions are maintained by 
the District board. A considerable number of sheep and goats are 
kept. About 9,000 camels were registered at the cattle enumeration 
of 1904. 

Of the total area cultivated in 1903-4, 615 square miles, or 75 per 
cent,, were classed as irrigated. Of this area, 84 square miles were 
irrigated from wells, 218 from wells and canals, 276 from canals, and 
37 from channels and tanks. The remaining 25 per cent, of the 
cultivated area is subject to inundation from the Indus and Chenab. 
The canal-irrigation is from the .system known as the Muzaffarg.arh 
IxuNDATiON Canals, taking off from the Indus and (.-henab. As 
these flow only while the rivers are in flood, they are largely supple- 
mented hjy wells, of which 15,719 were in use, all worked with Persian 
wheels by cattle. Irrigation from creeks and tanks is carried on by 
means of water-lift.s, there being 3,066 water-lifts and temporary wells. 

The District contains 73 square miles of ' unclassed ' forest under the 
Deputy-Conservator of the Mullan Forest division, and 403 square 



8o MUZAFFARGARH DISTRICT 

miles of ' unclasscd ' forest and Government waste under the Deputy- 
Commissioner. These forests consist chiefly of a light growth of 
Populus euphratica and jand, with dense jungles of long grass. The 
date-palm is common and supplies a staple food to the people during 
part of the year, besides furnishing a considerable revenue to Govern- 
ment from the tax paid on each tree. There are also large mango 
groves. 

The District produces no minerals of importance ; earth-salt used 
to be manufactured, but this is now prohibited, and the production of 
saltpetre is also extinct. 

Muzaffargarh is not remarkable for its industries. Ordinary cotton 

cloth is woven, and mats and baskets are largely made from the leaves 

of the dwarf-palm. .Sitpur used to be noted for 

... decorated bows, which are now produced at Kot 

communications. ' >■ 

Addu m the Sanawan tahs'il. Snuff is manufactured 
at AlTpur. The District contains two cotton-ginning and rice-husking 
factories, to one of which a cotton-press is attached ; in 1904, 128 
hands were employed. 

The chief exports of the District are wheat, sugar, cotton, indigo, gh'i, 
dates, and mangoes ; and the chief imports are piece-goods, metals, 
salt, and lime. Trade is chiefly in the hands of Multan dealers, who 
export the surplus produce either down the river to Sukkur or by rail 
to Multan. A fair amount of trade used to be carried on by Powinda 
merchants with Afghanistan and Central Asia, but this is now almost 
extinct owing to the prohibitive duties imposed in Afghanistan. 

The North-Western Railway enters the District from Multan by 
a bridge over the Chenab, and turns northwards, running along the 
Indus bank. A branch runs to Ghazi Ghat, between which and Dera 
Ghazi Khan communication is maintained by means of a bridge of 
boats in winter and a steam ferry in summer. The total length of 
metalled roads is 25 miles, and of unmetalled roads 559 miles. Of these, 
17 miles of metalled and 24 miles of unmetalled roads are under the 
Public Works department, and the rest are maintained by the District 
board. There is a good deal of river traffic on the Indus, which is 
crossed by 16 ferries, the Chenab being crossed by 19. 

Owing to the fact that all the cultivation is irrigated, Muzaffargarh 
may be regarded as practicall}' immune from famine. The area of 
crops matured in the District in the famine year 1899-1900 was 84 per 
cent, of the normal. 

The District is in charge of a Deputy-Commissioner, aided by four 

Assistant or Extra-Assistant Commissioners, of whom one is in charge 

of the District treasury. It is divided into three 

Administration. ,.,,, ,- lo-- 

fahsi/s — MtVAFFAROARH, Alipur, and Sanawan — 

each under a falislld.v; assisted by two nnib-tahslldars in each of the 



.l/).]//'.Y/S/Vx'.l7V0.y 8r 

lirst two, and by one in the last named talisll. ^^u/af^a^galh town is 
the hcad-quartors of an I'Accutivo Engineer of the ("anal dcpaitnient. 

The DeputyComniissioner as District Magistrate is responsii)Ie for 
criminal justice ; civil judicial work is under a District Judge : and 
both officers are supervised by the Divisional Judge of the Multan 
("ivil Division, who is also Sessions Judge. There arc three Munsif:;, 
two at head-quarters and one at Alipur. The prcdr)mimnt forms fif 
crime are cattle-theft and burglary. 

Little is known of the revenue system of the various rulers before the 
time of Diwan Sawan Mai. By 1820 the Sikhs held the whole of the 
District, and in 1829 it came under Sawan Mai, who exacted a large 
revenue, but kept the people contented. Tn 1S59 the Sanawan tahsil 
was added to the District, which assumed its present shape in 1.S61. 

The first summary assessment was pitched too high. It had been 
framed by valuing the weight of wheat taken by the Sikhs at Rs. 1-8 
per maund ; but the price soon fell to 10 and 12 annas per maund, 
and large remissions had to be allowed. Tn 1854 the second summary 
settlement began. A reduction of \o\ per cent, was made in Sanawan, 
while in Muzaffargarh and Allpiu' increases were taken of 6 and 21 per 
cent, respectively. Good seasons were believed to justify the increase 
of an assessment which had already proved to be excessive. In less 
than two years it broke down, and a third summary settlement was 
made, reducing the revenue in Sanawan still further, and that of the 
other tahsils to their first assessment. This settlement was badly 
worked, the canals were never cleared t>om 1849 to 1876, and the 
revenue was never redistributed. 

The regular settlement began in 1873 and was completed in 1880. 
Including grazing dues and the assessment on date-palms, the new 
demand was 5I lakhs. Most of the revenue was fixed, but fluctuating 
assessments were sanctioned for the riverain circles. A revised settle- 
ment, undertaken in 1897 and finished in 1903, resulted in an increase 
of about Rs. 1,25,000. Nearly half the assessment is now fluctuating, 
crop rates varying between Rs. 2-4 and 6 annas being imposed on 
matured crops, in addition to a lump sum on each well. The demand 
(including cesses) for 1903-4 amounted to 8-5 lakhs. The average size 
of a proprietary holding is about 7 acres (cultivated). 

The collections of land revenue alone and of total revenue are shown 
below, in thousands of rupees : — 



1880-1. i8go-i. 


1900-1. 


•903-4. 


Land revenue . . 5,86 6,19 
Total revenue . . 7,00 7,68 


.S-90 6,93 
8.42 9-37 



The District contains four municipalities: Muzaffargarh, Khax- 



82 ML^ZJ FFARGARH DIS TRTCT 

r.ARH, Ai.Tpur, and Khairpur. Outside these, local affairs are 
managed by the District board. A local rate supplies the greater 
part of the board's income, which in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 67,000. 
The expenditure in the same year was Rs. 71,000, public works 
forming the principal item. 

The regular police force consists of 397 of all ranks, in charge of 
a Superintendent, who usually has four inspectors under him. Village 
watchmen number 489. There are fourteen police stations, one out- 
post, and four road-posts. The District has no jail, convicted prisoners 
being sent to Multan. 

Muzaffargarh stands eighteenth among the twenty-eight Districts of 
the Province in respect of the literacy of its population. In 1901 
the proportion of literate persons was 3-6 per cent. (6-5 males and 
0'2 females). The number of pupils under instruction was 1,612 in 
1880-1, 3,587 in 1890-1, 4,194 in 1900-1, and 4,106 in 1903-4. In 
the last year there were one special, 3 secondary, and 58 primary 
(public) schools, with 14 advanced and 86 elementary (private) schools, 
the public schools returning 108 girls and the private schools 309. In 
1903-4 the expenditure on education was Rs. 24,000, the greater part 
of which was met by Local funds. 

Besides the civil hospital, the District possesses six outlying dis- 
pensaries. In 1904 a total of 91,878 out-patients and 1,213 in-patients 
were treated, and 3,598 operations were performed. The expenditure 
was Rs. 14,000, mainly derived from Local funds. 

The number of successful vaccinations in 1903-4 was 12,082, repre- 
senting 29-8 per 1,000 of the population. 

[D. C. J. Ibbetson, District Gazetteer {i^'&'^-i^ ; Hari Kishan Kaul, 
Settlement Report (1904); and Ciistomaiy Law of the Afuzaffargarh 
District (1903).] 

Muzaffargarh Tahsil. — Central tahsll of Muzaffargarh District, 
Punjab, lying between 29° 54' and 30° 15' N. and 70° 51'' and 
71° 2\' E., with an area of 912 square miles. Its western boundary 
is the Indus, and its eastern, which is nearly twice as long, the Chenab. 
It includes a long narrow strip of country lying between the Sanawan 
tahsil and the right bank of the Chenab. South of the Sanawan tahsil, 
it extends from the Chenab on the east to the Indus on the west. It 
is for the most part low-lying, though less subject to flooding than the 
other tahslls, and is irrigated in the hot season by inundation canals. 
The population in 1901 was 174,970, compared with 164,782 in 1891. 
It contains the towns of Muzaffarcarh (population, 4,018), the head- 
quarters, and Khangarh (3,621); and 378 villages. The land revenue 
and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 3-9 lakhs. 

Muzaffargarh Town. — Head-quarters of the District and tahsil of 
Muzaffargarh, l^unjab, situated in 30^ 4' N. and 71° 12' E., in the apex 



}fU'/.AFF.\RXA(;AR PI STRICT ^^ 

of the Sincl-Sagar Doab, on ihe nietalleil road from Multan to Dera 
niiazi Khan and on the NortlvWcstern Raihvay. Population (1901), 
4,01 8. Nawab Miizaffar Khan, the Sadozai governor of Miiltan, built 
a fort here in 1794-6, which RanjTt Singh took by storm in 18 18. The 
town also contains a mosque built by Aluzaffar Khan. Tt became the 
head-quarters of the District in i.S5(;, when Khangarh was abandoned. 
The fort of Muzaffar Khan is formed by a circular-shaped "wall 30 feet 
high, enclosing a space with a diameter of 160 yards, while the suburbs, 
which surround it on all sides, nearly conceal it from view. The wall 
has sixteen bastions and battlements all round. The municipality was 
created in 1873. The income and expenditure during the ten years 
ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 10,800 and Rs. 10,700 respectively. The 
income in 1903-4 was Rs. 14,000, chiefly from octroi ; and the expen- 
diture was Rs. 14,300. The town contains an Anglo-vernacular high 
school maintained by Government, a civil hospital, and a cotton-ginning 
and pressing and rice-husking factory, with 103 employes in 1904. 

Muzaffargarh Canals. — An Imperial system of inundation canals 
in the Punjab, taking off from the left bank of the Indus and the right 
bank of the Chenab, and irrigating portions of Muzaffargarh District. 
They were for the most part constructed by the native rulers of the 
District, and improved by Sawah Mai, governor under RanjTt Singh. 
After annexation the canals remained for many years under the manage- 
ment of the Deputy-Commissioner, and were transferred to the Canal 
department as a 'minor ' work in 1880. The system of canal clearance 
by the labour of the cultivators was finally abolished in 1903, when 
occupiers' rates were introduced. The Indus series, Avhich is by far the 
more important of the two, consists of eight canals with an aggregate 
length of 1,138 miles of main, branch, and distributary channels, and 
a total average discharge of 2,570 cubic feet per second. There are 
five canals in the Chenab series, with a total length of 232 miles, and 
a discharge of 740 cubic feet i)er second. The gross area commanded 
by the canals is 1,205 square miles, of which 1,055 ^''^ cultivable and 
547 irrigable, the area irrigated during the five years ending 1903-4 
averaging 457 square miles, of which 366 square miles were watered 
from the Indus. To protect the irrigated country, embankments have 
been constructed, stretching for 119 miles along the Indus and for 
40 miles along the Chenab. No capital account is kept for the system. 
The gross revenue in 1903-4 was 6 lakhs and the net revenue ■^•t^ lakhs. 

Muzaffarnagar District. — District in the Meerut Division of the 
United Provinces, lying between 29° 10' and 29° 45' N. and 77° 2' and 
78° 1' E., with an area of 1,666 square miles. On the north it is 
bounded by Saharanpur District, and on the south by Meerut, while 
the Ganges separates it on the east from Bijnor, and the Jumna on the 
west from the Punjab District of Karnal. Muzaffarnagar consists of 



84 \rUZA FFA RNA GA R DIS TR IC T 

a central clevatrd tract, flanked on cither side by the low lyini; land or 

khddar of the Ganges and Jumna. Tiie Ganges kliadar is a precarious 

tract of moist land with scanty (niltivation, but gene- 
Physical . 
aspects '"'^^^y covered with coarse grass and occasional patches 

of tamarisk. The northern portion, included in the 

Gordhanpur f'argana, is especially liable to flooding from the Sol.^ni 

river, which is increased by percolation from the Upper Ganges Canal. 

Drains and dams have been constructed with but little success, and the 

khcldar is chiefly valuable as a grazing ground. The Jumna khddar is 

less swampy, but is equally poor, and much of it is covered with d/idk 

jungle {Bitfea frondosa). The uplands are divided into four tracts by 

four rivers flowing from north to south. On the east is the large tract 

lying between the old high bank of the Ganges and the West Kai.i 

Nadi, which is watered by the Upper Ganges Canal. This tract is 

generally fertile, but is crossed by a sandy ridge, and suffers from 

excessive moisture near the Kali Nadi. Between this river and the 

HiNDAN lies another fertile tract, which was immensely improved by 

the opening of the Deoband branch of the Ganges Canal in 1880, as 

the spring-level is very low. This area is less sandy than the first, but 

is crossed by one well-defined belt of sand. West of the Hindan, sand 

is comparatively rare ; and the tract between this river and the KarsunI 

or Krishni is uniformly good in the centre, though less fertile in the 

north and south. Between the KarsunI and Katha, which marks the 

beginning of the Jumna tract, lies an area which is flourishing in 

the south, but inferior in the north, w-here population is scarce. This 

tract is watered by the Eastern Jumna Canal. 

The District consists entirely of the Gangetic alluvium, which varies 
from fine sand to stiff clay. 

The botany of the District presents no peculiarities. In the north- 
west corner dhak jungle is abundant. About 16 square miles are 
under groves, the mango, pomegranate, and guava being the favourite 
trees. Shls/iaiii, Jamj/n, and siras are the most common species in 
avenues. Thatching-grass is abundant, but its use is giving way to 
that of tiles. 

Wolves are fairly common, and wild hog swarm in the khadar and 
near the canals. Hog deer are also found near swampy land, and 
leopards are occasionally seen. Tigers, which were formerly common, 
are now very rare. 

The climate is comparatively cool, owing to the proximity of the 
hills, and the mean temperature is about 76°. There can be no 
reasonable doubt that the wide extension of irrigation has had a 
prejudicial effect on the climate, and its stoppage near towns has 
occasionally been necessary in the interest of the public health. 

The rainfall over a long series of years has averaged 2>Z '"(-'bes, 



ffTSTORY 85 

increasing gradually from 30 inrhfs in \\\v west to ahoui 37 inrhns 
in the east. Large variations from the normal arc not verv (^ommon. 

Tradition represents Muzaffarnagar as having formed a portion of the 
Pandava kingdom, which had its capital at Hastina[)iir in the adjoining 
District of Meerut, and at a more historical date as 
being included in the dominions of Prithwi Raj, the 
Chauhan ruler of Delhi. Authentic history first shows us the country 
around Muzaffarnagar at the time of the Musalman conquest in the 
thirteenth century, and it remained a dependency of the various 
dynasties which ruled at Delhi imtil the final dissolution of the Mughal 
empire. The earliest colonists probably consisted of Aryan settlers, 
Brahman and Rajput. They were succeeded by the Jats, who occupied 
the whole southern portion of the District, where their descendants 
still form the chief landowning class. At a later date, the Gujars took 
possession of the poorer tracts which the Jats had left unoccupied, 
and they, too. are still to be found as zanilnddrs. Finally, with the 
Muhammadan irruptions, bodies of Shaikhs, Saiyids, and Pathans 
entered Muzaffarnagar, and parcelled out among themselves the re- 
mainder of the territory. 

Timilr paid one of his sanguinary visits to the District in 1399, when 
all the infidel inhabitants whom he could capture were mercilessly put 
to the sword. Under Akbar, Muzaffarnagar was included in the snrkar 
of Saharanpur. During the seventeenth century, the Saiyid family of 
Barha rose to great eminence, and filled many important offices about 
the court. Their ancestors are said to have settled in Muzaffarnagar 
about the year 1350, and to have enjoyed the patronage of the Saiyid 
dynasty which ruled at Delhi in the succeeding century. Tn 1414 
Sultan Khizr Khan conferred the control of Saharanpur on Saiyid 
Sallm, the chief of their fraternity ; and from that time forward they 
rose rapidly to territorial power and court influence. Under Akbar 
and his successors, various branches of the Rarha stock became the 
leading landowners in the province. They were celebrated as daring 
military leaders, being employed by the emperors on all services of 
danger, from the Indus to the Narbada. Tt was mainly through their 
aid that the victory near Agra was won in 1707, by which Bahadur 
Shah T made good his claim to the imperial title. The part which 
they bore in the revolution of i 7 1 2, when Farrukh Siyar was elevated 
to the throne, belongs to the general history of India. As a reward 
for the important services rendered on that occasion, Saiyid Abdullah 
was appointed Wazir of the empire, and Saiyid Husain All commander- 
in-chief. On their fall in 1721, the power of the Barha family began 
to wane, until, in 1737, they were almost exterminated, on a pretext of 
a rebellious design, by their inveterate enemy the WazTr Kamar-ud din. 

During the whole of the disastrous eighteenth century Muzaffarnagar 



86 MUZAFFARyAGAR DISTRICT 

suffered from the same Sikh incursions whieh devastated the remainder 
of the Upper Doab. The Sikhs were assisted in tlieir raids by the 
Gujars, whose semi-nomad Hfe made them ever ready to join in 
rebellion against the government of the time. As regularly as the 
crops were cut, Sikh chieftains poured their predatory hordes into the 
Doab, and levied an organized blackmail. The country was divided 
between them into regular circuits, and each chieftain collected requisi- 
tions from his own circuit only. It was during this anarchic period 
that those mud forts began to spring up which became in time so 
characteristic of the Upper Doab. Tn 1788 the District fell into the 
hands of the Marathas, under whom the famous military adventurer, 
George Thomas, endeavoured with some success to prevent the con- 
stant raids across the Jumna. The Kegam Sumru of Sardhana in 
Meerut District held large possessions in the southern pargaiias at 
the end of the eighteenth century. 

After the fall of AlTgarh in 1803, the whole Doab as far north as 
the Siwalik Hills came, without a blow, under the power of the British. 
A final Sikh invasion occurred in the following year, encouraged by 
the advance of Holkar's forces ; but it was promptly suppressed by 
Colonel Burn, who drove the intruders back across the river. 

The first incident which broke the course of civil administration was 
the Mutiny of 1857. On the news of the outbreak at Meerut, the 
Magistrate of Muzaffarnagar, who was then in weak health and about 
to go on leave, issued orders that all the public offices should be closed. 
This measure naturally produced a general impression that British rule 
was suspended. At first there was no open rebellion, and the semblance 
of government was kept up, but plunder and incendiarism went on un- 
molested. At length, on June 21, the 4th Irregulars rose in revolt and 
murdered their commanding officer as well as another European, after 
which they marched off to Shamli. Five days later, a party of the 
3rd Cavalry arrived at the town ; and on July i Mr. R. M. Edwards 
came in from Saharanpur with a body of Gurkhas, and took charge 
of the administration. Vigorous measures were at once adopted to 
repress crime and collect revenue, the good effects of which became 
quickly apparent. The western parganas, however, remained in open 
revolt ; and the rebels of Thana Bhawan attacked ShamlT, where 
they massacred 113 persons in cold blood. Reinforcements shortly 
after arrived from Meerut ; and Thana Bhawan, being evacuated by 
the rebels, had its walls and gates razed to the ground. After this 
occurrence no notable event took place, though the troops were kept 
perpetually on the move, marching backwards and forwards along the 
Ganges, and watching the mutineers on the opposite bank. Order was 
restored long before the end of the Mutiny. 

There are no important Hindu buildings, but pious Muhammadans 



POPULATION 



87 



have erected many mosques and tombs in different parts of the District. 
Several buildings at Kairana date from the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries; at Majhera, 18 miles south-east of Muzaffarnagar, there are 
some sixteenth-century tombs of the Saiyids ; and at Ghausgarh, 2 1 
miles north-west, are the remains of a fort built by Najib Khan, the 
Rohilla, and a fine mosque erected by his son. 

The District contains 15 towns and 913 villages. Population has 
risen steadily. The number at the last four enumerations was as 
follows: (1872) 690,107, (1881) 758,444, (1891) pq jjiatjjjjj 
772,874, and (1901) 877,188. There are four 
tahsils — Muzaffarnagar, Kairana, Jansath, and Budhana— the 
head-quarters of each being at a town of the same name. '1 he chief 
towns are the nmnicipalities of Muzaffarnagar, the administrative 
head-quarters of the District, Kairana, and Kandhla. The principal 
statistics of population in 1901 are shown below: — 



Tahsll. 


Area in square 
miles. 


Number of 


c 

(2 


3 3 
1"" 


Percentagfe of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween i8qi 
and 1901. 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 


c 





Muzaffarnagar . 
Kairana . 
Jansath . 
Budhana . 

District total 


464 
464 

4.^1 

287 


3 
5 
4 
3 


264 

256 

244 
149 


239,064 
224,679 
216,41 1 
197,034 


5>5 
484 
4'^o 
686 


+ I5-S 
+ ii-3 
+ 11.8 
+ 14-1 


6,759 
5.339 
4.995 
5,510 


1,666 


15 


913 


877,188 


527 


+ ^3-5 


22,603 



Budhana, which has the densest population, has the smallest area of 
inferior khddar land. Between 1891 and 1901 the District shared in 
the general prosperity of the Upper Doab, which profited by the high 
prices in 1896-7, when famine attacked other parts of the Provinces. 
Hindus number 607,000, or 69 per cent, of the total ; Muhammadans, 
255,000, or 29 per cent. ; and Jains, 10,150, or 1-2 per cent. The 
number of Aryas is 3,000, and this form of belief is rapidly increasing. 
More than 99 per cent, of the population speak Hindustani. A small 
colony of emigrants from Sind still use Sindi. 

Among the Hindus, Chamars (leather-workers and labourers) number 
135,000 ; followed by the Jats {83,000), who are excellent cultivators. 
Kahars (labourers, cultivators, and fishermen) and Brahmans, with 
47,000 each, come next. Rajputs include 29,000 Hindus and 24,000 
Musalmans ; and Banias 29,000, many of whom are Jains. Among 
the castes peculiar to the western Districts of the United Provinces are 
the Jats ; the Gujars (agriculturists), 31,000 ; Sainls (cultivators), 26,000 : 
and Tagas (agriculturists), 10,000. The Bauriyas (726) are a criminal 
tribe peculiar to this District, the members of which steal and pass 



88 



J/ UZAFFARNA GAR DISTRICT 



base money all over India. They are confined to a tract in the extreme 
west of the District, where they were settled by Government. The 
most numerous INIusalman caste is that of the Julahas or weavers 
(29,000) ; but the Saiyids, who have been referred to in the history 
of the District, are very influential, though they number only 14,000. 
Shaikhs number 26,000 ; Pathans, 12,000 ; Telis (oil-pressers), 14,000 ; 
and Kassabs (butchers), 14,000. The Jhojhas (8,000) and Garas 
(6,000) are excellent cultivators, found chiefly in this District and in 
Saharanpur. The population is largely agricultural, 49 per cent, being 
supported by occupations connected with the land. General labour 
supports II per cent, and personal services 10 per cent. 

Out of 1,402 Christians in 1901, natives numbered 1,259, <^f whom 
nearly 1,200 were Methodists. These are all recent converts of the 
American Methodist Mission, which has a branch here. The American 
Presbyterian Church also commenced work in 1887. 

The most striking feature in the methods of cultivation is the high 
standard set by the Jats. Manure is not confined to the area im- 
mediately surrounding the village site, but each field 
of good land is manured in turn. This is largely due 
to the importance of the sugar-cane crop, which requires much manure 
and careful cultivation. The injurious saline efflorescence called reh 
is found most abundantly in the Jumna khddar and near the Eastern 
Jumna Canal, and occasionally along the West Kali Nadi and the 
Ganges Canal. 

The tenures are those found in most parts of the United Provinces. 
In 1890 there were 1,347 za/nliiddri, 1,069 bhaiydchdni^ and 579 
pattlddri mahdls. The principal agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are 
shown in the following table, areas being in square miles : — 



Agriculture. 



Tahsll. 


Total. 


Culti\ated. 


Irrigated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 

1 


Mnzaffarnagar . 
Kaiiana 
Jansath 
Budhana . 

Total 


464 
464 

451 

287 


3.H 
291 

307 

235 


127 
131 
115 
104 


47 
82 

59 
12 


1,666 


1,167 


477 


200 



The most important food-grains are wheat and gram, the areas under 
which in 1903-4 were 445 and 189 square miles respectively, or 38 
and 16 per cent, of the net area cropped. A more valuable crop is, 
however, sugar-cane, with an area of no square miles. Rice, which is 
increasing in importance, especially in the case of the finer varieties, 
covered 86 square miles. Cotton is a valuable crop, but was grown 
on only 22 scjuare miles, chiefly in Budhana. Indigo cultivation has 
almost died out. 



TRADE A\J) COMMC.XICArJO.WS 89 

'1 lie duvelupiiienl of ihc caiuil .syslein — especially the eMeiisiuii of 
canal-irrigation to the tract between the Kali Nadi and Hindan— has 
been an important factor in the agricultural condition ; and it has been 
assisted by drainage operations, which have led to the extension of culti- 
vation b)' 10,000 acres in the north-west corner of the District alone. 
The normal area cultivated is about 66 per cent, of the whole. 
Muzaffarnagar wheat is celebrated throughout the Provinces, and care- 
fully selected seed is exported to other Districts. From 1895 to 1900 
loans were freely taken under the Agriculturists' Loans Act, the total 
being about Rs. 60,000 ; but the annual advances since then have fallen 
to about Rs. 1,500 or Rs. 1,000. Advances under the Land Improve- 
ment Loans Act amount to only about Rs. 1,000 annually. 

'J'he domestic breed of cattle is inferior, and the best cattle are im- 
ported from the Punjab. The khddar is, however, noted as a grazing 
ground where breeders bring cattle. Horse-breeding is very popular, 
and there are about 20 Government stallions and 600 branded mares. 
Every year in March a large horse show is held at Muzaffarnagar, where 
about 1,000 animals are exhibited. In 1903 the supervision of horse- 
breeding in this District was transferred from the Civil Veterinary to 
the Military Remount department. Rajputs, Jats, and Gujars are the 
chief breeders. Sheep are kept for their wool and meal, and goats 
for milk and meat. 

Few Districts are so well protected by canals as Muzaffarnagar. 
Almost every part of the upland area is commanded, the western 
portion by the Eastern Jumna Canal, the centre by the Deoband 
branch of the Upper Ganges Canal, and the east by the latter main 
canal and the Anupshahr branch. More than 1,000 square miles are 
commanded and 450 could be irrigated annually. In 1903-4, 340 
square miles were irrigated by canals and 130 by wells, other sources 
supplying only 7 square miles. Well-irrigation is especially required in 
the western tract to supplement the supply from the Eastern Jumna 
Canal. The usual method of supply is by a leathern bag with a rope 
and pulley worked by bullocks ; but the Persian wheel is used in the 
west of the District. The Canal department has constructed and 
maintains more than 500 miles of drains. 

The chief mineral product of value is kankai' or nodular limestone, 
but this is scarce. Reh, a saline efflorescence of varying composition, 
is used for glass-making and some other purposes. 

There are few manufactures of importance. Cotton-weaving supports 
about 3 per cent, of the population. At Kairana calico-printing is 
carried on to a small extent for a local market \ and 
ornamental curtains are made there and at a few communications, 
other places. Good country blankets are manufac- 
tured, especially at Gangeru, and are exported. A coarse blue faience 



go MUZAFFARNAGAR DISTRICT 

is made at Miranpur, but this is inferior to the products of other 
Districts ; papier mache is prepared in small quantities at the same 
place. Two small indigo factories are still worked. The use of iron 
sugar-mills has led to the establishment of depots for their supply and 
repair in many towns. 

The most important article of export is wheat, which has obtained 
a good name and commands a high price in the P^uropean market. 
Nearly 30,000 tons of wheat were exported annually between 1897 and 
1 90 1 from Muzaffarnagar and Khatauli stations. Large quantities of 
unrefined sugar are also exported, usually by railway, but the trade 
with the Punjab is partly carried on by means of pack-camels. The 
other exports are rice and oilseeds. 

The North-Western Railway from Delhi to Saharanpur passes through 
the centre of the District from south to north, and has four stations. 
The Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway just touches the District in the 
north-east corner, but hardly affects it. A light railway is under con- 
struction from Shahdara in Meerut District to Saharanpur, which will 
tap a rich tract in the west of the District. 

There are only 78 miles of metalled roads and 321 miles of un- 
metalled roads. All but 35 miles are maintained from Local funds. 
Avenues of trees are kept up along 150 miles. Good village roads are 
incompatible with easy canal-irrigation, and the local roads are often 
extremely bad, especially in the northern part of the Jumna Canal tract. 
They are best in the south of the District. The Ganges khddar also 
has poor communications. The Ganges is crossed by two boat bridges, 
and there are two main ferries over the Jumna. 

The Ganges Canal is used for the transit of grain and timber, but 
the rivers are little used as means of communication. 

Nothing is known of the history of famines in Muzaffarnagar before 
British rule, but it probably suffered less than the Districts farther south 
in the many severe visitations which devastated the 
Doab. Scarcity was felt in 1803, and again in 1824, and 
famine in 1837, when Rs. 40,000 of revenue was remitted. The Eastern 
Jumna Canal was opened in 1830, and the Ganges Canal in 1854. 
Owing chiefly to the latter, the famine of 1 860-1 was not much felt. 
The Anupshahr branch of the Ganges Canal was, however, commenced 
as a relief work. In 1868-9 the protection of the canals was even 
more marked, and large stores of grain existed, while distress was 
further relieved by the demand for work on the Sind, Punjab, and 
Delhi (now called the North-Western) Railway. Numbers of immi- 
grants poured in from Bikaner and Western Rajputana. Since 1869 
the District has practically escaped famine; and high prices in 1877, 
1896, and 1900 were a source of profit to the agricultural inhabitants, 
though immigrants in distressed circumstances were numerous. The 



ADMINISTRA TION 9 1 

opening of the Deoband branch canal in 1880 has further protected 
an important tract. 

The District is divided into four tahslls and seventeen parganas. 
The normal District staff includes, besides the Col- . , . . 
lector, four Assistants with full powers, one of whom 
is a Covenanted Civilian, when available, the rest being Deputy- 
Collectors recruited in India. 

There are two Munsifs in the District, which is included in the 
jurisdiction of the Subordinate Judge of Saharanpur and in the Civil 
and Session Judgeship of the same place. Muzaffarnagar has a bad 
reputation for murders and cattle-theft, while gang dacoities are not 
uncommon. The Gujars are particularly turbulent, and the Bauriyas 
and gipsy tribes — such as Sansiyas, Kanjars, and Nats — are respon- 
sible for many thefts and burglaries. Infanticide was formerly very 
prevalent, but is not suspected now. 

The District was acquired in 1803, and at first part was included in 
Saharanpur District, and part administered by the Resident at Delhi. 
In 1824 the present District was formed by creating a sub-collectorship 
at Muzaffarnagar, which became a separate District in 1826. The early 
settlements thus formed part of those for Saharanpur. Quinquennial 
settlements were made in 1825 and 1830, the latter being extended till 
1840. Operations for the first regular settlement began with measure- 
ments in 1836 and 1838, when the soil was classified into circles and 
average rent-rates were obtained to form the basis of assessment. The 
rent-rates were really calculated from valuations of produce and the 
method of division of that produce, as rent was generally paid in kind, 
and in many villages where the tenure was bhaiydchdra there were no 
rents, as the co-sharers cultivated practically the whole area. The total 
demand was 11-2 lakhs, calculated at two-thirds of the rental 'assets,' 
and the setdement lasted twenty years. War, famine, and pestilence 
swept over the District before the next settlement operations began in 
i860, and the new revenue at half 'assets' remained at ii;-2 lakhs. 
In this settlement rent rates were calculated on an average of the 
rates paid in previous years. Inquiries were made with a. view to 
making a permanent settlement, which was not granted, and the 
assessment was raised in various tracts in 1870! when it was found 
inadequate. The last settlement was completed in 1892 for: thirty 
years, and the revenue was fixed at 15-1 lakhs, rising' to 15-6 lakhs. 
The assessment was based on recorded rents, corrected where 
necessary; but the area for which rents were not paid \Yas as high 
as 47-5 per cent, of the total, chiefly owing to the large proprietary 
cultivation. The revenue amounted to 48 per cent, of the assessable 
'assets.' The incidence varied from Rs. 1-3 to Rs. 3-6 per acre, 
the average being Rs. 2-6. 

VOL. XVIII. G 



92 



MUZAFFARNAGAR DISTRICT 



The collections on account of land revenue and total revenue are 
shown below, in thousands of rupees : — 





1880-1. 


1890-1. 


1900-1. 


1903-4. 


Land revenue 
Total revenue 


12,20 
15.02 


12,18 
18,01 


15,55 
22,05 


15.59 
21,92 



There are three municipalities — Muzaffarnagar, Kandhla, and 
Kairana — and eleven towns are administered under Act XX of 1856. 
In 1903-4 the District board had an income of i-i lakhs and an 
expenditure of 1-4 lakhs. The expenditure on roads and buildings 
was Rs. 64,000. 

The District Superintendent of police is assisted by three inspectors, 
and is in charge of 75 officers and 296 men of the regular police, 
besides 209 municipal and town police, and 1,277 village, road, and 
canal watchmen. The average daily number of prisoners in the District 
jail in 1903 was 168. 

The District takes a medium place in the Provinces as regards the 
literacy of its population, of whom 2-6 per cent. (4-7 males and o-i 
females) can read and write. In 1880-1 there were 135 schools under 
Government inspection, attended by 3,779 pupils, and in 1 900-1 156 
schools with 6,366 pupils. In 1903-4, 194 such schools contained 
7,404 pupils including 192 girls, besides 398 private schools with 5,533 
scholars, of whom 157 were girls. Of the public schools, 2 were 
managed by Government and 114 by the District and municipal boards. 
Out of a total expenditure of Rs. 32,000, Rs. 4,000 was derived from 
fees and Rs. 28,000 from Local and municipal funds. 

In 1903 there were seven hospitals and dispensaries, with accom- 
modation for 65 in-patients. The number of cases treated was 70,000, 
of whom 1,000 were in-patients, and 4,600 operations were performed. 
The total expenditure was Rs. 12,600, chiefly met from Local and 
municipal funds. 

In 1903-4, 29,000 persons were vaccinated, representing -^t, per 
1,000 of the population. Vaccination is compulsory only in the 
municipalities. 

[H. R. Nevill, District Gazetteer (1903); J. O. Miller, Settlement 
Report (1892).] 

Muzaffarnagar Tahsil. — Central tahsll of Muzaffarnagar District, 
United Provinces, stretching north-east to the Ganges, and lying 
between 29° 22" and 29° 45' N. and 77° 27' and 78° 7' E., with an area 
of 464 square miles. It comprises five pai-ganas : Muzaffarnagar, 
Baghra, Charthawal, Pur Chhapar, and Gordhanpur. The population 
has risen from 206,496 in 1891 to 239,064 in 1901. The tahsll coxv- 
tains 264 villages and three towns: namely, Muzaffarnagar (popu- 



MUZAFFARPUR DISTRICT 93 

lation, 23,444), llie District and A/^vV head-quarters, Pur (6,384), and 
Charthawal (6,236). In 1903-4 the demand for land revenue was 
Rs. 4,03,000, and for cesses Rs. 51,000. The tahsll Hes chiefly on 
the upland area of the District ; hvX pargana Gordhanpur, situated in 
the Ganges khddar, is a low-lying swampy tract in a state of chronic 
depression in spite of attempts to drain it. In 1894 the inhabitants 
of ^\i,pargana were removed, owing to the fear that the Gohna Lakk 
would flood the whole area when it burst ; and the tract is still largely 
waste. The tahsll is irrigated by the Upper Ganges Main Canal 
and the Deoband branch. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 
334 square miles, of which 127 were irrigated. 

Muzaffarnagar Town.— Head-quarters of the District and iahsil 
of the same name, United Provinces, situated in 29° 28' N. and 77" 
41' E., on the main road from Meerut to Roorkee and Hard war, and 
on the North-Western Railway. The population is increasing rapidly : 
(1872) 10,793, (1881) 15,080, (1891) 18,166, and (1901) 23,444. In 
1 90 1 Hindus numbered 12,847 ^"d Musalmans 9,519. The town 
was founded by the son of Muzaffar Khan, Khan-i-Jahan, in the reign 
of Shah Jahan, about 1633, close to the site of an older town known 
as Sarwart. It remained a place of little importance, until in 1824 it 
became the head-quarters of a sub-collectorship of Saharanpur District, 
and two years later Muzaffarnagar District was formed. It is a closely- 
built town, crowded with small streets, but is well situated on high 
land above the Kali Nadi, to which the drainage is carried. Besides 
the ordinary offices, there are a towm hall, high and middle schools, 
and male and female hospitals. There are no resident officials besides 
those of the ordinary District staff. The American Presbyterian and 
Reformed Methodist Missions have branches here. Muzaffarnagar 
was constituted a municipality in 1872. The income and expenditure 
during the ten years ending 1901 averaged Rs. 22,000. In 1903-4 the 
income was Rs. 35,000, chiefly derived from octroi (Rs. 21,000) and 
house tax (Rs. 6,000); and the expenditure was Rs. 46,000. A drainage 
and paving project was completed in 1903 at a cost of more than 
Rs. 30,000, and the town is now very well drained. The place owes 
its prosperity largely to the export trade iii wheat and sugar, and the 
only considerable manufacture is that of blankets. Every year in 
March a horse show is held here. The high school contains 230 
pupils, the tahslli school 160, and a girls' school 35. 

Muzaffarpur District.— District in the Patna Division of Bengal, 
lying between 25° 29' and 26° 53' N. and 84° 53' and 85° 50' E., with 
an area of 3,035 ^ square miles. It is bounded on the north by the 
State of Nepal; on the east by Darbhanga District; on the south 

* The area shown in the Census Report of 1901 is 3,004 square miles. The figures 
in the text are those ascertained in the recent survey operations. 

G 2 



94 MUZAFFARPUR DISTRICT 

by the Ganges, which divides it from Patna ; and on the west by 
Champaran and the river Gandak, which separates it from Saran. 

The District is an alluvial plain, intersected Avith streams and for the 
most part well watered. It is divided by the Baghmati and Burhl or 

Little Gandak rivers into three distinct tracts. The 
soect^ country south of the latter is relatively high ; but 

there are slight depressions in places, especially 
towards the sourii-east, where there are some lakes, the largest of 
which is the Tal Baraila. The dodb between the Little Gandak 
and the Baghmati is the lowest portion of the District, and is liable 
to frequent inundations. Here too the continual shifting of the 
rivers has left a large number of semi-circular lakes. The area north 
of the Baghmati running up to the borders of Nepal is a low-lying 
marshy plain, traversed at intervals by ridges of higher ground. Of the 
two boundary streams, the Ganges requires no remark. The other, 
the Great Gandak, which joins the Ganges opposite Patna, has no 
tributaries in this part of its course ; in fact, the drainage sets away 
from it, and the country is protected from inundation by artificial 
embankments. The lowest discharge of water into the Ganges towards 
the end of March amounts to 10,391 cubic feet per second ; the highest 
recorded flood volume is 266,000 cubic feet per second. The river is 
nowhere fordable ; it is full' of rapids and whirlpools, and is navigable 
with difficulty. The principal rivers which intersect the District are the 
Little Gandak, the Baghmati, the Lakhandai, and the Baya. The Little 
Gandak (also known as Harha, Sikrana, Burhl Gandak, or the Muzafifar- 
pur river) crosses the boundary from Champaran, 20 miles north-west 
of Muzaffarpur town, and flows in a south-easterly direction till it leaves 
the District near Pusa, 20 miles to the south-east ; it ultimately falls 
into the Ganges opposite Monghyr. The Baghmati, which rises near 
Katmandu in Nepal, enters the District 2 miles north of Maniari Ghat, 
and after flowing in a more or less irregular southerly course for some 
30 miles, strikes off in a south-easterly direction almost parallel to the 
Little Gandak, and crossing the District, leaves it near Hatha, 20 miles 
east of Muzaffarpur. Being a hill stream and flowing on a ridge, it 
rises very quickly after heavy rains and sometimes causes much damage 
by overflowing its banks. A portion of the country north of Muzaffar- 
pur town is protected by the TurkI embankment. In the dry season 
the Baghmati is fordable and in some places is not more than knee 
deep. Its tributaries are numerous : the Adhwara or Little Baghmati, 
Lai Bakya, Bhurengi, Lakhandai, Dhaus, and Jhim. Both the Bagh- 
mati and Little Gandak are very liable to change their courses. The 
Lakhandai enters the District from Nepal near Itharwa (18 miles north 
of Sitaniarhi). It is a small stream until it has been joined by the 
Sauran and Basiad. Flowing south it passes through Sitamarhi, where 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 95 

it is crossed by a fine bridge, and then continuing in a south-easterly 
direction, joins the Baghmati 7 or 8 miles south of the Darbhanga- 
Muzaffarpur road, which is carried over it by an iron-girder bridge. 
The stream rises and falls very quickly, and its current is rapid. The 
Baya issues out of the Gandak near Sahibganj (34 miles north-west of 
Muzaffarpur town), and flows in a south-easterly direction, leaving the 
District at Bajitpur 30 miles south of Muzaffarpur town. The head 
of the stream is apt to silt up, but is at present open. The Baya is 
largely fed by drainage from the marshes, and attains its greatest height 
when the Gandak and the Ganges are both in flood ; it joins the latter 
river a few miles south of Dalsingh Sarai in Darbhanga District. 

The most important of the minor streams are the Purana Dar 
Baghmati (an old bed of the Baghmati stretching from Mallahi on the 
frontier to Belanpur Ghat, where it joins the present stream) and the 
Adhwara. These flow southwards from Nepal, and are invaluable for 
irrigation in years of drought, when numerous dams are thrown across 
them. The largest sheet of water in the District is the Tal Baraila in 
the south ; its area is about 20 square miles, and it is the haunt of 
innumerable wild duck and other water-fowl. 

The soil of the District is old alluvium ; beds of kankar or nodular 
limestone of an inferior quality are occasionally found. 

The District contains no forests ; and except for a few very small 
patches of jungle, of which the chief constituents are the red cotton-tree 
{Bombax ftialabaricum), khair {Acacia Catechu), and sissii {Dalbergia 
Sissoo), with an undergrowth of euphorbiaceous and urticaceous 
shrubs and tree weeds, and occasional large stretches of grass land inter- 
spersed with smaller spots of f/sar, the ground is under close cultiva- 
tion, and besides the crops carries only a few field-weeds. Near villages 
small shrubberies may be found containing mango, sissil, Eugenia 
/ambolana, various species of Picus, an occasional tamarind, and 
a few other semi-spontaneous and more or less useful species. The 
numerous and extensive mango groves form one of the most striking 
features of the District. Both the palmyra {Borassus flabeilifer) 
and the date-palm [P/ioetiix sylvestris) occur planted and at times 
self-sown, but neither in great abundance. The field and roadside 
weeds include various grasses and sedges, chiefly sjjecies of Panictim 
and Cyperus ; in waste corners and on railway embankments thickets 
of si~>st{, derived from both seeds and root-suckers, very rapidly appear. 
The sluggish streams and ponds are filled with water-weeds, the sides 
being often fringed by reedy grasses and bulrushes, with occasionally 
tamarisk bushes intermixed. 

The advance of civilization has driven back the larger animals into 
the jungles of Nepal, and the District now contains no wild beasts 
except hog and a few wolves and nilgai. Crocodiles infest some of 



96 MUZAFFARPUR DISTRICT 

the rivers. Snakes abound, the most common being the karait 
{Bungarus caeruleus) and gohuman or cobra {Naia tripudiafis). 

Dry westerly winds are experienced in the hot season, but the 
temperature is not excessive. The mean maximum ranges from 73° in 
January to 97° in April and May, and falls to 74° in December, the 
temperature dropping rapidly in November and December. The mean 
minimum varies from 49° in January to 79° in June, July, and August. 
The annual rainfall averages 46 inches, of which 7-4 inches fall in June, 
12-4 in July, 11-3 in August, and 7-6 in September; cyclonic storms 
are apt to move northwards into the District in the two last-named 
months. Humidity at Muzaffarpur is on an average 67 per cent, in 
March, 66 in April, and 76 in May, and varies from 84 to 91 per cent, 
in other months. 

One of the marked peculiarities of the rivers and streams of this part 
of the country is that they flow on ridges raised above the surrounding 
country by the silt which they have brought down. Muzaffarpur 
District is thus subject to severe and widespread inundations from 
their overflow. In 1788 a disastrous flood occurred which, it was 
estimated, damaged one-fifth of the area sown with winter crops, while 
so many cattle died of disease that the cultivation of the remaining 
area was seriously hampered. The Great Gandak, which was formerly 
quite unfettered towards the east, used regularly to flood the country 
along its banks and not infrequently swept across the southern half 
of the District. From the beginning of the nineteenth century attempts 
were made to raise an embankment strong enough to protect the 
country from inundation, but without success, until in the famine of 
1874 the existing embankment was strengthened and extended, thus 
effectually checking the incursions of the river. The tract on the 
south of the Baghmati is also partially protected by an embankment 
first raised in 18 10, but the dodb between the Baghmati and the Little 
Gandak is still liable to inundation. Heavy floods occurred in 1795, 
1867, 1871, 1883, and 1898. Another severe flood visited the north 
of the District in August, 1902. The town of Sitamarhi and the dodb 
between the Little Gandak and the Baghmati suffered severely, and 
it was reported that 60 lives were lost and 14,000 houses damaged or 
destroyed, while a large number of cattle were drowned. In Sitamarhi 
itself 700 houses were damaged and 12,000 maunds of grain destroyed, 
and it was estimated that half of the maize crop and almost half of the 
viarud crop were lost. Muzaffarpur town, which formerly suffered 
severely from these floods, is now protected by an embankment. One of 
the most disastrous floods known in the history of Muzaffarpur occurred 
in 1906, when the area inundated comprised a quarter of the whole 
District : namely, 750 square miles and over 1,000 villages, (ireat distress 
ensued among the cultivators, and relief measures were necessitated. 



POPULATION 



97 



History. 



In ancient times the north of the District formed part of the old 
kingdom of Mithila, while the south corresponded to VaisalI, the 
capital of which was probably at Basarh in the Lal- 
ganj thdna. Mithila passed successively under the 
Pal and the Sen dynasties, and was conquered by Muhammad-i-Bakht- 
yar Khilji in 1203. From the middle of the fourteenth century it was 
ruled by a line of Brahman kings, until it was incorporated in the 
Mughal empire in 1556. Under the Mughals, HajTpur and Tirhut 
were separate sarkdrs ; and the town of Hajipur, which was then a 
place of strategical importance owing to its position at the confluence 
of the Ganges and the Gandak, was the scene of several rebellions. 
After the acquisition by the British of the Dlwani of Bengal, Bihar, 
and Orissa in 1765, Subah Bihar was retained as an independent 
revenue division, and in 1782 Tirhut (including HajTpur) was made 
into a separate Collectorate. This was split up in 1875 i"to the two 
existing Districts of Muzaffarpur and Darbhanga. During the Mutiny 
of 1857 a small number of native troops at Muzaffarpur town rose, 
plundered the Collector's house and attacked the treasury and jail, but 
were driven off by the police and decamped towards Siwan in Saran 
District without causing any further disturbance. 

Archaeological interest centres round Basarh, which has plausibly 
been identified as the capital of the ancient kingdom of VaisalI. 

The population of the present area increased from 2,246,752 in 1872 

to 2,583,404 in 1881, to 2,712,857 in 1891, and to 2,754,790 in 1901. 

The recorded growth between 1872 and i88r was _, , ^. 

, J r • t V- CO Population. 

due m part to the defects m the Census ot 1872. 

The District is very healthy, except perhaps in the country to the north 

of the Baghmati, which is more marshy than that to the south of it. 

Deaf-mutism is prevalent along the course of the Burhl Gandak and 

Baghmati rivers. 

The principal statistics of the Census of 1901 are shown below:— 



Subdivision. 


u 
u 

Id 

3 

< 


Numl)er of 


c 

_o 

b. 



cd 1- 


Percentajre of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1901. 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 


c 
.0 

I 
I 

2 


E 
> 

1,712 

996 

1,412 


Muzaffarpur . 
Sitamarhi 
Hajipur . 

District total 


1,221 
l,Ol6 

798 


1,050,027 
986,582 
718,181 


860 
971 
900 


- 2-3 
+ 0-6 


45,871 
29,992 
31,702 


3.035 


4 


4,120 


^754, 790 


908 


+ T-5 


107,565 



The four towns are Muzaffarpur, the head-quarters, Hajipur, 
Lalganj, and Sitamarhi. Muzaffarpur is more densely populated 



98 MUZAFFARPUR DISTRICT 

than any other District in Bengal. The inhabitants are very evenly 
distributed ; in only a small tract to the west does the density per 
square mile fall below 900, while in no part of the District does it 
exceed 1,000. Every thdna in the great rice-growing tract north of the 
Baghmati showed an increase of population at the last Census, while 
every thdna south of that river, except HajTpur on the extreme south, 
showed a decrease. In the former tract population has been growing 
steadily since the first Census in 1872, and it attracts settlers both 
from Nepal and from the south of the District. The progress has 
been greatest in the Sitamarhi and Sheohar thanas which march with 
the Nepal frontier. A decline in the Muzaffarpur thdna is attributed 
to its having suffered most from cholera epidemics, and to the fact that 
this tract supplies the majority of the persons who emigrate to Lower 
Bengal in search of work. The District as a whole loses largely by 
migration, especially to the metropolitan Districts, Purnea, and North 
Bengal. The majority of these emigrants are employed as earth- 
workers and /a/^/-bearers, while others are shopkeepers, domestic 
servants, constables, peons, (S:c. The vernacular of the District is the 
Maithill dialect of Biharl. Musalmans speak a form of Awadhi 
Hindi known as Shekhol or Musalmani. In 1901 Hindus numbered 
2,416,415, or 87-71 per cent, of the total population; and Musalmans 
337,641, or 12-26 per cent. 

The most numerous Hindu castes are AhTrs or Goalas (335,000), 
Babhans (200,000), Dosadhs (187,000), Rajputs (176,000), Koiris 
(147,000), Chamars (136,000), and Kurmis (126,000) ; while Brahmans, 
Dhanuks, Kandus, Mallahs, Nunias, Tantis, and Telis each number 
between 50,000 and 100,000. Of the Muhammadans, 127,000 are 
Shaikhs and 85,000 Jolahas, while Dhunias and Kunjras are also 
numerous. Agriculture supports 76-4 per cent, of the population, 
industries 6-2 per cent., commerce 0-5 per cent., and the professions 
0-7 per cent. 

Christians number 719, of whom 341 are natives. Four Christian 
missions are at work in Muzaffarpur town : the German Evangelical 
Lutheran Mission, founded in 1840, which maintains a primary school 
for destitute orphans ; the American Methodist Episcopal Missionary 
Society, which possesses two schools ; a branch of the Bettiah Roman 
Catholic Mission ; and an independent lady missionary engaged in 
zandna work. 

The tract south of the Little Gandak is the most fertile and richest 

portion of the District. The low-lying dodb between Little Gandak 

. . . and the Baghmati is mainly productive of rice, 

though rabi and bhadol harvests are also reaped. 

The tract to the north of the Baghmati contains excellent paddy land, 

and the staple crop is winter rice, though good rabi and bhadoi crops 



AGRICULTURE 



99 



are also raised in parts. In different parts of the District different 
names are given to the soil, according to the proportions of sand, clay, 
iron, and saline matter it contains. Ultimately all can be grouped 
under four heads : bahundar (sandy loam) ; matiydri (clayey soil) ; 
hangar (lighter than viatiyCiri and containing an admixture of sand) ; 
and lastly patches of usar (containing the saline efflorescence known 
as reh) found scattered over the District. To the south of the Little 
Gandak bahutidar prevails, in the dodb the soil is chiefly matiydri, 
while north of the Baghmati hangar predominates to the east of the 
Lakhandai river and matiydri to the west. Rice is chiefly grown on 
matiydri soil, but it also does well in low-lying bdngar lands, and the 
finer varieties thrive on such lands. Good rabi crops of wheat, barley, 
oats, rahar, pulses, oilseeds, and edible roots grow luxuriantly in 
baisundar soil, and to this reason is ascribed the superior fertility of 
the south of the District. Bhadoi crops, especially maize, which cannot 
stand too much moisture, also prosper in baisundar, which quickly 
absorbs the surplus water. Indigo does best in bahundar, but bangar 
is also suitable. 

The chief agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are given below, areas 
being in square miles : — 



Subdivision. 


Total. 


Cultivated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Muzaffarpur . 

Suamarhi 

Hajlpur .... 

Total 


1,221 

1,016 

798 


I,02S 

897 
619 


76 
4S 
46 


3,035 


2,541 


170 



It is estimated that 1,075 square miles, or 42 per cent, of the net 
cultivated area, are twice cropped. 

The principal food-crop is rice, grown on 1,200 square miles, of which 
winter rice covers 1,029 square miles. The greater part of the rice 
is transplanted. Other food-grains, including pulses, khesari, china, 
rahar, kodon, peas, oats, masurl, sdwdn, katint, urd, miing, Jancrd 
{Bolcus sorghum), and kurthl {Dolichos bifiorus) cover 804 square miles. 
Barley occupies 463 square miles, a larger area than in any other 
Bengal District; makai or maize, another very important crop, 256 
square miles; marud, 129 square miles; wheat, 114 square miles; 
gram, 68 square miles; and miscellaneous food-crops, including alud 
or yams, siithnl, and potatoes, are grown on 122 square miles. Oil- 
seeds, principally linseed, are raised on' 86 square miles. Other impor- 
tant crops are indigo, sugar-cane, poppy, tobacco, and thatching-grass. 
Muzaffarpur is, after Champaran, the chief indigo District in Bengal ; 
but its cultivation here, as elsewhere, is losing ground owing to the 



TOO MUZAFFARPUR DISTRICT 

competition of the synthetic dye. European indigo planters have of 
late been turning their attention to other crops, in particular sugar-cane 
and rhea. Poppy is cultivated, as in other parts of Bihar, on a system 
of Government advances; the total area under the crop in 1903-4 was 
12,400 acres, and the out-turn was 35 tons of opium. Cow-dung and 
indigo refuse are used as manure for special crops, such as sugar-cane, 
tobacco, poppy, and indigo. 

Cultivation is far more advanced in the south than in the north of 
the District ; but up to the present there appears to be no indication 
of any progress or improvement in the method of cultivation, except in 
the neighbourhood of indigo factories. Over 2 lakhs of rupees was 
advanced under the Agriculturists' Loans Act on the occasion of the 
famine of 1896, but otherwise this Act and the Land Improvement 
Loans Act have been made little use of. 

The District has always borne a high reputation for its cattle, and 
the East India Company used to get draught bullocks for the Ordnance 
department here. Large numbers of animals are exported every year 
from the Sitamarhi subdivision to all parts of North Bihar. It is said 
that the breed is deteriorating. In the north, floods militate against 
success in breeding ; and in the District as a whole, though there is 
never an absolute lack of food for cattle even in the driest season, the 
want of good pasture grounds compels the cultivator to feed his cattle 
very largely in his l>alhan, or cattle yard. A large cattle fair is held at 
Sitamarhi every April. 

The total area irrigated is 47 square miles, of which 30 are irrigated 
from wells, 2 from private canals, 6 from tanks or a/iars, and 9 from 
other sources, mainly by damming rivers. There are no Government 
canals. In the north there is a considerable opening for the pain and 
dhar system of irrigation so prevalent in Gaya District, but the want of 
an artificial water-supply is not great enough to induce the people to 
provide themselves with it. 

Kankar, a nodular limestone of an inferior quality, is found and is 
used for metalling roads. The District is rich in saliferous earth, and 
a special caste, the Nunias, earn a scanty livelihood by extracting salt- 
petre ; 98,000 maunds of saltpetre were produced in 1903-4, the salt 
educed during the manufacture being 6,000 maunds. 

Coarse cloth, carpets, pottery, and mats are manufactured ; pd/kis, 
cart-wheels, and other articles of general use are made by carpenters in 
the south, and rough cutlery at Lawarpur. But by 
communications ^^^ ^^^ most important industry is the manufacture 
of indigo. Indigo was a product of North Bihar long 
before the advent of the British, but its cultivation by European 
methods appears to have been started by Mr. Grand, Collector of 
Tirhut, in 1782. In 178S there were five Europeans in possession 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS lor 

(^f indigo works. In 1793 the number of factories in the District hud 
increased to nine, situated at Daudpur, Sarahia Dhuh', Atharshahpur, 
Kantai, MotTpur, Deoria, and Bhawara. In 1850 the Revenue Sur- 
veyor found 86 factories in Tirhut, several of which were then used for 
the manufacture of sugar and were subsequently converted into indigo 
concerns. In 1897 the Settlement officer enumerated 23 head factories, 
with an. average of 3 outworks under each, connected with the Bihar 
Indigo Planters' Association, besides 9 independent factories. The 
area under indigo had till then been steadily on the increase, reaching 
in that year 87,258 acres, while the industry was estimated to employ 
a daily average of 35,000 labourers throughout the year. Since then, 
owing to the competition of artificial dye, the price of natural indigo 
has fallen and the area under cultivation has rapidly diminished, being 
estimated in 1903-4 at 48,000 acres. Though only about 3 per cent, 
of the cultivated area is actually sown with indigo, the planters are in 
the position of landlords over more than a sixth of the District. They 
are attempting to meet the fall in prices by more scientific methods of 
cultivation and manufacture, and many concerns now combine the 
cultivation of other crops with indigo. Indigo is cultivated either by 
the planter through his servants under the zirat or home-farm system, 
or else by tenants under what is known as the dsdviiwar system [asofni 
means a tenant), under the direction of the factory servants ; in both 
cases the plant is cut and carted by the planter. Under the latter 
system, the planter supplies the .seed and occasionally also gives 
advances to the tenant, which are adjusted at the end of the year. 
The plant, when cut, is fermented in masonry vats, and oxidized either 
by beating or by currents of steam. The dye thus precipitated is 
boiled and dried into cakes. In 1903-4 the out-turn of indigo was 
11,405 maunds, valued at 15-97 lakhs. 

The recent fall in prices has resulted in the revival of the manu- 
facture of sugar. A company acquired in 1900-1 the indigo estates 
of Ottur (Athar) and Agrial in Muzaffarpur and Siraha in Champaran 
District, for the purpose of cultivating sugar-cane. Cane-crushing mills 
and sugar-refining plant of the most modern type were erected at those 
places and also at Barhoga in Sauui. These factories are capable of 
crushing 75,000 tons of cane in 100 working days, and of refining 
about 14,000 tons of sugar during the remainder of the year. Twelve 
Europeans and 500 to 600 natives a day are employed in the factories 
during the crushing season, and 10 Europeans and many thousands of 
natives throughout the year on the cultivation of the estates and the 
manufacture of sugar. Besides this, the neighbouring planters contract 
to grow sugar-cane and sell it to the company. It is claimed that the 
sugar turned out is of the best quality, and a ready sale for it has been 
found in the towns of Northern India. 



10 2 MUZAFFARPUR DISTRICT 

The principal exports are indigo, sugar, oilseeds, saltpetre, hides, ghi, 
tobacco, opium, and fruit and vegetables. The main imports are salt, 
European and Indian cotton piece-goods and hardware, coal and coke, 
kerosene oil, cereals, such as maize, millets, &c., rice and other food- 
grains, and indigo seed. Most of the exports find their way to Cal- 
cutta. The bulk of the traffic is now carried by the railway ; and the 
old river marts show a tendency to decline, unless they happen 
to be situated on the line of railway, like Mehnar, Bhagwanpur, and 
Bairagnia, which are steadily growing in importance. Nepal exports 
to Muzaffarpur food-grains, oilseeds, timber, skins of sheep, goats, and 
cattle, and saltpetre ; and receives in return sugar, salt, tea, utensils, 
kerosene oil, spices, and piece-goods. A considerable cart traffic thus 
goes on from and to Nepal, and between Saran and the north of the 
District. The chief centres of trade are Muzaffarpur town on the 
Little Gandak (navigable in the rains for boats of about 37 tons up 
to Muzaffarpur), Hajipur (a railway centre), Lalganj (a river mart 
on the Great Gandak), Sitamarhi (a great rice mart), Bairagnia and 
Sursand (grain marts for the Nepal trade), Mehnar, Sahibganj, 
Sonbarsa, Bela, Majorganj, Mahuwa, and Kantai. The trade of the 
District is in the hands of Marwaris and local Baniya castes. 

The District is served by four distinct branches of the Bengal and 
North-Western Railway. The first, which connects Simaria Ghat on 
the Ganges with Bettiah in Champaran District, runs in a south-easterly 
direction through Muzaffarpur District, passing the head-quarters town. 
The second branch enters the District at the Sonpur bridge over the 
Great Gandak, passes through Hajipur, and runs eastwards to Katihar 
in Purnea District, where it joins the Eastern Bengal State Railway ; it 
intersects the first branch at Baruni junction in Monghyr District. The 
third runs from Hajipur to Muzaffarpur town, thus connecting the first 
two branches. The fourth, which leaves the first-mentioned branch 
line at Samastipur in Darbhanga District, enters Muzaffarpur near 
Kamtaul and passing through Sitamarhi town has its terminus at Bai- 
ragnia. Communication with that place is, however, at present kept 
open only during the dry season by a temporary bridge over the Bagh- 
mati about 3 miles away ; but the construction of a permanent structure 
is contemplated. The District is well provided with roads, and espe- 
cially with feeder roads to the railways. Including 542 miles of village 
tracks, it contains in all 76 miles of metalled and 1,689 miles of 
unmetalled roads, all of which are maintained by the District board. 
The most important road is that from Hajipur through Muzaffarpur 
and Sitamarhi towns to Sonbarsa, a large mart on the Nepal frontier. 
Important roads also connect Muzaffarpur town with Darbhanga, Motl- 
hari, and Saran, 1 1 main roads in all radiating from Muzaffarpur. The 
subdivisional head-quarters of Hajipur and Sitamarhi are also connected 



FAMINE 



103 



by good roads with their poHce thdnas and outposts. Most of the 
minor rivers are bridged by masonry structures, while the larger ones 
are generally crossed by ferries, of which there are 67 in the District. 
The Little Gandak close to Muzaffarpur town on the Sitamarhi road 
is crossed by a pontoon bridge 850 feet in length. 

During the rainy season, when the rivers are high, a considerable 
quantity of traffic is still carried in country boats along the Oreat and 
Little Gandak and Baghmati rivers. Sal timber {Shorea robusta) from 
Nei)al is floated down the two latter, and also a large quantity of 
bamboos. The Ganges on the south is navigable throughout the year, 
and a daily service of steamers plies to and from Goalundo. 

The terrible famine of 1769-70 is supposed to have carried off 

a third of the entire population of Bengal. Another great famine 

occurred in 1866, in which it was estimated that „ 

1 T 1 , 1 T^i _ 1 • Famine. 

200,000 people died throughout Bihar ; this was 

especially severely felt in the extreme north of the District. Muzaf- 
farpur again suffered severely in the famine of 1874, when deficiency 
of rain in September, 1873, and its complete cessation in October, led 
to a serious shortness in the winter rice crop. Relief works were 
opened about the beginn-ing of 1874. No less than one-seventh of 
the total population was in receipt of relief. There was some scarcity 
in 1876, when no relief was actually required; in 1889, when the rice 
crop again failed and relief was given to about 30,000 persons ; and in 
1 89 1-2, when on the average 5,000 persons daily were relieved for 
a period of 19 weeks. Then came the famine of 1896-7, the greatest 
famine of the nineteenth century. On this occasion, owing to better 
communications and their improved material condition, the people 
showed unexpected powers of resistance. Three test works started 
in the Sitamarhi subdivision in November, 1896, failed to attract 
labour, and it was not till the end of January that distress became in 
any sense acute. The number of persons in receipt of relief then rose 
rapidly till the end of May, when 59,000 persons with 4,000 dependants 
were on relief works, and 59,000 more were in receipt of gratuitous 
relief. The number thus aided increased to 72,000 in July, but the 
number of relief workers had meanwhile declined, and the famine was 
over by the end of September. The total expenditure on relief works 
was 5-64 lakhs and on gratuitous relief 4-91 lakhs, in addition to which 
large advances were made under the Agriculturists' Loans Act. The 
import of rice into the District during the famine was nearly 33,000 
tons, chiefly Burma rice from Calcutta. The whole of the District 
suffered severely, except the south of the HajTpur subdivision, but the 
brunt of the distress was borne by the Sitamarhi subdivision. 

For administrative purposes the District is divided into three sub- 
divisions, with head-quarters at Muzaffarpur, Hajipur, and SIta- 



104 MUZAFFARPUR DISTRICT 

MARHi. The staff subordinate to the District Magistrate-Collector at 
head-quarters consists of a Joint-Magistrate, an Assistant Magistrate, and 
. nine Deputy-Magistrate-Collectors, while the HajTpur 

and Sltamarhi subdivisions are each in charge of 
an Assistant Magistrate-Collector assisted by a Sub-Deputy-Collector. 
The Superintending Engineer and the Executive Engineer of the 
Gandak division are stationed at Muzaffarpur. 

The civil courts are those of the District Judge (who is also Judge of 
Champaran), three Sub-Judges and two Munsifs at Muzaffarpur, and 
one Munsif each at Sltamarhi and Hajipur. Criminal courts include 
those of the District and Sessions Judge and District Magistrate, and 
the above-mentioned Joint, Assistant, and Deputy-Magistrates. When 
the District first passed under British rule it was in a very lawless state, 
overrun by hordes of banditti. This state of affairs has long ceased. 
The people are, as a rule, peaceful and law-abiding, and heinous 
offences and crimes of violence are comparatively rare. 

At the time of the Permanent Settlement in 1793 ^^ "^oidX area of the 
estates assessed to land revenue in Tirhut was 2,476 square miles, or 
40 per cent, only of its area of 6,343 square miles, and the total land 
revenue was 9-84 lakhs, which gives an incidence of 9 annas per acre ; 
the demand for the estates in Muzaffarpur District alone was 4-36 lakhs. 
In 1822 operations were undertaken for the resumption of invalid 
revenue-free grants, the result of which was to add 6-77 lakhs to the 
revenue roll of Tirhut, "of which 3-18 lakhs fell to Muzaffarpur. Owing 
to partitions and resumptions, the number of estates in Tirhut increased 
from 1,331 in 1790, of which 799 were in Muzaffarpur, to 5,186 in 
1850. Since that date advantage has been taken of the provisions of 
the partition laws to a most remarkable extent, and by 1904-5 the 
number of revenue- paying estates had risen to no less than 21,050, a 
larger number than in any other Bengal District. Of the total, all but 
49 with a demand of Rs. 16,735 were permanently settled. The total 
land revenue demand in the same year was 9-78 lakhs. Owing to the 
backward state of Tirhut at the time of the Permanent Settlement, 
the incidence of revenue is only R. 0-9-6 per cultivated acre. 

A survey and preparation of a record-of-rights for Muzaffarpur and 
Champaran Districts, commenced in 1 890-1 and successfully com- 
pleted in 1 899-1 900, is important as being the first operation of the 
kind which was undertaken in Bengal for entire Districts which came 
under the Permanent Settlement. The average size of a ryot's holding 
in Muzaffarpur was found to be i'97 acres, and 82 per cent, of them 
were held by occupancy and settled ryots. Such ryots almost always 
pay rent in cash, but one-fifth of the non-occupancy ryots and three- 
fifths of the under-ryots pay produce rents. These are of three kinds, 
batai, bhaoli, and mankhap ; in the first case the actual produce is 



ADMINISTRA TION 



105 



divided, generally in equal proportions, between the tenant and the 
landlord ; in the second the crop is appraised in the field and the land- 
lord's share paid in cash or grain ; while in the third the tenant agrees 
to pay so many maunds of grain per bigha. The average rate of rent 
per acre for all classes of ryots is Rs. 4-0-1 1. Ryots holding at fixed 
rates pay Rs. 2-11-11 ; occupancy ryots, Rs. 3-12-3; non-occupancy 
ryots, Rs. 4-9-6 ; and under-ryots, Rs. 4-5-8 per acre. The rent, how- 
ever, varies not only with the character and situation of the land, but 
also according to the caste and position of the cultivator, a tenant of 
a high caste paying less than one of lower social rank. Rents are higher 
in the south than in the north, where the demand for land has developed 
at a comparatively recent date. The highest rents of all are paid in the 
neighbourhood of Hajipur, where poppy, tobacco, potatoes, &c., are grown 
on land which is never fallow and often produces four crops a year. 

The following table shows the collections of land revenue and of 
total revenue (principal heads only), in thousands of rupees : — 





1880-1. 


i8qo-i. 


1900-1. 


1903-4. 


Land revenue 
Total revenue 


9>75 
17,59 


9,87 
16,94 


9,77 
21,91 


9,77 
22,17 



Outside the municipalities of Muzaffarpur, Hajipur, Lalganj, 
and Sitamarhi, local affairs are managed by the District board, with 
subordinate local boards in each subdivision. In 1903-4 its income 
was Rs. 3,31,000, of which Rs. 1,83,000 was derived from rates; and 
the expenditure was Rs. 3,60,000, the chief item being Rs. 2,69,000 
expended on public works. 

The most important public works are the Tirhut embankment on 
the left bank of the Great Gandak, and the TurkI embankment on the 
south bank of the Baghmati. The Gandak embankment, which runs 
for 52 miles from the head of the Baya river to the confluence of the 
Gandak and Ganges, and protects 1,250 square miles of country, is 
maintained by contract. On the expiry of the first contract in 1903, 
a new contract for its maintenance for a period of twenty years at a 
cost of 2-o8 lakhs was sanctioned by Government. The TurkI em- 
bankment, originally built in 1810 by the Kantai Indigo Factory to 
protect the lands of that concern, was acquired by Government about 
1870. It extends from the TurkI weir for 26 miles along the south 
bank of the Baghmati, and protects 90 square miles of the dodb between 
that river and the Little Gandak. In 1903-4 Rs. 2,200 was spent on 
its maintenance. 

The District contains 22 police stations and 14 outposts. The force 
subordinate to the District Superintendent consists of 3 inspectors, 
28 sub-inspectors, 47 head constables, and 432 constables ; the rural 



io6 MUZAFFARFUR DISTRICT 

police force is composed of 238 daffadars and 4,735 chauk'tddrs. A 
District jail at Muzaffarpur has accommodation for 465 prisoners, and 
subsidiary jails at HajTpur and Sitamarhi for 38. 

The standard of literacy, though higher than elsewhere in North 
Bihar, is considerably below the average for Bengal, only 3-9 per cent, 
of the population (7-8 males and 0-3 females) being able to read and 
write in 1901. The number of pupils under instruction, which was 
24,000 in 1880-1, fell to 23,373 in 1892-3, but increased to 29,759 in 
1 900-1. In 1903-4, 35,084 boys and 1,843 gi''^s were at school, being 
respectively 17-7 and 0-85 per cent, of the children of school-going age. 
The number of educational institutions, public and private, in that year 
was 1,520, including one Arts college, 20 secondary, 1,013 primary, and 
486 special schools. The expenditure on education was i'55 lakhs, of 
which Rs. 11,000 was met from Provincial funds, Rs. 53,000 from 
District funds, Rs. 3,000 from municipal funds, and Rs. 57,000 from 
fees. The most important institutions are the Bhuinhar Brahman 
College and the Government District school at Muzaffarpur town. 

In 1903 the District contained five dispensaries, of which three 
had accommodation for 62 in-patients. The cases of 72,000 out- 
patients and Soo in-patients were treated, and 4,000 operations were 
performed. The expenditure was Rs. 13,000, of which Rs. 900 
was met from Government contributions, Rs. 5,000 from Local and 
Rs. 4,000 from municipal funds, and Rs. 3,000 from subscriptions. 
Besides these, two private dispensaries are maintained, one at Baghi 
in the head-quarters subdivision and the other at Parihar in the Sita- 
marhi subdivision, by the Darbhanga Raj. 

Vaccination is compulsory only in municipal areas. In 1903-4 the 
number of persons successfully vaccinated was 87,000, representing 32 
per 1,000 of the population, or rather less than the average for Bengal. 

[L. S. S. O'Malley, District Gazetteer (Calcutta, 1907) ; C. J. Steven- 
son-Moore, Settknient Report (CsXcuitSi, 1900).] 

Muzaffarpur Subdivision. — Head-quarters subdivision of Mu- 
zaffarpur District, Bengal, lying between 25° 54' and 26° 28' N. and 
84° 53'' and 85° 45' E., with an area of 1,221 square miles. It is 
an alluvial tract, bounded on the west by the Great Gandak and inter- 
sected by the Baghmati and Little Gandak, flowing in a south-easterly 
direction. The population was 1,050,027 in 1901, compared with 
1,074,382 in 1 891, the density being 860 persons per square mile. The 
slight decline in the population is due partly to the Muzaffarpur thdna 
having suffered from cholera epidemics, and partly to the fact that it 
supplies a large number of emigrant labourers to Lower Bengal. More- 
over, the dodb between the Baghmati and the Little Gandak is liable to 
frequent inundations. The subdivision contains one town, Muzaffar- 
pur (population, 45,617), its head-quarters ; and 1,712 villages. 



MUZAFFARPUR TOWN 107 

MuzafFarpur Town. — Head-quarters of Muzaffarpur District, 
Bengal, situated in 26° 7' N. and 85° 24' E., on the right bank of the 
Little Gandak. The population, which was 38,241 in 1872, increased 
to 42,460 in 1881 and to 49,192 in 1891, but fell in 1901 to 45,617, 
of whom 31,629 were Hindus and 13,492 Muhammadans. The de- 
crease of 9 per cent, at the last Census is to a great extent only 
apparent ; and, but for the exclusion of one of the old wards from the 
municipal limits, and the temporary absence of a large number of 
people in connexion with marriage ceremonies, the town would probably 
have returned at least as many inhabitants as in 1891. Roads radiate 
from the town in all directions. A considerable trade is carried by the 
Little Gandak, the channel of which, if slightly improved, would carry 
boats of 20 tons burden all the year round. Muzaffarpur was consti- 
tuted a municipality in 1864. The income during the decade ending 
1 90 1-2 averaged Rs. 70,000, and the expenditure Rs. 62,000. Li 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 83,000, including Rs. 30,000 derived 
from a tax on houses and lands, Rs. 16,000 from a conservancy rate, 
Rs. 3,000 from a tax on vehicles, and Rs. 13,000 from tolls. The 
incidence of taxation was Rs. 1-6-1 per head of the population. In 
the same year the expenditure also amounted to Rs. 83,000, the chief 
items being Rs. 3,000 spent on lighting, Rs. 3,000 on drainage, 
Rs. 29,000 on conservancy, Rs. 6,000 on medical relief, Rs. 11,000 on 
roads, Rs. 17,000 on buildings, and Rs. 1,400 on education. The 
town is clean, and the streets in many cases are broad and well kept. 
It contains, in addition to the usual public buildings, a large new 
hospital, a dispensary, and several schools, some of the best of which 
are supported by the Bihar Scientific Society and the Dharmasamaj. 
In 1899 a college, teaching up to the B.A. standard, was established in 
Muzaffarpur through the generosity of a local zann7iddr. The building 
is large, and the college is in a flourishing condition. The District jail 
has accommodation for 465 prisoners, who are employed chiefly in the 
manufacture of mustard oil, castor oil, darts, carpets, matting, aloe 
fibre, coarse cloth, and dusters. Near the court buildings is a lake 
formed from an old bed of the river. To prevent the river from reach- 
ing it, an embankment has been thrown across the lake towards 
Daudpur ; but in spite of this the river has cut very deeply into the 
high bank near the circuit-house, and, unless it changes its course, it 
will probably in time break through the strip of land which at present 
separates it from the lake. Muzaffarpur is the head-quarters of the 
Bihar Light Horse Volunteer Corps. At the time of the Mutiny of 
1857 a small number of native troops who were stationed here rose, 
plundered the Collector's house, and attacked the treasury and jail, but 
were driven off by the police and najlbs and decamped towards Aliganj 
Sewan in Saran District without causing any further disturbance. 

VOL. XVIII. H 



io8 MYAING 

Myaing. — Eastern township of Pakokku District, Upper Burma, 
lying between 21° 24' and 21° ^\' N. and 94° t^t^' and 95° 2' E., with 
an area of 825 square miles. The township is undulating in contour, 
rising gradually towards the Tangyi range of hills that bounds it on the 
west, and has a very meagre rainfall. The population was 47,111 in 
1891, and 71,976 in 190T, distributed in 295 villages. Myaing (popu- 
lation, 610), a village 25 miles north-west of Pakokku, is the head- 
quarters. The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 215 square miles, and 
the land revenue and thathanieda amounted to Rs. 1,53,000. 

Myanaung Subdivision.' — Northern portion of Henzada District, 
Lower Burma, occupying about one-third of the whole, and comprising 
the Kanaung and Kvangin townships. 

Myanaung To"wn. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in the Kanaung township of Henzada District, Lower Burma, 
situated in 18° 17' N. and 95° 22' E., on the western bank of the 
Irrawaddy, about 8 miles south-east of Kyangin and half-way between 
it and Kanaung. Population (1901), 6,351. Myanaung is said to have 
been founded by the Takings about 1250, and was then called Kudut. 
Alaungpaya captured and renamed it in 1754. It was formerly the 
head-quarters of the District, which was then called Myanaung. It 
was constituted a municipality in 1886. During the ten years ending 
1 90 1 the municipal income and expenditure averaged Rs. 18,300 and 
Rs. 18,500 respectively. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 19,000, 
including house tax (Rs. 3,000), market dues, &c. (Rs. 12,700) ; and 
the expenditure was Rs. 18,000, the chief items being conservancy 
(Rs. 4,600), hospital (Rs. 3,000), and roads (Rs. 2,600). The munici- 
pality supports a hospital and an Anglo-vernacular school, and con- 
tributed Rs. 3,000 to education in 1903-4. The Henzada- Kyangin 
railway, when constructed, will pass through Myanaung. 

Myaung. — Western township of Sagaing District, Upper Burma, 
lying in the angle formed by the junction of the Irrawaddy and Chin- 
dwin rivers, between 21° 35'' and 21° 52' N. and 95° 12'' and 95° 26' E., 
with an area of 246 square miles. The population was 25,270 in 1891, 
and 31,497 in 1901, distributed in 79 villages. The head-quarters till 
recently were at Kyaukyit, on the Nabet stream, a waterway connecting 
the Irrawaddy and Chindwin, but have now been moved eastwards to 
Myaung (population, 1,016), on the right bank of the Irrawaddy, about 
40 miles west of Sagaing town. The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 96 
square miles, and the land revenue and thathanieda amounted to 
Rs. 1,14,200. 

Myaungmya District. — A delta District in the Irrawaddy Division 
of Lower Burma, lying between 15° 44' and 16° 55' N. and 94° 36' and 
95° 35' E., with an area of 2,663 square miles. In shape a rough 
parallelogram, the District is bounded on the south by the sea ; on the 



MYAUNGMYA DISTRICT 109 

west by Bassein District ; on the east by Pyapon ; and on the north by 

Ma-ubin. It is practically a collection of flat, fertile islands, sundered 

the one from the other by rivers which wind through 

the levels in a south-westerly direction, and arc con- Physical 

. aspects, 

nected by countless tidal creeks, mostly navigable. 

With the exception of a small tract of rising ground 30 miles south- 
Vv^est of Myaungmya town, an offshoot of the Arakan Yoma, the surface 
of the country is very little above the rise of spring-tides. Towards 
the south, near the coast, the principal features of the scenery are 
interminable stretches of mangrove jungle and dani palm, which border 
the mud-banks of the creeks. Farther north, plantain groves take the 
place of the tidal forests, and, with the pagodas, help to break the 
monotonous character of the landscape, which otherwise would show 
little more than a waste of wide rice flats, chequered with strips of 
grass and tree jungle. Its waterways are the main natural features 
of Myaungmya. These are all branches of the Irrawaddy, though that 
name is given only to the channel which runs down the eastern edge 
of the District, forming the greater portion of the border between it 
and the District of Pyapon. The Panmawadi, composed of various 
streams which leave the Irrawaddy in Henzada District, skirts Myaung- 
mya for a considerable distance on its western side before striking off 
westwards into Bassein, one of its branches, the Thetkethaung, bound- 
ing it down to the sea-coast. Right down the centre of the District 
flows the Pyamalaw river, parallel to the Irrawaddy and Panmawadi, 
and enters the sea in two branches, named the Pyamalaw and Pyinzalu, 
midway between them. The Shwelaung river takes off from the Irra- 
waddy at the north-east corner of the District, and, after forming the 
northern boundary, turns south at the town of Shwelaung, and flows 
midway between the Irrawaddy and the Pyamalaw for about 25 miles. 
Here, combining with a branch of the Irrawaddy, it becomes the 
Kyunpyatthat river, which, leaning first towards the Pyamalaw river, 
eventually joins the Irrawaddy about 24 miles from the sea. The Irra- 
waddy, after forming the eastern boundary of the District for 24 miles, 
divides into two streams, never more than 5 miles apart, which unite 
again about 30 miles farther south. The eastern branch retains the 
name of the Irrawaddy, while the western is known as the Yazudaing. 
The lesser rivers are the Wakema, 23 miles in length, connecting the 
Shwelaung and Pyamalaw, and flowing past the rising town of Wakema, 
and the Einme and Myaungmya, which form a loop from the Panma- 
wadi river nearly 60 miles in length. 

The soil is composed of alluvial formation, resting on a substratum 
of black clay. South-west of Myaungmya is a hilly tract, composed 
of rocks of the Nummulitic group ; but beyond this small stretch of 
upland the country to some depth below the surface is largely a suc- 

H 2 



no MYAUNGMYA DISTRICT 

cession of layers of river silt, brought down from the north within what 
is geologically a comparatively recent date. 

The flora is of the type common to all the delta tracts, which is 
briefly described under Hanthawaddy District. Tidal and swamp 
vegetation predominates. 

Elephants and tigers are found in the southern and more unreclaimed 
parts, but the spread of cultivation is reducing their range. Leopards 
(including the black variety) are found in all parts, and are occasionally 
trapped, and sdmbar and barking-deer are fairly plentiful in the 
Myaungmya township. Monkeys abound in the southern forests, while 
in the smaller creeks are numerous crocodiles, driven to these more 
secluded retreats by the traffic in the larger streams. Along the sea- 
coast both the turtle and the tortoise are common. 

On the whole, the climate, though enervating, is not unhealthy. 
Proximity to the sea renders it more equable than that of the Districts 
farther inland. The average minimum temperature is about 65°, and 
the maximum 95°, the average mean being about 80°. The temperature 
never rises above 105°. The rainfall is copious and regular, varying 
locally with the proximity to the coast. The northern townships receive 
from 70 to 90 inches a year, the southern townships from 90 to 130 
inches. Owing to the nature of the surface of the country, certain 
tracts are regularly inundated during the tains. 

The cyclone of May, 1902, unroofed a third of the dwellings in the 
District, sank many boats with considerable loss of life, and destroyed 
much stored grain ; but visitations of this nature are rare. 

The name Myaungmya is said to mean ' pleasant canal,' but this is 
only the most plausible of various alleged derivations. The District 
has made no permanent mark in history, and, save in 
the fourteenth century, the old annals contain no 
reference to it of importance. In 1387 one Lauk Bya, governor of 
Myaungmya, is said by the Talaing chroniclers to have raised the 
standard of revolt against Razadirit, king of Pegu, and to have called 
in the aid of the king of Ava. The Burmese troops were, however, 
defeated at Hmawbi, the rebellion was quashed, and Lauk Bya was 
eventually captured and beheaded. Myaungmya is referred to in the 
history of the events that followed on this revolt, and in 1410 a 
Burmese army is said to have made an unsuccessful attack upon the 
town. But no mention of it is made in later chronicles, and in neither 
the first nor the second Burmese War did it play an important part. 
The District is of modern creation, having been formed in 1893 by the 
combination of the western townships of Thongwa (now Ma-ubin) 
District with the eastern townships of Bassein District. On the con- 
stitution of Pyapon District in 1903, the Pantanaw township of the 
Wakema (or eastern) subdivision was restored to Ma-ubin District, and 



POPULATION 



a large circle of the Pyindaye township of the old Thongwa District 

was added to Myaungmya, the Wakema township being made into a 

subdivision and divided into two townships, with head-quarters at 

Wakema and Moulmeingyun. 

Owing to the frequent changes in the boundaries of the District, 

it is not possible to give accurate statistics of the population in 

earlier years. In 1881 there were about 85,000 

., -^ ^. ,, Population, 

persons m the area now constitutmg Myaungmya, 

a total which had risen by 189 1 to 185,930. After that date the 

increase in population was very rapid, owing to immigration, and in 

1901 the total stood at 278,119. 

The distribution of the population in 190 1 over tlie existing area 

is given in the following table : — 



Townsliip. 


V. 

a 

en:: 
< 


Number of 


1 

1 


§1 


Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween i8qi 
and I go I. 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 


c 


H 


> 


Myaungmya 
Einme 
Wakema • 
Moulmeingyun . 

District total 


1,069 

315 
71S 

561 


1 
I 


227 
122 
194 
129 


75.343 
59.367 
75,478 
67,931 


70 
188 

105 
120 


+ 49 

+ 45 

i +58* 


19,211 
13.544 
39,200 


2,663 


2 


672 


278,119 


104 


+ 49 


71,955 



* The Moulmeingyun township was only constituted in 1903. 

Myaungmya and Wakema are the only towns. The rate of increase 
is extraordinary in the Wakema township, and throughout the whole 
District is large. The immigrants come chiefly from the neighbouring 
District of Bassein, from the dry zone districts on the Irrawaddy, and 
to a small extent from Mandalay, Shwebo, and Lower Chindwin in 
Upper , Burma. Burmese is spoken by about 190,000 persons, and 
Karen by about 77,000. 

Of the total population, Burmans number about 180,000, and Karens 
about 78,000. The latter are most thickly distributed in the older 
cultivation in the north, and still preserve their language. The immi- 
grants from Upper Burma go farther south to make new clearings. 
About 2,000 persons returned themselves as Talaings in 1901, but 
only a third of them spoke Talaing. The Indian population is small, 
numbering 3,400 Musalmans and 2,000 Hindus. The Christian com- 
munity, on the other hand, is large, numbering about 12,800, being 
the largest aggregate in the Province after Rangoon, Bassein, and 
Toungoo. Two-thirds of the population are directly dependent upon 
agriculture for a living, and about 3,700 live by taung\a (shifting) 
cultivation in the small hilly area of the District. 



I 12 



MYAUNGMYA DISTRICT 



Agriculture. 



There are 12,500 native Christians, mostly Karens. More than 
9,000 of these belong to the American Baptist Mission, which has 
stations in the large Karen villages and many village churches. The 
head-quarters of the Roman Catholic missions are at Myaungmya, 
Kanazogon, and Kyontalok, where there are substantial churches. 

In all parts except the Myaungmya township the natural conditions 
— richness of soil, flatness of surface, and timeliness and sufficiency 
of rainfall — are extremely favourable to agriculture. 
The soil is an alluvial loam on a substratum of clay, 
formed by the deposit of silt from the Irrawaddy floods, which inun- 
date a considerable proportion of the District. The only variation 
in the contour of the land is the gradual slope away from the banks 
to the interior of the island of cultivation. In consequence of these 
favourable conditions, practically nothing but rice {kaukkyi or wet- 
season) is grown, though a certain number of plantain groves exist. 
The system of cultivation is the same as in other parts of Burma, 
the rice being transplanted from nurseries after the ground has been 
prepared with the harrow {tundon). The plough is often not used 
at all, the seed being scattered broadcast after the grass has been 
cut. The gardens usually lie in long narrow strips along the banks 
of the streams. Manuring is said to be unknown and unattempted, 
and even the burning of the surface straw is rare. 

The chief agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are shown below, areas 
being in square miles : — 



Townsiiip. 


Total area. 


Cultivated. Forests. 


Myaungmya 
Einme 
Wakema . 
Moulmeingyun . 

Total 


1,069 

31. S 

718 
561 


205 j \ 

:,?? i ■.48° 

273 N 


2,663 


799 


1,480 



Accurate statistics of the area under cultivation in earlier years 
cannot be given, owing to the numerous changes in the District 
boundaries; but in general terms it may be said that about 312 
square miles were cultivated in i88r, 437 in 1891, and 711 in 1901. 
Rice occupied 764 square miles in 1903-4. The area under garden 
cultivation was 20 square miles, evenly distributed over the various 
townships, with the exception of Moulmeingyun, where the gardens 
are confined to the Kyaikpi circle on the eastern bank of the Irrawaddy. 
Of the total area under orchards, 5,000 acres were devoted to plan- 
tain groves. The daiii palm, used largely for thatching purposes, 
is most popular in the Myaungmya town.ship, and is grown on 4,100 
acres. Almost the only other crop worthy of mention is sugar-cane, 



AGRICULTURE 1,3 

which covers about 550 acres in the Myaungmya and Wakema town- 
ships. Sesamum is, however, also cropped to a small extent, and 
coco-nut palms are fairly plentiful. There are no particular forms of 
tenure. 

Large quantities of cultivable land are taken up each year by the 
agriculturists of the District and the many immigrants. In 1903 about 
39 square miles were ploughed for the first time. The extension 
cannot be continued for long, as the reservation of forests, grazing 
grounds, and fishery tracts has had the effect of reducing the available 
waste land considerably during the past few years. There is nothing 
to record in the way of improvements in agricultural practice. The 
provisions of the Land Improvement and Agriculturists' Loans Acts 
have been made but little use of in recent years, as the large exten- 
sions of cultivation have been carried out by capitalists to whom the 
small sums obtainable under these Acts are no inducement. 

Both buffaloes and kine are bred and employed in the fields. 
Buffaloes are used by Karens and Burmans mostly in the more low- 
lying tracts, where they thrive better than cattle, and have harder 
work to do. Ponies are few and can be used only in the north. In 
the network of creeks which intersects the southern area their employ- 
ment is out of the question. Except in the Wakema township grazing 
reserves are ample. In Wakema cultivation has expanded so rapidly 
during the last decade that the existing reserves are inadequate, but 
steps are being taken to remedy this defect. During the rains the 
cattle have to be protected from countless swarms of mosquitoes by 
the smoke of fires, or even by means of cloth coverings that answer 
the purpose of a mosquito curtain. 

There are no regular irrigation works, and no part of the larger 
embankment schemes of the delta falls within the limits of the Dis- 
trict ; but the Shwelaung marginal road (12 miles long) in the extreme 
north of the Wakema township shelters about 6,000 acres of land. 
Next to the cultivation of rice, fishing is the chief occupation of the 
inhabitants. It was even more important in the days when the Panta- 
naw township formed a portion of the District. The inland fisheries 
occupy a large portion of the eastern part of the Einme township, 
and the revenue derived from them in 1903-4 amounted to 1-3 lakhs. 
A full and interesting description of these fisheries and the methods 
of working them is contained in a report by Major Maxwell pub- 
lished in 1904. Turtle-banks exist along the coast of the District, 
of which the two most important are known as the Amatgale and 
Pyinsalu banks. 

The forests are of no great value. Teak is of comparatively rare 
occurrence, and the mixed forests in which it is found are ' unclassed.' 
There is a small area of tropical forest in the hilly tract about 40 miles 



114 MYAUNGMYA DISTRICT 

south-west of Myaungmya. Littoral forests are common in the southern 
portions, a considerable proportion of the low-lying area round the 
coast being covered with mangrove jungle, for the most part 'reserved.' 
The swamp forests lying to the north of these tidal forests form the 
main rattan-producing tracts of the District. The area of ' reserved ' 
forests is 480 square miles, and of the 'unclassed' area 1,000 square 
miles. The forest receipts in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 28,000. 

The mineral resources are comparatively meagre. Pottery clay is 
found in parts of the Einme township, where the poorer classes have 
taken to pot-making ; and laterite is worked for road-metalling in the 
Myaungmya township, where also limestone is obtained in the hilly 
areas. The quarries are worked only in the dry season, and the blocks 
of limestone when extracted are transported by cart or boat some 
distance to the kilns. 

With the exception of pottery, which is really only a domestic occu- 
pation, there are practically no arts save those that are entirely subsidiary 
to agriculture. Of industries, the manufacture of salt 

iradean^ and 7impi may be mentioned. The head-quarters 
communications. ^ , , . / . , o • 

of the salt industry are at the two villages of Sagyin 

and Ganeik in the south-west of the Myaungmya township, a dozen 

miles from the sea on the Panmawadi river. Salt is obtained by 

evaporation, but the product is coarse and is used almost entirely in 

the local tigapi industry. The annual output is about 50,000 maunds, 

obtained from 14 factories containing 48 cauldrons of a capacity of 

40 gallons each. Ngapi is fish-paste into which all the large surplus 

of fish caught in the District is transformed before being sent into 

the interior of Burma. Many varieties are produced ; but the ngapi 

chiefly made here is the daniin or sea ngapi, the head-quarters of 

the industry being at Labutta, on the right bank of the Ywe river, 

20 miles from the coast. 

The principal exports are paddy and ngapi. The former is carried by 
boat or steamer to either Rangoon or Bassein, according as the one 
or the other port is the more accessible. Ngapi, on the other hand, 
is sent to all parts of Burma. The imports comprise every article 
required by a primitive agricultural or fishing community, such as 
piece-goods, hardware, kerosene oil, &c. ; these commodities are 
brought by river from Rangoon for the most part. The Irrawaddy 
Flotilla Company enjoys the larger share of this trade, but native boats 
also play a conspicuous part in the carrying business. 

No railways have been constructed ; but the connexion of Myaung- 
mya, Thlgvvin, Einme, and Pantanaw (in Ma-ubin District) by means 
of a light railway is under consideration. The only roads are purely 
local. Water communications are so plentiful, however, that these 
deficiencies have so far not been felt \ in fact, no village of any size 



ADMINISTRA TION , 1 5 

is situated far from a navigable waterway. The main steamer route 
from Rangoon to Bassein traverses the District by the cross-streams 
connecting the Irrawaddy, Pyamalaw, Ywe, and Panmawadi rivers. 
The steamers stop at Myaungmya, Wakema, and Shwelaung within 
the limits of the District. In addition, the main trade centres — 
Shwelaung, Wakema, Kyunpyatthat, Moulmeingyun, Einme, Thigwin, 
Myaungmya, and Labutta — are kept in regular communication with 
each other, and with the towns of the neighbouring Districts of Bassein 
and Ma-ubin, by services of smaller steamers and launches. 

The District is divided for administrative purposes into two sub- 
divisions : Myaungmya, comprising the Myaungmya and Einme town- 
ships ; and Wakema, comprising the Wakema and .... 
Moulmeingyun townships. These administrative 
areas are in charge of the usual executive officers, under whom are 
7 talk (or circle) ihugyis and 673 ywathugyis or village headmen. 
The former are being gradually abolished, their revenue duties being 
taken over by the village headmen in accordance with the policy 
pursued by the Government of late years. The Executive Engineer 
at Myaungmya is in charge of a division comprising Myaungmya, 
Ma-ubin, and Pyapon Districts. The District^ together with Bassein, 
forms a Forest division, with head-quarters at Bassein. 

For some considerable time the executive officers of the District 
have been almost completely relieved of civil judicial work, and the 
new judicial scheme is now in force, Myaungmya being the head- 
quarters of the Divisional and Sessions Judge of the Delta Division. 
A District Judge has been appointed, and the Deputy-Commissioner 
has no duties in connexion with civil justice. A subdivisional judge 
has been appointed for the two subdivisions of the District, and there 
is a special civil judge for the Myaungmya and Einme townships, while 
a judge, sitting at Wakema and Moulmeingyun, does the civil work for 
the two townships of the Wakema subdivision. Crime is of the type 
common to all the delta Districts of the Province. It has increased of 
recent years, but not out of proportion to the growth in population. 

Under the Burmese regime the revenue system was the same as that 
obtaining in the other Districts of Lower Burma. A tax was assessed 
at so much per yoke of oxen or buffaloes, and another impost corre- 
sponded more or less to the income tax of modern days. In 1862 acre 
rates were fixed in the northern portion of the Myaungmya township, 
and remained in force till 1 880-1. They varied from R. i to Rs. 2 per 
acre, the former rate being levied on the exhausted land in the Myaung- 
mya circle. The settlement of the Wakema township was carried out 
about the same time, and was revised ten years later. The revenue 
steadily increased, and in 1879-80 the rates were raised by about 
25 per cent, in the Myaungmya township, and by 6 to 25 per cent, in 



ii6 MYAUNGMYA DISTRICT 

the townships of Wakema and Pantanaw (the latter now in Ma-ubin 
District). This increase did not check the extension of cultivation, 
which shows that the higher rates did not press heavily on the people. 
The northern portions of the Myaungmya and Wakema townships were 
again brought under settlement in 1888-9, when they were divided into 
nine assessment tracts (with two soil classes) ; and the rates then in 
existence were replaced by rates on rice land varying from R. i to 
Rs. 2-10 per acre, on gardens at Rs. 2-8, and on miscellaneous 
crops at Rs. 2 per acre. The Einme township (till 1893 part of Bassein 
District) was assessed in 1854 at rates varying from Rs. 1-8 to 
Rs. 1-12 per acre. These were modified in 1862, the maximum 
rate being raised to Rs. 2-8 in a resettlement in 188 1-2. The rates 
fixed in 188 1-2 remained in force till 1897-8 in this area. The culti- 
vated lands in the south of the Myaungmya township were settled 
in 1862, and were not resettled till 190 1-2. At the time of resettle- 
ment rates in force varied from R. i (on the lands nearest the sea) 
to Rs. 2-10 per acre. On resettlement they were modified as 
follows. On rice lands the rate ranged from R. 1 (in the extreme 
south-west corner) to Rs. 3-4 an acre ; on miscellaneous cultivation 
the rate was Rs. 1-8 throughout the tract ; on gardens, Rs. 2 ; on 
dani palms, Rs. 4 ; on solitary fruit trees, 4 annas each. The northern 
part of the Myaungmya township and the Einme township were again 
settled in 1897-8. The lands were reclassified, the village charge 
being substituted for the ktvin as the settlement unit, and rates varying 
from Rs. 1-4 upwards were sanctioned. The maximum rate for 
garden land in this portion of the District is Rs. 5 per acre on betel- 
vine and dani plantations, and Rs. 2-8 on other garden and mis- 
cellaneous cultivation. The settlement of the southern part of the 
Wakema subdivision was completed in 1902-3, the highest rate sanc- 
tioned being Rs. 5 per acre for rice, Rs. 10 for betel-vine, and Rs. 5 for 
dani. The northern part was taken in hand in 1903-4. An ordinary 
rice holding in the Myaungmya township ranges from 10 to 15 acres in 
extent, and in the rest of the District from 20 to 25 acres. Owing to 
the recent formation of the District and the frequent modifications of 
its boundaries, comparative revenue statistics cannot be given. The 
land revenue in 1903-4 amounted to 11-7 lakhs, and the capitation tax 
to 2-5 lakhs; the total revenue was 20 lakhs. 

The District cess fund, derived mainly from a 10 per cent, cess on 
the land revenue, and utilized for various local needs, had an income 
in 1903-4 of 1-6 lakhs; and the chief items of expenditure were public 
works (Rs. 48,000) and education (Rs. 18,000). The only municipality 
in the District is Myaungmya, but Wakema is managed by a town 
committee. 

The civil police force is under the orders of the District Superin- 



MYAUNGMYA TOWNSHIP 117 

tcndent, aided by one Assistant Superintendent and 4 inspectors. The 
lower grades are made up of 8 head constables, 36 sergeants, and 
206 constables, distributed in 12 police stations and 3 outposts. The 
military police force consists of 3 native officers, 8 havi/ddrs, and 
162 men, stationed at Myaungmya, at the various township head- 
quarters, and at Thigwin, Shwelaung, Kyumpyatthat, and Kyaikpi. 

The jail at Myaungmya has an enclosure capable of providing for 
1,000 prisoners, but the actual accommodation in buildings is for 500, 
which is ample at present. The only occupations carried on by the 
prisoners are the manufacture of jail clothing for supply to other jails, 
and gardening. 

The standard of education is fairly high. The percentage of males 
recorded as literate in 1901 was 42-8, and that of females 7-2, or 25-9 
for both sexes together. In 1904 the District contained 7 secondary, 
155 primary, and 256 private (elementary) schools, with 6,734 male and 
1,366 female pupils. The total includes a considerable number of 
Karen seminaries. Myaungmya town possesses an Anglo-vernacular 
middle school, with an attendance of about 100, which is maintained 
by the municipality. The public expenditure on education in 1903-4 
amounted to Rs. 26,600, of which the District cess fund provided 
Rs 18,000, Provincial funds Rs. 4,300, municipal funds Rs. 1,500, 
and fees Rs. 2,800. 

The District contains two hospitals, with forty-nine beds. In 1903 
the number of cases treated was 17,750, including 685 in-{)atients, and 
419 operations were performed. The total expenditure was Rs. 8,000, 
of which municipal funds contributed Rs. 4,900 and Local funds 
Rs. 2,800. 

In 1903-4 the number of persons successfully vaccinated was 12,642, 
representing 42 per 1,000 of population. Vaccination is compulsory 
only in Myaungmya and Wakema towns. 

[W. E. Lowry, Settle f?ienf Report (1899); J. Mackenna, Settlement 
Report (1903); Major F. D. Maxwell, Report on Inla?id and Sea 
Fisheries (1904).] 

Myaungmya Subdivision. — Western subdivision of Myaungmya 
District, Lower Burma, comprising the Myaungmya and Einme 
townships. 

Myaungmya Township. — Township of Myaungmya District, 
Lower Burma, lying between 15° 47' and 16° 43' N. and 94° 36' and 
95° 13' E., with an area of 1,069 square miles. It is comprised between 
the Pyamalaw and Panmawadi rivers on the east and west, and extends 
from the Myaungmya river to the sea. It is for the most part flat, 
and would be a typical delta area were it not for a small tract of com- 
paratively hilly country which rises to the south-west of the township 
head-quarters, forming the only high land in the District. The great 



ii8 MYAUNGMYA TOWNSHIP 

majority of the population occupy the north-east, and large stretches 
of jungle cover the southern portions. The population was 53,224 
in 1891, and 75,343 in 1901, distributed in 227 villages and one town, 
Myaungmya (population, 4,711), the head-quarters. About one-third 
of the total are Karens. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 
205 square miles, paying Rs. 3,15,000 land revenue; and the total 
revenue amounted to Rs. 5,68,000. 

Myaungmya Town. — Head-quarters of the District and township 
of the same name in the Irrawaddy Division of Lower Burma, situated 
in 16° 35'' N. and 95° E., on the Myaungmya river, close to the western 
border of the District. Myaungmya is a District of recent creation, 
and its head-quarters is one of the smallest in the Province. The 
population in 1901 was 4,711. Portions of the urban area are low- 
lying, but the civil station is not unpleasantly situated on fairly high 
ground behind the native houses which cluster round the river bank. 
There is little of note in the history of the town beyond what is 
embodied in the District article. It was the scene of the first rising 
among the Karens in 1853, and became the District head-quarters 
forty years later. It contains no pagodas or other remains of more 
than local importance. The municipality of Myaungmya was estab- 
lished in 1886. The municipal income during the ten years ending 
T901 averaged Rs. 18,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 26,000, 
principally derived from tolls on markets (Rs. 17,500) and house tax 
(Rs. 2,000). The expenditure amounted to Rs. 36,000, the chief 
items of outlay being conservancy (Rs. 5,000) and hospitals (Rs. 5,800). 
The only large municipal scheme worthy of mention is the construction 
of a market recently undertaken at a cost of Rs. 44,000. There are 
no industries of importance in the town. The municipal school is 
the most important in the District, with an attendance of about 
100 scholars. The municipal hospital has thirty beds. 

Myebon. — Coast township of Kyaukpyu District, Lower Burma 
lying between 19° 38' and 20° 16' N. and 93° 13' and 93° 51' E., with 
an area of 441 square miles. The head-quarters are at the village 
of Myebon (population, 1,120), on an island at the northern end of 
Hunter's Bay, in the extreme north-west corner of the District. The 
township is hilly and intersected by tidal creeks. The population was 
20,880 in 1891 and 24,100 in 1901. The number of villages is 146. 
The majority of the population are Buddhists, but there is a sprinkling 
of «a/-worshipping Chins in its hill areas. The population is scattered 
and the density (54 persons per square mile) is low. About 58 square 
miles were cultivated in 1903-4, paying Rs. 61,000 land revenue. 

Myede. — South-eastern .subdivision of Thayetmyo District, Burma, 
conterminous with the Allanmyo township, and lying to the east of the 
Irrawaddy, between 18° 55' and 19° 30' N. and 95° 9' and 95° 52' E. 



MYINGYAN DISTRICT 119 

It has an area of 912 square miles, and the population was 76,563 in 
1 89 1 and 66,672 in 1901. The township contains one town, Allanmvo 
(population, 10,207), the head-quarters; and 322 villages. The rainfall 
is precarious, and the large decrease in inhabitants since 1891 is due 
to emigration to the rich delta Districts of the Irrawaddy Division. 
About one-eighth of the population are Chins, inhabiting the slopes 
of the Pegu Yoma, which separates the township on the east from 
Toungoo District. The township, which is intersected by low hills, 
contained 85 square miles under cultivation in 1903-4, paying 
Rs. 63,000 land revenue. 

Myelat Division (Southern Shan States). — A group of Shan States, 
Burma, bordering on the Meiktila Division of Upper Burma, and 
consisting of the States of Hsamonghkam, Kvawkku, Kvong, Loi-ai, 
LoiMAW, Maw, Mawnang, Mawson, Namhkai, Namtok, Pangmi, 
Pangtara, PoiLA, Yengan, and Loilong. They are in charge of an 
Assistant Superintendent stationed at Hsamonghkam (Thamakan), a 
village near the Thazi-Taunggyi road. The Assistant Superintendent 
also supervises the administration of the Shan State of Yawnghwe. 

Myher. — State in the Baghelkhand Agency, Central India. See 
Maihar. 

Myingun. — South-western township of Magwe District, Upper 
Burma, lying along the Irrawaddy, between 19° 43' and 20° 8'' N. and 
95° \' and 95° 28' E., with an area of 447 square miles. The soil 
consists mainly of induing, a dry sandy earth on which sesamum and 
millets are the only crops. The population was 24,354 in 1891, and 
26,029 i'^ 190I) distributed in loi villages, Myingun (population, 1,342), 
on the Irrawaddy south of Magwe, being the head-quarters. The 
area cultivated in 1903-4 was 10 1 square miles, and the land revenue 
and thathameda amounted to Rs. 69,000. 

Myingyan District. — A dry zone District in the Meiktila Division 
of Upper Burma, lying between 20° 32' and 21° 46' N. and 94° 43' 
and 96° \' E., with an area of 3,137 square miles. On the west it 
is bounded by the Irrawaddy river, on the north by Sagaing District, 
on the east by Kyaukse and Meiktila, and on the south by Magwe 
District. It is an irregularly shaped stretch of arid 
country, about twice as long as it is broad, stretching aspects^ 

south-west and north-east along the eastern bank 
of the Irrawaddy. Most of it is dry undulating plain-land, diversified 
by isolated hill masses. The more northerly of these clumps of 
upland are comparatively insignificant. Popa Hill, however, near 
the south-east corner, is a conspicuous eminence, forming the most 
noticeable feature of the District. It is more or less conical in .shape; 
its origin is volcanic, and it has two peaks of almost equal height nearly 
5,000 feet above sea-level. While the summit is bare, the lower slopes 



I20 MYINGYAN DISTRICT 

are covered with gardens, where fruit trees flourish, for owing to its 
position in the centre of the plains, Popa attracts and catches a Hberal 
rainfall. On the south and east of the main central cone are many 
spurs extending to the Pin valley and Meiktila. North of the peak 
rough and hilly ground extends to the Taungtha hills, which rise from 
the plain a few miles south of Myingyan town, and attain a height 
of nearly 2,000 feet. Other stretches of upland deserving of mention 
are the Taywindaing ridge traversing the Pagan subdivision in the 
south-west, and the Yondo, the Sekkyadaung, and the Mingun hills 
in the Myingyan and Natogyi townships, in the extreme north of the 
District on the borders of Sagaing. 

The only river of importance is the Irrawaddy, which skirts the 
western border. Entering the District near Sameikkon in the north, 
it runs in a south-westerly direction for a few miles, then south till it 
reaches Myingyan town, where it makes a curve to the west, forming, 
just off Myingyan, a large island called Sinde, which, in the dry season, 
interposes several miles of sandbank between the steamer channel and 
the town. After passing this bend, the river again takes a south- 
westerly course till it reaches Nyaungu (Pagan). Here the channel 
turns south for a while, then again south-west to Sale, and finally south- 
east till the southern border of the District is reached. In the channel 
are numerous fertile islands, on which tobacco, beans, rice, chiUies, 
and miscellaneous crops are grown. Parts of these islands are washed 
away every year, and fresh islands spring up in their place, a source 
of endless disputes among the neighbouring thugyis. Besides the 
Irrawaddy, the only perennial streams are the Popa chaimg in the 
south and the Hngetpyawaing chatmg in the north. Only the first 
of these, however, has an appreciable economic value. The principal 
intermittent watercourses are the Sindewa, the Pyaungbya, and the 
Sunlun streams. For the greater part of the year the beds of these 
are dry sandy channels, but after a heavy fall of rain they are converted 
into raging torrents. 

The rocks exposed belong entirely to the Tertiary system, and 
consist for the most part of soft sandstones of pliocene age thrown 
into long flat undulations or anticlines by lateral pressure. In some 
instances denudation has removed the pliocene strata from the crests 
of the more compressed folds, and exposed the miocene clays and 
sandstones beneath. These low ridges are separated by broad tracts 
covered with alluvium. The clay varies in consistency, but is generally 
light and always friable on the surface, however hard it may be below. 
The sandstone is of light yellow colour. It forms thick beds, which 
frequently contain nodular or kidney-shaped concretions of extremely 
hard siliceous sandstone. The concretions, which are sometimes of 
considerable size, are arranged in strings parallel to the bedding, and 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 12 r 

project out of the surrounding softer materials, forming a very con- 
spicuous feature in the landscape. In parts of the District, chiefly 
in the south, silicified trunks of trees are found, some of great length. 
Distinct from the rocks found in the plains is the volcanic Popa 
region. Dr. Blanford, in 1862, reported that he found six different 
beds represented on the hill and in its environs, which were as 
follows : lava of variable thickness capping the whole ; soft sands 
and sandy clays, yellow, greenish, and micaceous ; a white sandy bed, 
abounding in fragments of pumice ; volcanic ash, containing quartz 
and pebbles ; ferruginous gravel and sandy clay, containing quartz 
and pebbles and numerous concretions of peroxide of iron ; coarse 
sand, mostly yellowish, with white specks. 

The cutch-tree is found throughout the District, but it is fast dis- 
appearing. Not only is it cut and its very roots dug out of the ground 
to be boiled down for cutch, but the young trees are much exploited 
for harrow teeth. The thitya {Shorea ol/tusa), tanaung (^Acacia leuco- 
phloea), letpan {Bombax vialabariaini), nyaung {Ficus), and tamarind 
{Tamarindus indica) are the commonest trees. Toddy-palms {Borassus 
flahellifer) are very plentiful, and form an appreciable part of the wealth 
of the people. Bamboos are found on the low hills on the Meiktila 
border and on Popa. The jack-tree {Artocarpiis ititegrifolia) is common 
about Popa, and the zibyu {Cicea luacrocarpa) and the zi {Zizyphus 
Jujuba) produce fruit which is exported by the ton to Lower Burma, 
besides being consumed in the District itself. On Popa a little teak 
and a number of thitya and ingyin {Pentacme stametisis) trees are found. 

Barely fifty years have elapsed since elephants, sambar, and tigers 
roamed the forests in the neighbourhood of Popa. Since the occupa- 
tion of Upper Burma, however, no elephants have visited the District, 
and the sdmbar and tiger have disappeared, though there are still 
numerous leopards, and on Popa a few specimens of the serow 
i^Nemorhaedus sumatrensis) have been seen and shot. The thamin 
(brow-antlered deer) is scarce, but hog and barking deer are common, 
the former in the heavier jungle, the latter everywhere. Wild dogs, 
which hunt in packs, are found in the Natogyi and Kyaukpadaung 
townships. 

The climate of the District is dry and healthy, the atmosphere being 
practically free from moisture for the greater part of the year. In 
March and April, and often for several days together throughout the 
rains, a strong, high, dry, south-west wind sweeps the District, a trial to 
human beings and a curse to the crops. Popa, thanks to its elevation, 
has a pleasantly cool climate during the hot season, but has never been 
systematically made use of as a sanitarium. The maximum tempera- 
ture in the Irrawaddy valley varied in 1901 from 105° in May to 85° 
in December, and the minimum from 75° in May to 56° in December. 



122 MYINGYAN DISTRICT 

In July, a typical rains month, the mean was about 80° in the same 
year. 

Owing to its position in the dry zone, the District suffers from 
a fickle and scanty rainfall. An excessively heavy downpour is often 
followed by a lengthy spell of dry scorching heat ; and it may be said 
that not much oftener than twice in the year on an average does the 
sky become black, and true monsoon conditions prevail. At other 
times the rainfall is confined to small showers and thunderstorms. 
It is, moreover, not only meagre, but capricious in its course, and 
leaves tracts here and there altogether unvisited. The rainfall in 1901, 
which was on the whole normal, varied from 22^ inches at Pagan 
and Sale to 30 inches in the more hilly townships of Taungtha and 
Kyaukpadaung. 

The early history of the District is bound up with that of the famous 
Pagan dynasty, the beginnings of which are wrapped in a mist of 
. nebulous tradition. According to legend, the king- 

dom of Pagan was founded early in the second 
century by Thamudarit, the nephew of a king of Prome, when that 
town was destroyed by the Talaings. This monarch is said to have 
established his capital at Pugama near Nyaungu, and to have been 
followed by kings who reigned at Pugama, Thiripyitsaya, Tampawadi, 
and Paukkarama (or Pagan) for nearly 1,200 years. One of the most 
famous of these early rulers was Thinga Yaza, who threw off the yellow 
robe of the pongyi and seized the throne, and is credited with having 
left a mark in history by his establishment of the Burmese era, starting 
in A. D. 638. The whole history of this early period, however, is unre- 
liable. Pagan itself is said to have been founded in 847 by a later 
king, Pyinbya ; and here we have evidence from other sources, which 
more or less corroborates the date given. The Prome chronicles 
record a second destruction of Prome by the Talaings in 742, which 
led to the migration of the reigning house northwards to Pagan. 
Prome was in all probability raided several times in these early days, 
and even the later of the two sackings alluded to occurred at a period 
which can hardly be dignified with the title of historical. The early 
annals are of little scientific value, but from the accumulated mass of 
myth and tradition there emerge the two facts that the Pagan dynasty 
originated from Prome, and that it was finally established in the seats 
it was to make famous not later than the middle of the ninth century. 
The son and successor of Pyinbya, the founder of Pagan, was murdered 
by one of his grooms, a scion of the royal family, who succeeded him. 
One of the murdered king's wives, however, escaped and gave birth to 
a son, who eventually regained the throne and became the father of 
Anawrata. This great ruler conquered Thaton, and from the sack 
of the Talaing capital brought away the king Manuha and a host of 



HISTORY ,,3 

captive artificers, whom he cuipluycd in hiiilding the pagodas lor whicii 
Pagan has been famous ever since. He died after a reign of forty- 
two years. His great-grandson, Alaungsithu, extended his sway over 
Arakan and reigned seventy-five years : he was succeeded by the cruel 
Narathu, who was assassinated by hired Indian bravoes, and was 
known afterwards as the Kaldkya i/ii/i ("tlie king oserthrown by tlie 
foreigners "). While Narapadisithu, one of the last-named monarch's 
successors, was on the throne the kingdom attained the zenith of its 
glory, to crumble rapidly in the thirteenth century during the reign ol' 
Tayokpyemin, a monarch who earned his title b\- flying from Pagan 
before a Chinese invasion which he had brought on his country by the 
murder of an ambassador. The last king, Kyawzwa, was enticed to 
a monastery by the three sons of Theingabo, a powerful Shan Sawbwa, 
who compelled him to assume the yellow robe, and divided among 
themsehes the residue of the Pagan kingdom. Since that time Pagan 
has played a comparatively unimjiortant part in Burmese histor\. 
Vandabo, where the treaty was signed in 1826 which ))ut an end to the 
first Burmesie ^^"ar, lies on the Irrawaddy in the north of the District. 

A District, with its head-c^uarters at Myingyan, was constituted in 
1885 as the Mandalay expedition passed up the Irrawaddy, and Pagan 
was made the head-quarters of a second Deputy-Commissioner's 
charge. These two Districts contained, in addition to the areas now 
forming Myingyan, portions of Meiktila and Magwe, and the whole 
of what is now Pakokku District : but Pakokku and Meiktila were 
shortly afterwards formed, and on the creation of the former Pagan 
was incorporated .in Myingyan. At annexation the local officials sur- 
rendered to the expedition, and there was no open hostility. The 
Burmese governor, however, after remaining loyal for six months, 
joined the Shwegyobyu pretender at Pakangyi in Pakokku District. 
During these early days of British dominion trade flourished on the 
river bank, but throughout 1886 portions of the District were practically 
held by dacoits, especially in the tract south of Pagan. The northern 
and eastern areas, however, were kept quiet to a certain extent by the 
establishment of posts at Sameikkon on the Irrawadd)-, and at Natogyi 
inland in the north-east of the District ; and combined operations from 
Myingyan and Ava put a stop to the dei)redations of a leader who 
called himself Thinga Yaza. But the mountain valleys about the base 
of Popa long remained the refuge of cattle-lifters, robbers, and receivers 
of stolen property, and at least one dacoit was still at large in this tract 
ten years after annexation. In 1887 a leader named Nga Cho gave 
considerable trouble in the south, and a second outlaw, Nga Tok, 
harried the north. The latter was killed in 1888 ; but the former and 
another leader, Yan Nyun, famous for his cruelties, disturbed the Dis- 
trict for two years more. By i88y the whole of Myingyan, excepting 

VOL. XVIII. 1 



ii4 



.]/y/.V(;)'.I.V DISTRICT 



the. Popa tia<-t, was free from dacoits ; but it was not till 1890, when 
Van Nyun surrendered, that the entire District could be regarded as 
pacified. Nga Cho remained at large six years longer, but ceased to 
he a dangerous leader when Van Nyun came in. 

The chief objects of archaeological interest are the ruined temples of 
Pagan. In the Natogyi township, at Pyinzi, are the ruins of a moat 
and wall said to mark the site of the residence of a prosperous prince 
of olden days. In the Taungtha townshi[), at Konpato, is the Palo 
pagoda, where a large festival is held every November. Near East 
Nyaungu is the Kyaukku, or rock-cave pagoda, said to have been built 
to commemorate the floating of a stone which a pongyi, charged with 
a breach of his monastic vows, flung into the river, establishing his 
innocence by means of the miracle. In the cliff under the pagoda are 
several caves inhabited hy pongy is : and near them are the caves of the 
Hngetpyittaung kyaiing, reputed to have been built for Buddhist mis- 
sionaries from India, and to be connected by an underground i)assage 
with the Kyaukku pagoda, more than a mile distant. Festivals are 
held in NoAcmber at the Zedigyi pagoda at Sale ; in February at 
the Thegehla pagoda at Pakannge, in the Sale township; in November 
at the Myatshweku pagoda at Kyaukpadaung ; and in July at the 
Shinbinsagyo pagoda at Uyin, in the Sale townshij). 

The population was 351,465 in 1891, and 356,052 in 1901. Its 

distribution in the latter year is shown in the tabic 

below : — 



Population. 





s 


Number of 


c 





age of 
on in 
on be- 
1891 
goi. 









Towiisiiip. 




c 


a 


c. 


5 « 

s s 




uinb 
ons . 
ead 
writ 




u 












^ £ ^ 
^ 




< 


H 


> 


" 


ir, 


^'^ir 


Myingyan 


422 


1 


J 75 


81,978 


194 


+ 15 


20,418 


laungthn 


516 




203 


57.7^9 


112 




13,4.^0 


Natogyi 


39.T 




160 


57>33S 


'45 


+ 8 


10,862 


Pagan .... 


582 


I 


189 


56,971 


98 


+ '5 


13,178 


Sale .... 


498 


... 


'.^7 


33,993 


68 


-25 


7,601 


Kyaukpadaung 

District total 


3,137 


2 


304 


68,043 


94 


+ 2 


13,853 


i,i8S 


356,052 


114 


+ I 


79,342 



The two towns are Myingvan, the head-quarters, and Nyaungu. 
The population has been almost stationary for several years pa.st, and 
has increased materially only in the rather thinly inhabited township of 
Pagan. Elsewhere there has been a decrease, or the rise has been 
insignificant. Partial famines, due to scarcity of rain, have caused 
considerable emigration from the Sale township, and similar causes 
have operated elsewhere. A regular ebb and flow of population 
l)Cl\vecn the Districts of Meiktila, Vamelhin, and Myingyan is rcgu- 



ALiRICl l.n RE 



'-^5 



lated largely by the barometer, but, (jwiml; to the abseiiLt of railways 
in Myingyan till lately, the inward How in the uKjre promising seasons 
has been checked. Though its rate of growth has been slow, Myingyan 
ranks high among the Districts of Upper Burma in density of popula 
tion, and the rural population of the .Myingyan township is as thick as 
in many of the delta areas. Buddhism is the prevailing religion ; in 
tact, the adherents of other religions form less than i per cent, of the 
total, and all but a fraction of the inhabitants speak Burmese. 

The number of Burmans in 1901 was 354,100, or more than 99 per 
cent, of the total population. The District is one of the few in liurma 
that has no non-Burman indigenous races : and the absence till recently 
of a railway is doubtless responsible for the smallness of the Indian 
colony, which numbers only about 1,400, etjuatly divided between 
Hindus and Musalmans. In 1901 the number of persons directly 
dependent on agriculture was 224,095, representing 6j per cent, of 
the total population, compared with 66, the corresponding percentage 
for the Province as a whole. 

There are only 180 Christians, 109 of whom are natives, and there 
is at present comparatively little active missionary work. 

Myingyan is, for the most part, a stretch of rolling hills, sparsely 

covered with stunted vegetation, and cut up by deep nullahs : and most 

of the cultivation is found in the long and generally . , 

,, , • . , 1 , Agriculture, 

narrow valleys se[)aratmg the ridges, and on the lower 

slopes of the rising ground. The cultivated areas occur in patches. 

Rich land is .scarce, the rainfall is precarious, and one of the main 

characteristics of the country is the large e.xtent (jf ya or ' dry upland " 

cultivation. The District may be divided for agricultural purposes 

into four tracts --alluvial, upland, valley, and the Popa hill area— while 

the crops grown on these may be split up into the following seven 

groups: permanently irrigated rice, may in rice, mogau/ig rice, ja crops, 

kaing crops, laze crops, and gardens. Both kaing and taze crops are 

grown on inundated land in the river-side area. The 'dry crop.s,' 

which are of the ordinary kinds (millet, sesamum, and the like), are 

found away from the Irravvaddy. Some little distance from the river 

is a strip of poor land running north and south through the west of 

the Myingyan and Taungtha townships and the east of the Kyauk- 

padaung township, mainly devoted to the cultivation of millet, witli 

sesamum and pulse as subordinate crops, often as separate harvests 

on one holding. South-west of this strip, and separated from it by 

the mass of Popa and the hills branching from it, is the poorest land 

in the District, occupying the greater part of the Pagan and .Sale 

townships. The staple crop here is early sesamum, followed, as a 

second harvest, by peas, beans, or /«. The uplands occupying the 

northern portion of the Myingyan township, the western portion of 

I 2 



i3h .y)7A'Cv.i.y nrsTiui'T 

the Natogyi township, and the eastern portion of Taungtha township 
form, with the adjoining parts of Sagaing and Meiktila, the great 
cotton-growing tract of Burma, about 200 square miles in extent, 
nearly half of which lies within Myingyan. Mogaung (rain-irrigated) 
rice lands are cultivated in the east of the Natogyi township in the 
extreme north-east of the District, while mayin is grown in the beds of 
tanks, and the lower slopes of Popa are covered with plantain groves. 
The soil in the two richest townships (Natogyi and Myingyan) is loam 
and clay, and the rainfall is more regular here than in the poorest 
townships (Sale and Pagan), where gravel and sandstone predominate. 

The following table gives the chief agricultural statistics for 1903-4, 
in square miles : — 



Township. 


Total area. 


Cultivated. ' Irrigated. 


Forests. 


Myingyan . 

Taungtha . 

Natogyi 

Pagan 

Sale .... 

Kyaukiiadaung . 

Total 


422 

396 

582 
498 

724 


183 ■ 1 

172 ; 

161 4 

150 

113 

196 6 


1 ' ' 
- 468 

1 


3,137 975 " 


468 



Nearly 140 square miles of the area cultivated in 1903-4 bore 
two harvests, and about 128 square miles failed to mature. In the 
same year millet covered about 420, and sesamum (chiefly the early 
variety) 336 square miles. Pulse of various kinds was grown on 
137, and rice on only 81 square miles, an area quite insufficient for 
the needs of the District. Cotton covered 88 square miles, and 
1,900 acres were under orchards, the greater part being plantain 
groves. 

Repairs to the Kanna tank have added 4,000 acres to the rice 
lands in the Natogyi township, but elsewhere the cultivable area has 
slightly decreased of late, in consequence of the formation of ' reserved ' 
forests. The only new crop that has met with success is the Pondi- 
cherry ground-nut, which was introduced a few years ago. In 1903-4 
about 800 acres of land were under this crop. It gives a large out- 
turn and is very remunerative. The ex[)erimental cultivation of Havana 
and Virginia tobacco has not met with success. The leaves of these 
varieties are looked upon as too small, and the Burmans decline to 
lake the trouble to cure them after American methods. 

Practically no advances have been made under the Land Improve- 
ment Loans Act. On the other hand, advances under the Agriculturists' 
Loans Act, for the purchase of seed-grain and plough cattle, are very 
popular. The advances, which averaged more than Rs. 25,000 in 
the three years ending 1904, are made on the mutual security of 



.iCA'icri/ri A'/: ,.>; 

the villagers requiring loans; their recovery on due date is easily 
effected, and no loss has been caused to ilu' state hv any failure in 
repayment. 

The District has always been noted for its bullocks, whose quality 
is due to the large areas of pasturage that exist on lands not fertile 
enough for cultivation, or only occasionally cultivated. Cattle-breeding 
is practised by all the well-to-do cultivators to a greater or less extent. 
Goat-breeding has largely increased of late. Buffaloes are kept along 
the banks of the Irrawaddy, but are rare in the interior. A few sheep 
are reared in Myingyan town by butchers. Alyingyan has always held 
a high place among the pony-breeding centres of Burma ; and locally 
the palm is awarded to Popa by the Burmans, who credit l'o[)a grass 
and water with special strength-giving properties, and have given the 
local breed the name of kyauksai/fig-myo. The necessity of allotting 
grazing-grounds has not yet arisen, for on the uplands there is abun- 
dance of waste land. Inland, away from the Irrawaddy, the question 
of watering the live-stock is often a difficult one. 

Except in the basin of the Pin stream, which suj)plies a few private 
canals, there is practically no irrigation beyond what is afforded by 
tanks entirely dependent on the rainfall or high river-floods. The 
majority of these are in the north-east of the District, and the most 
important are the Kanna and the Pyogan. In 1901-2 the newly 
repaired Kanna tank began to water the fields below it, with the 
result that land, which used formerly to be cultivated but had dropped 
out of cultivation, is now being eagerly taken up. It is estimated 
to be capable of irrigating 4,000 acres. The dam was seriously 
breached in 1903, but has been repaired. The Pyogan tank irri- 
gates about 1,000 acres. In the neighbourhood of Pyinzi, in the 
Natogyi township, a number of private tanks water a considerable 
area ; but in the whole District only 6,800 acres were returned as 
irrigated in 1903-4. Of this area, 3,900 acres drew their supplies 
from Government works. 

In 1 90 1 the District contained 73 fisheries, of which 57 were in 
the Myingyan and 16 in the Pagan township. The only important 
one is the Daung, which lies about 5 miles to the south-west of 
Myingyan town, and dries up enough to produce fNayin rice from 
November to April. A large number of the fishermen leave the 
District annually at the end of November for the delta Districts and 
Katha, returning to Myingyan when the rains set in. 

With the exception of a tract in the vicinity of Popa, the forests 
of Myingyan consist chiefly of dry scrub growth. Here the only 
plant of any importance is the Acacia Catechu, yielding the cuich of 
commerce. The cutch industry used to be flourishing, but has de- 
clined of late years owing to the exhaustion of the supply, due to 



128 Ar]7X(;)'.I.V mSTRTCT 

overwork in tlie past. Approaching Popa the scrub growth merges 
into dry forest with i/ii(yi>i, and here and there thiiva and teak of 
poor description, while the old crater of Popa and the slopes on the 
south and east sides of the hill are clothed wnth evergreen forest. 
At the close of igoo-i there were no 'reserved' forests in the Dis- 
trict, but since then 74 square miles have been gazetted as Reserves. 
The area of unreserved forests is 394 square miles ; but hardly any- 
thing of value is left in any of the jungle tracts, and the total forest 
revenue averages only about Rs. 600. 

Iron ore and sulphur have been found in the Pagan township, hut 
are not worked. In several villages in the Kyaukpadaung township, 
and at Sadaung in the Natogyi township, salt is manufactured by 
primitive methods for local consumption. Petroleum oil has been 
found by the Burma Oil Company in the neighbourhood of Chauk 
village in the Singu circle of the Pagan township. The oil is said 
to be extraordinarily low-flashing, of a quality similar to that obtained 
from the Yenangyat wells. A refinery for extracting the naphtha has 
been built; and in 1903 the company was employing a staff of 
7 Americans, 47 natives of India, and 55 Burmans. The Rangoon 
Oil Company is also boring within the limits of the District. 

Cotton-weaving is practised by women on a small scale in nearly 

every village, the yarn used being generally imported from England 

or Bombay. A few goldsmiths, who make orna- 

Trade and nients for native wear, are found in the towns and 
communications. , .„ , ,t • , • 1 1 • 

large villages ; and at Mymgyan the mhabitants 

of one whole street devote their time to casting bells, images, 

and gongs from brass. Pottery is made at Yandabo and Kadaw 

in the Myingyan township, and in a few other localities, but 

only as an occupation subsidiary to agriculture. Lacquer-ware is 

manufactured by the people of Old Pagan, West Nyaungu, and the 

adjoining villages. The framework of the articles manufactured is 

composed of thin slips of bamboos closely plaited together. This 

is rubbed with a mixture of cow-dung and jiaddy husk to fill up the 

interstices, after which a coat of thick black varnish (/////.«) is laid on 

the surface. An iron style is then used to grave the lines, dots, and 

circles which form the pattern on the outer portion of the box. 

Several successive coats of cinnabar, yellow orpiment, indigo, and 

Indian ink are next put on, the box or other article being turned on 

a primitive lathe so as to rub off the colour not required in the pattern. 

After each coat of colour has been applied, the article is polished by 

rubbing with oil and paddy Inisk. The workmen who apply the 

different colours are generally short-lived and liable to disease : their 

gums are always spongy and discoloured. Mats and baskets are woven 

in the villages on Popa and in the neighbourhood, where bamboos 



IK. IDF. AND COM \U\IC.\riO\S , m, 

^row pl'.-ntiluUy. 'I'hr iniiicipal lacloiy is ;i coiion j^inninu niill in 
Myingyan town owned h\ a lionihay nmi. It is doiny a lai|;e husincss. 
and buys up nearly three-lourtlis of the raw cotton grown in the 
District, having thus replaced the hand cotton-gins which existed 
in large numbers before its establishment. In addition to cotton- 
ginning, the mill extracts oil from cotton seed, and makes cotton-seed 
cake and country soap. Four other steam ginning factories have been 
established ; and keen competition has caused the prices of the raw- 
material to rule high, and has greatly bLiiefited the cultivators. 

The external trade is monopolized by Myingyan town, Sameikkun, 
I'aungtha, and Yonzin in the Myingyan, and by Xyaungu, Singu. 
Sale, and Kyaukye in the Pagan subdivision, 'i'he [)rincipal traders 
at Myingyan are Chinese and Indians, but elsewhere the Rurmans still 
have most of the local business in their hands. The chief exports arc; 
beans, gram, tobacco, cotton, jaggery, chillies, cutch, wild plums, 
lacrjuer-ware, hides, cattle, and ponies. Chief among the imports arc 
rice, paddy, salt and salted fish, hardware, piece-goods, yarn, bamboos, 
timber, betel-nuts, and petroleum. I'he imports come in and the ex- 
ports go out b)' railway and steamer. Most of the business is done 
at the main trade centres, but professional pedlars also scour the 
whole District, hawking imported goods of all sorts among the rural 
population. 

The branch railway line tVom Thazi through jVIeiktila to Myingyan, 
commenced in 1897 as a famine relief work, has a length of about 
32 miles within the District. The country is well provided with roads. 
Those maintained by the Public \Vorks department have a length 
of 203 miles, the most important running from Myingyan to Mahlaing 
(31 miles), from Myingyan to Natogyi (19 miles), and on to Pyinzi 
near the Kyaukse boundary (15 miles), from Myingyan to Pagan 
(42 miles), from Pagan to Kyaukpadaung and J-etpabya, near ilu- 
Ixjrders of Magwe District (50 miles), and from Kyaukpadaung to 
Sattein and Taungtha (45 miles). About 400 miles of serviceable 
fair-weather roads, rather more than one-third of which are in the 
Pagan township, are maintained by the District fund. 

The only navigable river is the Irrawaddy, which forms the western 
border. The Irrawaddy Flotilla Company's steamers (mail and cargo 1 
call at Myingyan, Sameikkon, Nyaungu, Singu, and .Sale regularly 
several times a week each way, and there are daily steamers from 
Myingyan to Mandalay and Pakokku. .\ large part of the trade of 
the riverain tract is carried in country boats. 'I'he District contains 
19 public ferries— two managed by the Myingyan municipality, one by 
the Nyaungu town committee, and 16 by the Deputy-Commissioner 
for the benefit of the Myingyan District funtl. 

The earliest famine still remembered occurred in 1S56-7, when the 



I30 MYINGYAN DISTRICT 

rain« are said to have failed completely and the crops withered in 
the fields. No steamers were available to bring up rice from Lower 
Burma, nor was there any railway to carry emigrants 
down ; the result was that the people died in the 
fields gnawing the bark of trees, or on the highways wandering in 
search of food, or miserably in their own homes. The more desperate 
formed themselves into gangs, and murdered, robbed, and plundered. 
The Burmese government imported rice from the delta, but its price 
rose to, and remained at, famine level. From the epoch of this famine 
changes came upon the country. It had brought home to the culti- 
vators the unreliability of rice ; and the next few years saw an increase 
in the area under sesamum, cotton, and hdjra, and the introduction of 
jotvar. The years preceding the annexation in 1885 were bad, and 
in 189 1-2 there was distress. In 1896-7 the early rain did not fall, 
and the early sesamum, the most important crop in the District, failed 
completely. No rain fell in either August or September, the November 
showers never came to fill the ear, and famine resulted. Relief works 
were opened without delay, and the total number of units (in terms 
of one day) relieved from November, 1896, to November, 1897, was 
four and a half millions. Remissions of f/iatha»ieda owing to the 
famine amounted to nearly 4 lakhs. A total of i^ lakhs was expended 
out of the Indian Charitable Relief Fund on aid to the sufferers, and 
nearly i lakh was spent in granting agricultural loans in 1896-7 and 
1897-8. The total cost of the famine operations exceeded 11 lakhs. 
The most important relief work carried out was the Meiktila-Myingyan 
railway. 

The District is divided for administrative purposes into two sub- 
divisions : Myingyan, comprising the Mvingvan, Taungth.\, and 

, . . . , , Natogyi townships ; and Pagan, comprising the 
Administration. „ „ j tt- 1 • S.i 

Pagan, Sale, and Kvaukpadaung townships. These 

are staffed by the usual executive officers, under whom are 777 village 

headmen, 436 of whom draw commission on revenue collections. At 

head-quarters are an akunzvun (in subordinate charge of the revenue), 

a treasury ofticer, and a superintendent of land records, with a staft' 

of 8 inspectors and 70 surveyors. The District forms a subdivision of 

the Meiktila Public Works division, and (with Meiktila and Kyaukse 

Districts) the Kyaukse subdivision of the Mandalay Forest division. 

The District, subdivisional, and township courts are as a rule 

presided over by the usual executive ofificers. An oflicer of the 

Provincial Civil Service is additional judge of the District court, 

spending half the month at Myingyan and half at Pakokku ; and the 

treasury officer, Myingyan, has been appointed additional judge of 

the Myingyan township court. The prevailing form of crime in the 

District is cattle-theft. Litigation is, on the whole, of the ordinary type. 



.iPMix/si'h'.iriox i.v 

In king Mindon's linu' //uU/ia/iieJa was introduced into ihe Distritt, 
and in 1S67 the rate is said to have been Rs. 3, while in the following 
year it rose to Rs. 5. The average seems to have fluctuated : but 
at the time of the British occupation it was nominally Rs. 10 per 
household, though the actual incidence was probably less than this. 
In addition to thathameda, royal land taxes were paid on islands, land 
known as konnyadaw, and mayin fields. After annexation revenue was 
not as a rule assessed on mayin rice land, but was paid on the other 
two classes of royal land — in the case of island land at acre rates (from 
1892 onwards); in the case of konayadaw at a rate representing the 
money value of one-fourth of the gross produce. The only unusual 
tenure found in the District was that under which the kyedan or com- 
munal lands in 47 circles in the Pagan and Kyaukpadaung townships 
were held. In former days the people had the right to hold, but not 
to alienate, these lands, and any person who left the circle forfeited 
the right to his holding. No rents were paid to the crown for the 
land, but military service had to be performed if required. The District 
was brought under summary settlement during the seasons 1899-1901, 
and in 190 1-2 the former land revenue system was superseded by the 
arrangement now in force. Under this, the rates on non-state rice 
land vary from 15 annas per acre on inogaung to Rs. 3 on irrigated 
rice ; on state lands the rate is a third as much again. On ya land 
the minimum is 4 annas and the maximum Rs. 1-4 per acre, and 
non-state land is assessed at the same rate as state land. The assess- 
ment on orchards varies from Rs. 1-14 on non-state plantain groves 
in the plains to Rs. 20 on state betel vineyards. Plantains on Popa 
pay Rs. 3 or Rs. 4 per acre, according as they are on non-state or 
state land ; and all other garden crops (mangoes, jacks, toddy-palms, 
&c.) pay Rs. 3, whatever the nature of the land. On riverain bobabaing 
land (kaing or taze) rates vary from Rs. i-S for the least valuable 
crops to Rs. 5-4 for onions and sweet potatoes, the state land rates 
being one-third higher. If an area is twice cropped, only the more 
valuable crop is assessed. The thathameda rate per household was 
reduced from Rs. 10 to Rs. 3 in 190 1. 

The growth of the revenue since 1890- i is shown in the following 
table, in thousands of rupees : — 



1890-1. igoo-i. 



Land revenue . . \ i.t 4.^ ^Ah 

Total revenue . . 5,9-' ",77 9--i 

Until the introduction of settlement rates, thathameda was by far 
the most important source of revenue in the District. It fell from 
Rs. 6,40,000 in 1900-1 to Rs. 2,23,000 in 1903-4. 



132 .UV/NGKI.y inSTRlCT 

The income of ihe l)i.strirt futid in 1903 4 was Rs. 17,200, which is 
devoted mainly to public works. There is one municipality, Mvj\- 
GYAN. Pagan was formerly a municipality, but in 1903 a body known 
as the Nyaungu town committee took the place of the municipal 
committee. 

The District Superintendent of police has under him 2 Assistant 
Superintendents (in charge of the Myingyan and Pagan subdivisions), 
2 inspectors, 13 head constables, 38 sergeants, and 397 constables, 
distributed in ri stations and 15 outposts. 'I'he military police belong 
to the Mandalay battalion, and their sanctioned strength is 205 of all 
ranks, of whom 145 are stationed at Myingyan, 30 at Nyaungu, and 30 
at Kyaukpadaung. 

A Central jail is maintained at Myingyan, and a District jail, mainly 
for leper prisoners, at Pagan. The Myingyan jail has accommodation 
for 1,322 prisoners, who do wheat-grinding, carpentry, blacksmith's 
work, cane-work, and weaving and gardening. The Pagan jail contains 
about 60 convicts, half of them lepers. In the leper section only the 
lightest of industries are carried on ; in the non-leper section the usual 
jail labour is enforced. 

Owing, no doubt, to its large proportion of Burmans, Myingyan 
showed in 1901 a fair percentage of literate persons — 45 in the case of 
males, 2-4 in that of females, and 22 for both sexes together. In 1904, 
5 special, 14 secondary, tit primary, and T,t45 elementary (private) 
schools were maintained, with an attendance of 17,724 pupils (in- 
cluding 1,037 gi'"'^)- I ^^e total has been rising steadily, having been 
7,539 in 1891 and 15,121 in 1901. The expenditure on education in 
1903-4 was Rs. 15,300, of which Provincial funds provided Rs. t2,ioo, 
while Rs. 3,100 was contributed by fees. 

'inhere are three hospitals with a total of 63 beds, and two dis- 
pensaries. In T903 the number of cases treated was 23,272, including 
702 in-patients, and 626 operations were performed. The joint income 
of the institutions amounted to Rs. 12,100, towards which municipal 
and town funds contributed Rs. 6,800 ; Provincial funds, Rs. 3,800 ; 
the District fund, Rs. 600 ; and private subscribers, Rs, 800. 

\'accination is compulsory in the towns of Myingyan and Nyaungu. 
In 1903-4 the number of persons successfully vaccinated was 10,776, 
representing 30 per 1,000 of population. 

[B. S. Carey, Settlement Repoi-t {xt^oi).^ 

Myingyan Subdivision.— Xorthern subdivision of Myingyan 
District, U[)per Burma, containing the townships of Mvincvan, 
'I'aungtha, and Natogvi. 

Myingyan Township.- River-side township in the extreme north 
of Myingyan District, L'pper Burma, lying between 21^ 21' and 21° 
46' X. and 95'^ 16' and 95*^40' K., with an area of 422 square miles. 



Af YTNG YA K TO IJ'.V , , -^ 

'I'he greater part is flat and ( ultivatrd with /V^aw- and pulse, and in the 
nortli with cotton. Rice is grown near the Irrawaddy. The popula- 
tion was 78,926 in 1891, and 81,978 in 1901, distributed in one town, 
Myingyan (population, 16,139), the head-quarters of the township and 
District, and 175 villages. In 1903-4 the area cultivated was 183 
square miles, and the land revenue and thaihameda amounted to 
Rs. 1,93,000. 

Myingyan Town.— Head-quarters of the District of the same name 
in Upper Burma, situated in _'i^' 30' N. and 95° 23' E., on the left 
bank of the Irrawaddy, about 80 miles below Mandalay. 'I'he town, 
which comprises six wards, and has an area of 3I square mile>, 
stretches for some distance along the bank of the river, but does not 
extend far inland. It is surrounded by dry, undulating country and 
partakes of the nature of its environs, containing comparatively little in 
the way of natural tree vegetation, though steps are now being taken to 
remedy this defect. It is laid out with several metalled roads, one of 
the most important of which is the Meiktila road passing through the 
centre of the town. The public buildings include a jail, a courthouse, 
a hospital, and two bazars. The population of Myingyan fell from 
19,790 in 1891 to 16,139 '" 19°! ~^ diminution due to the removal of 
the troops as well as to other causes. Its Indian community is small 
for a large trading town, numberitig only ^tT^^,. 

The chief local manufactures are cart-wheels and castings for brass 
images, bells, and gongs : and it contains a targe cotton-ginning mill 
belonging to a Gujarati firm. The greater part of the inhabitants are 
engaged in trade. Before the opening of the Toungoo-Mandalay rail- 
way Myingyan was one of the largest towns on the Irrawaddy, doing 
a large business with Meiktila and Vamethin 1 )istricts and with the 
Southern Shan States : but since the extension of the main line of rail- 
way and the departure of troops from the station it has lost much of 
its importance. The Thazi-Meiktila-Myingyan branch, which now con- 
nects it with the main line, was commenced in 1897 as a famine relief 
work and completed in 1899 : and it is hoped that its construction will 
benefit the town. In the rains the Irrawaddy mail-steamers running 
between Mandalay and Rangoon call twice weekly at Myingyan. 
During the dry season the shifting of the channel makes it necessary 
for the boats to anchor some 3 miles from the town, at Sinde. The 
railway should remove much of the inconvenience and dislocation of 
commerce caused by the stream's vagaries. Daily steam ferries ply 
between Myingyan and Pakokku on the one hand, and Myingyan and 
Mandalay on the other. 'I'he town was constituted a mimicipality in 
1887. During the ten years ending 190 1 the numicipal income and 
expenditure averaged between Rs. 35,000 and Rs. 38,000. In 1903-4 
the receipts amounted to Rs. 39.000, the main sources of revenue 



t;,4 .i/)7-\y;):/a^ town 

being bazar rents (Rs. 22,000) and house nnd land tax (R?;. 5,400). 
The expenditure in the same year amounted to Rs. 41,000, made up 
for the most part of Rs. 9,000 spent on the hospital, Rs. 7,400 on con- 
servancy, and Rs. 4,600 on lighting. The water-supply is drawn partly 
from the river and partly from a deep well sunk by the municipality. 
A scheme to cost 2^ lakhs, for damming the Sunlun chaung some 
4 miles south-east of Myingyan, so as to form a reservoir for water- 
supply, has been sanctioned by Government, and is on the list of 
famine relief works. The town contains a hospital and a dispensary. 
The American Baptist Mission and the Buddhist community maintain 
Anglo-vernacular schools, with a total attendance of about 150 pupils. 

Myinmu Subdivision.— Subdivision of Sagaing District, Upper 
Burma, containing the Myinmu, Th.-mincu, Mvauno, and Noazum 
townships. 

Myinmu Townsiiip. — Township in Sagaing District, Upper 
Burma, lying along the northern bank of the Irrawaddy, between 
21° 49' and 22° 10' N. and 25° 21' and 94° 41' E., with an area of 286 
square miles. It contains no high ground, and away from the Irra- 
waddy and Mu the country is very dry. The population was 39,386 
in 1 89 1, and 41,256 in 1901, distributed in 86 villages, the head- 
quarters being at Myinmu (population, 3,368), on the river bank close 
to the Sagaing-Alon railway, 30 miles west of Sagaing town. The town- 
ship contains a number of large villages : two (besides Myinmu) with 
a population exceeding 2,000, Allagappa (3,795) and Wunbye (2,049^ 
and six with a population of between 1,000 and 2,000. Along the 
Irrawaddy are several swamps which are used for irrigation, and are 
themselves cultivated as they dry up. The area cultivated in 1903-4 
was 120 square miles, and the land revenue and thathameda amounted 
to Rs. 1,09,000. 

■ Myitkyina District.^ District in the Mandalay Division of Upper 
Burma, the northenunost of the Province, lying between 24° 37' and 
27° 20' N. and 96° o' and 98° 20' E., with an area of 10,640 square 
miles. Only the lower portion of the District is ' administered ' ; over 
the upper portion, a tract of unexplored country about the head- 
waters of the Chindwin and Irrawaddy, comprising the Hukawng valley, 
Hkamti Long, and what is known as the Sana tract, no direct adminis- 
trative control is at present exercised. The ' administered ' area is 
bounded on the north-east by the Kumpi range of hills, which forms 
the northern watershed of the Shingaw valley ; on the north by the 
N'maikha down to the confluence where that stream joins with the 
Malikha to form the Irrawaddy, and thence by a geographical line 
running east and west at 25° 45' N. On the north-west it is bounded 
by the Hukawng valley : on the west it is separated from the Upper 
Chindwin District by a geographical line running north and southrat 



.1/ )7 'JK ) f.\A niSTRIi ■ ■/- I ^5 

96° E., and 1»\' the Namsang sircaiii ; and on tlic soulh its borders 

march with Katha and Hhanio Districts. The eastern boundary abuts 

on Yunnan. At its northern e\trenn"ty, the dividing line between the 

District and China is formed by the watershed between the drainage of 

the Irrawadd}' on the one hand and of the Shweli and 'I aping on tlie 

other ; fartlier st)Uth it follows the course of two streams, the Tabak 

flowing south and the I'aknoi fl<nving north, wliich unite to form the 

Nantabet, an eastern tributar) of the Irrawaddy, while about 5 miles 

south of Sima in the south-east of the District the border-line again 

takes the watershed between the Irrawaddy and the Taping, till Bhamo 

District is reached. 

\\'ith the excei)tion of the actual basins of its main streams, Myit- 

k3"ina is mountainous throughout. The eastern Kachin Hills run down 

southwards from Tibet, and extend along the whole 

eastern border of the District, their breadth from ysica 

• 1 1 \ 1 ■ aspects. 

the foot to the crest (the Chmese boundary) beuig 

30 to 35 miles, and their heights varying from 3,000 to 7,000 feet, 
but rising in places to peaks as high as 11,000 feet. On the western 
side of the broad Irrawaddy plain is the Kumon range, which 
stretches from the Hkaniti country east of Assam southwards to the 
latitude of Kamaing (25° 30' N.), terminating near Mogaung in the 
Shwedaunggyi peak (5,750 feet). On its northern slopes the Chindwin, 
locally known as the Tanai, is supposed to have its source. South 
of Mogaung and the end of the Kumon range, from wliich they arc 
separated by the valley of the Mogaung river, start the Kaukkwe Hills, 
in about 25° 10' N. They run southwards in two diverging lines ; 
through the eastern branch, which skirts the Irrawaddy, that river 
forces its way and forms the third or upper defile; the western spur 
separates the Kaukkwe valley from the Nanyin valley, which the 
Sagaing-Myitkyina railway follows, and is continued into Katha Dis- 
trict. Other ranges deserving of mention are the Loipyet, which 
separates the Nanyin and Indaw streams, starting at Kamaing ; and 
the hilly country which includes the Jade Mines tract, dividing the 
U)u valley from the valleys of the Upper Mogaung and the Indaw. 
All this mass of upland is thickly clothed with jungle, and the scenery 
is in i)laces magnificent. 

Nearly the whole of the District lies within the basin of the Irra- 
waddy ; but while on the east the country rises, with but a small break 
here and there, from the river to the hills on the Chinese frontier, and 
is drained by short direct tributaries, that part of the District lying 
on the west of the Irrawaddy, nearly three-quarters of the whole, drains 
by numerous streams into one large tributary, the Mogaung river, and 
is characterized by several valleys possessing great possibilities of culti- 
vation. The Irrawaddy, formed by the confluence of the Malikha and 



rT,b MYITKYINA Pf STRICT 

N'maikha streams in 25° 45' N., flows in a southerly course across the 
District, somewhat nearer to its eastern than its western border. Above 
Sinbo in the south of tlie District the country on either side is a luxu- 
riant plain, but at Sinbo the river enters the third or upper defile. The 
scenery here is wild and picturesque ; the river in the rains becomes 
a foaming mass of dull white : in one ])lace, known as the ' Gates,' 
the stream is pent up in a rock)' channel, only 50 yards wide, formed 
by two projecting rocks below which are two huge whirlpools. In 
flood-time this obstruction stoi)s navigation of any kind, and launches 
can negotiate it only in the dry season. 'I'he Irrawaddy's most impor- 
tant tributary in the District is the Mogaung river (or Nam Kawng), 
which rises beyond the ' administrative ' border in the north, and flows 
past Kamaing and Mogaung in a general south-easterly direction, 
entering the main river about 15 miles north of Sinbo. At Kamaing 
it is joined by the Indaw, which runs a north-easterly course from 
the Indawgx'i Lake ; and at Mogaung by the Nanyin (or Nam Vang), 
which comes with the railway from Katha District also in a north- 
easterly direction. The only tributary of any importance on the left 
bank of the Irrawaddy is the Nantabet, which rises on the Chinese 
border and flows due west into the main river about half-way between 
Myitkyina and Sinbo. 

The Indawgvi Lake, the largest in Burma, lies between 25° 5' and 
25° 20' N. and 96° 18' and 96° 23' E., near the south-west corner 
of the District, and has an area of nearly 80 square miles. It is 
surrounded on three sides by ranges of hills, but has an outlet, the 
Indaw river, on the north. The lake abounds in fish and the valley 
is fertile ; but it is only beginning to recover from the devastation 
caused by the Kachin rising in 1883. 

The hill ranges consist of metamorphic and crystalline rocks, on 
which eocene and miocene trap have been deposited. Limestone, 
.sandstone, clays, and ferruginous conglomerates are met with. Tlie 
soil in the plains near the Irrawaddy is alluvial clay and loam, and 
is very fertile. The jade, amber, and other mines found in the older 
formations are referred to below. 

The vegetation is luxuriant, but, except for t"orest [)ur])oses, has not 
been exhaustively studied. Covering a considerable range of altitude, 
it must of necessity be varied. Much of the plain land consists of 
stretches of elephant-grass, and bamboos are very abundant. 

The District possesses a Aaried and numerous fauna, including 
the elephant, rhinoceros, tiger, leopard, bear (Tibetan and Malayan), 
bison {Bos gaurus), tsine or hsaing {Bos sonJaicus), sdmbar, hog deer, 
barking-deer, serow (called by Burmans the jungle goal), wild hog, 
wild dog, jungle cat, monkeys (including the gibbon), and the por- 
cupine. 



/// STORY 



'37 



The cUinalc ul M)ilk\ina tioiii l)Lccml)(.i id MaK h is plfasaiil. 
1 1 is very cold at tinu's, hut along the I rrawaddy and other vallevs 
the mornings at this season are spoilt by heavy- fogs, which do not 
lift till 9 or lo o'clock. Ihc rains are heavy, and from June to Octo- 
ber the climate cannot be said to be healthy, malarial fever being 
l)revalent even in the town. 'I'he mean maximum tem[)erature from 
November to the end of February is about 73°, and the mean mini- 
mum temperature during the same period about 56', the averages 
for the rest of the year being about 88'^ and 71° respectively. No 
official register of temperature is kept. 'I'he annual rainfall of the 
last eight years, as registered at Myitkyina, averaged 75 inches, and 
at Mogaung 80 inches. 

The part of the District lying west of the Irrawaddy and the [)lain 
on the east of the river once formed the old Shan princi[)ality of 
Mongkawng (Mogaung). In Ney Elias"s History 
of the Shans we are informed that this region was 
in early ages inhabited by a [)eople called Nora, who were consider- 
<ibly more civilized than their neighbours, and had a reputation as 
a learned class. Qf these people Francis Buchanan Hamilton states 
that they called themselves Tai Long (or Great Shans) and spoke 
a dialect little different from that of Siam : and it is a fact that at 
the jMcsent day the Siamese understand the vernacular spoken in 
this neighbourhood better than the more adjacent Tai dialects of 
the Southern Shan States. The first Sawbwa of Mongkawng, accord- 
ing to the chronicle, was Sam Long Hpa (1215), who made extensive 
conquests in all directions, and ruled over territory stretching from 
Hkamti Long to Shwebo, and extending into the country of the 
Xagas and Mishmis. Until 1557 the jjrincipality was more or less 
under Chinese influence ; but in that year it was invaded by an ex- 
pedition from Pegu, and thereafter was subject to Burma or inde- 
pendent, according to the strength of the reigning monarch, till it 
was finally subjugated in 1796 and governed by iviins sent from the 
court of Ava. 'I'he Shans broke out into rebellion early in the nine- 
teenth century : and the important walled \illage of ^^'aingmaw, just 
below Myitkyina on the left bank of the Irrawaddy, was destroyed 
by a Burmese ex[)edition from Hliamo in 1810. The final blow to 
the dependency came from the Kachins, who began to press down 
from the north about fifty or sixty years ago. 'I'hc Shans gradually 
became exhausted, and in 1883 a rebellion fostered by a man named 
Haw Saing, who professed to be the re-incarnation of a legendary Shan 
prince, established Kachin predominance. This rising started with 
the devastation of the Indawgyi valley, and culminated in the capture 
of Mogaung. The rebels were dispersed : but, as in Bhanio Dis- 
trict, the Burmese government was incapal)le oi |)rotecting its Shan 



138 .VYITKY/NA DISTRICT 

subjects, wlio continued fur several years to [)ay tribute to the local 
Kachin chiefs {dmvas) in return for freedom from molestation, the 
amount varying frt)m se\eral buffaloes to a handful of salt. This 
was the state of Myitkyina when it passed into the hands of the British 
iiis a portion of Bhamo District. In February, 1886, the Deputy- 
Commissioner (jf Bhamo received the submission of the local officials 
at Mogaung : but great difficulties were met with in the administra- 
tion of the country. The first myo-ok was assassinateti only two 
months after his arrival ; the Burman officer appointed in his place 
declined to stay at Mogaung unless supported by troops ; and his 
successor, one Po Saw by name, fled rather than meet the expedi- 
tion sent up there in 1887, and thereafter became openly rebellious. 
He instigated the Lepai Kachins to oppose the column from Bhamo 
that had come to appoint his successor, and attacked Mogaung, but 
without success. In 1887 Mogaung was strongly stockaded, and 
made the head-quarters of the Mogaung subdivision of Bhamo Dis- 
trict. Po Saw made another attack on it in 1888, and caused some 
loss to the garrison. In 1888-9 fo'^i^' punitive expeditions were dis- 
patched under the direction of Sir Cieorge ^Vhite against the sur- 
rounding Kachin tribes, which accomplished their end with little 
loss, a post being established at Kamaing on the Mogaung river. In 
1 89 1 the Myitkyina subdivision was formed. In 1 890-1 four columns 
were dispatched to bring the Kachins west of the river under direct 
control, one of which visited the Hukawng valley and the amber 
and jade mines, and met a column from Assam. Two of the expe- 
ditions sent to subdue the Kachins east of the Irrawaddy in 1891-2 
encountered very considerable difficulties. One column captured the 
hill village of Sadon in the north-east of the District, and went on 
to explore the banks of the N'maikha ; in its absence the post at 
Sadon was besieged by the Kachins, and had to be relieved by a colunm 
which had been operating in the neighbourhood of Sima, south-east 
of Myitkyina town. In 1892-3 a military police column concen- 
trated at Talawgyi, a village due south of Myitkyina on the eastern 
bank of the Irrawaddy, and after some opposition established a post 
at Sima. On the very day Sima was reached Myitkyina was suddenly 
raided by the Sana Kachins, a tribe living beyond the 'administrative' 
limit. The subdivisional officer's courthouse was burnt, and the 
subahdar-\WA]ox of the Mogaung levy was shot dead. Meanwhile 
the Kachins had enveloped Sima ; and Captain Mortt)n, the com- 
)nander of the expedition, was mortally wounded while withdrawing 
a picket, and was with difficulty conveyed inside the fort by Surgeon- 
Major Lloyd, who afterwards received the Victoria Cross for his 
gallantry. Military police were then dispatched from Myitkyina, 
and a column which had been working south of the 'I'aping was 



ropi^f.ArroN 



' .V) 



sent up nortliwaids to create a diversion; l)ut it was not until 1,200 
rifles liad been called up and considerable fighting (involving tiie 
death of several European officers) had occurred, that the Kachins 
were finally scattered at I'alap, south of Sima. After the formation 
of Myitkyina District in 1895 an expedition was sent to punish the 
Sana Kachins for their raid on Myitkyina, and twenty-four villages 
were heavily fined. The last fighting was in 1899 1900, when an 
expedition sent to explore the country east of the N'maikha was cut 
off by a force of Chinese, who lost 70 killed and many wounded 
before they gave way. 

Nearly one-third of the population inhabiting the Kachin Hills in 
the east were only 'estimated' in 190T, owing to the impossibility of 
obtaining reliable supervision in thai remote and 
backward area. The population of the District was 
returned as 51,021 in 1891 and 67,399 i" 190'- ^t^ distribution in the 
latter year is shown in the following table : — 



Population. 



Township. 


Area in square 
miles. 


Number of 


c 



3 

a. 




Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 





bid 
> 


Mogaung 
Kamaing 
Myitkyina 


3,490 
2,650 
4,500 


1 


226 
f 26 

5S2 


18,867 

9,687 

.38,845* 


5 
4 

9 


-'•7.38 
I ,y04 

3,-367 


District total 


10,640 


I 


934 


67,399 


6 


8,009 



* Made up of 17,560 in the regularly enumerated and 21,285 in tl.e 
' estimated ' areas. 

Though the enumeration of 1901 was admittedly partial, it seems 
clear that a substantial increase in the population had taken place 
during the previous decade. There is a certain amount of immigration 
from China (including both Chinamen and Shan-Chinese), and to 
a smaller extent from the Shan States also. Rather more Buddhists 
than Animists were enumerated in tiie areas regularly dealt with 
in 1901, but in the District as a whole Animists are in the majority. 
Kachin is the principal language, and Shan is more spoken ilian 
Burmese. 

The most numerous indigenous race is that of thi' KAriii.NN who 
form rather more than half the total population. They inhabit the hills 
on both sides of the Trrawaddy over all the northern and north-eastern 
parts of the District. The Li.saws, .Szis, l.ashis, and Marus are i)racti- 
cally all residents of the ' estimated " areas, and their numbers are not 
precisely known. Shans numbered 17,300 in 190 1, including Shan- 
Chinese, who possess about a dozen villages. ^Phey are found for the 

Vol. XVIII. K. 



T40 Ary/TKYINA DISTRICT 

most pall ill the Myitkyina plain. The P>urmans numbered only 
6,600, living in the river valley, mostly in Shan villages. The total 
of Chinamen was 3,600, most of them traders in and near Mogaung 
and Myitkyina town. A tribe peculiar to the District is the Hpons, 
who inhabit the third defile and a few villages north of it in the 
Mankin valley, and are indispensable to the keeping open of the 
river during the rains. They resemble the ordinary Shan-Burmans in 
dress and features, and appear to have been returned as such in 1901 ; 
but they have their own dialect, now dying out, and worship only the 
one great nat of the hills. Natives of India numbered about 5,000 in 
1 90 1, nearly four-fifths of whom were Hindus. The great part of this 
alien population is composed of military police and other Government 
and railway employes. There are, however, a certain number of Indian 
traders in Myitkyina town. Assuming that practically all the inhabi- 
tants of the 'estimated' areas were cultivators, about 52,700 people 
were dependent directly on agriculture in r9oi, or 78 per cent, of 
the total population. Of these, more than 30,000 were probablv 
supported by tainigya (shifting) cultivation alone. 

The last enumeration showed a total of 161 Christians in tht- 
District, of whom 116 were natives. i'he American Baptist Mission 
has a representative at Myitkyina and has opened a Kachin boys" 
school. 

With respect to agriculture, the District may be divided into two 

portions : the level valley lands on the banks of the Irrawaddy and its 

tributaries, and tlie hills. In both regions the 
Agriculture. ^ , • • 1 ^ .1 a-cc " • .1 

staple crop is rice, but there is a diiierence in the 

method in which it is grown. The best rice lands are those in 
the valley of the Nanyin, and, generally speaking, the soil in the 
river basins is extremely fertile, and, the rainfall being sufiicient, rice 
is very easily grown ; indeed the ground will produce almost any- 
thing, as has been proved by the natives of India who live at 
Myitkyina. Rice is grown in the plains in the usual manner, that is, 
in embanked fields. Another less common method of cultivation, 
which is also practised in the lowlands, consists in cutting down the 
jungle, firing it, ploughing the ashes into the soil, and then sowing the 
seed broadcast. Fields cultivated in this manner are known as lebok. 
A plot of land thus dealt with cannot be worked for more than two 
years, after which it lies fallow for some six or seven. Taungya is 
practised in the hills. In the case of cultivation of this kind, a hill-side 
is selected, the jungle on it is cut and burnt, and when the rains have 
begun the rice seed is dibbled into the ground, the crop being reaped 
in the cold season. It is a method confined to the hills, as its name 
signifies. Tainigya land is cropped only twice as a rule, and is let't 
fallow for 9 or 10 years subsecjuently. 



AiiRicrf/n-RF. 



I.J I 



'J1ie following tahlc cxliiliil^, in -^(lunvf n)iles, ihe chief af;ii(iillur;il 
.statistics of the Disliicl for 1903-4. I'he area niltivatrd t\iliides 
taungya cultivation, which is the mo.st prevalent form. 



Township. 


Total area. 


1 
Cultixated. 1 Irrigated. 


Forests. 


Mogaung 
Kamaing 
Myitkyina 

Total 


3,490 
2,650 

4,500 


6 0-5 

I .." 

i6 4.5 


( 6,130 


10,640 


23 5 


6,130 



Rice covers the greater part of the cultivated area. A h'ttle tobacco 
is grown on the alluvium close to the river banks, and potatoes and 
gram have been tried successfully by natives of India at Myitkyina. 
On the hills, in addition to rice, crops of cotton, sesamum, and millet 
are produced, as well as opium for local consumption, and a little tea 
is grown in some of the hill villages on the west bank of the Irrawaddy. 

The area under cultivation is steadily increasing, but, as the District 
has not yet been cadastrally surveyed, estimates made of the expansion 
are of little value. The growth is most noticeable in the Nanyin \alle\ , 
near the railway line, an<l in the region round the Indawgyi Lake. Of 
new products, Havana tobacco and Mocha coftee have been introduced 
into the District. The former has proved successful, but it is still too 
soon to pass any opinion on the prospects of the latter. Peach-trees 
thrive in the Government experimental garden at Myitkyina, and yearly 
produce good crops ; but apples, plums, pears, and nectarines, all of 
which are being tried, have as yet yielded no results. A few years ago 
the agriculturists showed no disposition to take loans from Government, 
but this feeling has died out, and there is now no prejudice against this 
form of assistance. The loans made by the state are devoted for the 
most part to the purchase of plough cattle, and are recovered with little 
or no trouble. The amount advanced during the seven years ending 
1905 averaged about Rs. 6,000 annually. 

There is no peculiarity about the local breeds of cattle. The beast 
most in favour for agricultural purposes is the buffalo. Large numbers 
of cows are, however, bred for milch purposes by natives of India living 
at Myitkyina, Mogaung, Kamaing, Waingmaw, and Hopin. Practically 
no ponies and only a few goats are kept, but sheep are imported during 
the dry season from China. A large number of mules are brought in 
from China in the open season for hire as transport animals, but there 
is no mule-breeding within the District. No grazing grounds have 
been regularly defined. Fortunately, however, owing to the heavy 
rainfall and the scant dimensions of the cultivation, lack of fodder is 
unknown. 

Very little land is irrigated in the District, the small weirs at Sinbo, 

K 2 



143 yrriTKYTNA dtstrtct 

Katcho, Waingmaw, Hopin. and other villages each supplying only 
a few acres. The total area returned as under irrigation in 1903-4 
was 5 square miles, nearly all of which consists of rice lands in the 
Irrawaddy valley. The weir on the Nanlon stream near Waingmaw 
was built by Government in 1899 at a cost of Rs. 11,000. The 
Indawgyi Lake abounds with fish, but no other fisheries are of any 
importance. 

Myitkyina possesses both hill and plain forests. The forests of the 
plains are much mixed with elephant-grass, and in the drier portions 
the characteristic trees are Dipterocarpiis tuberculatus 
^ ' and species of Shorea, Butea, &c., while by far the 

commonest tree in the moister portions is the silk-cotton tree {Bojnbax 
malabaricmn). The northern limit of teak is here reached, and very 
few trees are found north of Myitkyina town. A consequence of this 
is that where teak occurs it does not ascend the hills to any consider- 
able height, but is found chiefly just along their bases. The finest 
teak areas are near the Indawgyi Lake. Though a considerable 
quantity of india-rubber {Ficits elastica) nominally comes from Myit- 
kyina, it is in reality all collected beyond the ' administrative ' border 
and imported. The area under 'reserved' forests is 130 square miles, 
and the forest receipts in 1903-4 were if lakhs. With the exception 
of india-rubber, the trade in which has shrunk to very small propor- 
tions within the last two years, there are no minor forest products 
of importance. 

The principal minerals are jade, mined in the north-west of the 

District ; gold, found in the Irrawaddy ; rubies, extracted at Nanyaseik, 

13 miles above Kamaing on the Nanya stream ; and 

Minerals. ^ ^ ,, -tj/ r.i 

corundum at Manwe, on the Indavv stream, iseyond 

the ' administrative ' border there are amber-mines. 

Jade is worked in quarries near Tawmaw and Hweka, close to the 
Upper Chindwin District, and in river-mines at Mamon on the Uyu 
chaung. The quarries at Tawmaw have produced immense quantities 
of the stone, but it does not approach in quality that obtained in 
boulders in the river banks or at the bottom of the stream. For the 
Burmese and Chinese market valuable jade has to satisfy rigid con- 
ditions of colour, transparency, brilliancy, and hardness. The Tawmaw 
stone, which is of a particular shade of dark green, satisfies the first 
condition, but fails in regard to the other three. The method of 
working the quarries is primitive. The first fracture being brought 
about by the application of artificial heat followed by cold at night, 
crowbars are driven in and large blocks are obtained, which are broken 
up into a shape and size suitable for transport, either on mules to 
Kamaing or on bamboo rafts down the Uyu to Kindat. An ad 
valorem duty of 33I per cent, on the output is collected at Mogaung 



TRADE AXD COM M L'XICATIOAS . , ;, 

^nd Kindat. This duty awraged Rs. 50,000 during the last three 
years, the oul turn of jade in 1903 being 1,340 cwt., valued at 
Rh. 1,22,000. 

The ruby tract at Nanyaseik is worked after a primitive fashion by 
tiovernment Hcensees. The miners dig in shallow pits" scattered over 
a wide area, as the ruby-bearing soil {byon) occurs in pockets. The 
revenue from this source fluctuates very considerably, depressions 
following prosperous periods from time to time. It reached Rs. 33,000 
in 1895-6, but dropped to Rs. 80 in 1902-3. The tract is now 
practically deserted. 

The amber-mines are situated beyond the 'administrative' frontier 
in the Hukawng valley near the village of Maingkwan. The shafts 
dug for its extraction are only wide enough for a man to descend and 
ascend by steps, and are seldom more than 40 feet in depth. As with 
jade, amber is found in pockets, and a cluster of pits always shows 
the existence of such a pocket. The product, unlike jade, is bought 
only by the Burmans, and is by them used for the manufacture of 
trinkets and beads. The corundum mines at Manwe are worked in 
a similar manner, but are of little value. Gold-washing is fitfully 
carried on in the Irrawaddy by Shans, Chinese, and Burmans. A 
steam dredger has been at work since 1902 above Myitkyina dredging 
for gold, and the venture shows promise of success. 

There are no arts or manufactures worthy of mention. The Kacliin 

women weave a strong cloth, and every Kachin 

makes his own x'\z^-\\m\ox (cherod) ; but both weaving iraaean 

. H \ / ' e communications. 

and brewmg are on a ver)- small scale, and neither 

the cloth nor the liquor is intended for other than home consumption. 

The import trade is entirely in the hands of natives of India 

and Chinese, the articles iniported by railway from Lower Burma and 

Mandalay being salt, piece-goods, hardware, yarn, crockery, and 

matches for the Myitkyina and Mogaung bazars, which are the two 

principal distributing centres for those commodities. From Yiinnan 

the Chinese bring in fruit, poultry, sheep, and manufactured articles, 

which for the most part take the form of pots and pans, umbrellas, 

rugs, and clothing. The exports are jade, amber, and india-rubber 

from the Hukawng valley, and teak-wood. The jade goes mostly to 

China and the other articles to Lower Burma. The traffic in jade 

and rubber is chiefly in the hands of Chinese, who visit the jade-mines 

yearly in large numbers ; the timber trade is managed by an English 

firm. The total value of the imports from Western China in 1003-4, 

over what are known as the Waingmaw and Ka/.u routes, was about 

i\ lakhs, the corresponding figure for c\[)orts being about a lakh. 

Between the Kachins in the hills and the Siians in the plains there 

is some traftic in lii^uor, opium, salt, and sesauium ; but the instinct.^ 



144 MYITKYLYA DISTRICT 

of the Kachiiis are not conimeicial, and at present there seems little 
prospect of an expansion of trade in this direction. Maingna and 
AVaingmaw, east of the Irrawaddy, and Myitkyina, Mogaung, and 
Kamaing, west of the Irrawaddy, are the chief emporia of what Kachin 
trade there is. Owing to difficulty of transport, trade with China is 
not likely to increase in the immediate future. 

Of communications the most noteworthy is the railway, which runs 
diagonally across the greater part of the centre of the District from 
the south-west, and, passing through Mogaung, has its terminus at 
Myitkyina. Next to the railway in importance comes the Irrawaddy, 
which is navigable all the year round by boats and small steamers 
between ^^'atugyi and Simbo. Other waterways are, however, useful. 
The Mogaung stream can be used at all seasons by boats as far north 
as Laban, and during the rains by launches up to Kamaing ; the 
Indaw Lake and chaung are both navigable throughout the year by 
country boats ; and small country craft can ply on the Nantabet at 
all times of the year as far as Kazu. 

The principal land communications are : the road from ^\'aingmaw 
to Sadon and thence to China by two alternative routes, the first 
through "V^^awchon and the Kowlaing pass and the second by way of 
the Sansi gorge ; and the road from Waingmaw to Sima and thence 
by Palap to Sima-Pa in China. Graded mule-tracks have been made 
by the Public Works department to Sadon and Sima, the distance- 
being 41 and 42 miles respectively; and other Government roads 
connect Maingna with Kwitu, a distance of 14 miles, Mogaung with 
Kamaing (27 miles), Kamaing with Nanyaseik (13 miles), Hopin on 
the railway line with I^onton on the Indawgyi Lake (28 miles), and 
Pungatong on the Sadon-\Vaingmaw road with Loingu on the N'maikha 
(18 miles). All these roads are partly bridged, but are unmetalled, 
and are maintained from I^rovincial funds. Rough mule-tracks connect 
Sadon with Sima and Sima with Nahpaw, and are cleared of jungle 
yearly by civil officers, the cost being met from Provincial funds. The 
tracks maintained from the District fund are : from Mogaung to Tapaw, 
6 miles ; from Mogaung to Koywa, 5 miles ; and from Kamaing to 
Namlik village, 21 miles. Several ferries cross the Irrawaddy, the 
most important of which connects Myitkyina with the eastern bank. 

For the purposes of administration the District is divided into two 
subdivisions : the Myitkyina subdivision and township : and the 

, , . . Mogaung subdivision, comprising the Mogaung and 
Administration. ,^ ° , . ,,,, ,. , . tj.,, , . 

Kamaing townships. I he Kachm Hills are admin- 
istered under the Kachin Hill Tribes Regulation of 1895. In the 
Myitkyina township there are three civil officers' charges : the Sadon, 
Sima, and Myitkyina hill tracts. The first two are under special 
civil officers stationed at Sadon and Sima, the 'last i.i in charge of 



ADMINISTKA TIOX 



MS 



the subdivisional police officer at Myitkyina. The hills west of the 
Irrawaddy are administered by the subdivisional officer of Mogaung 
and the township officer of Kamaing as civil officers. At the District 
head-quarters are the akiimvun in subordinate charge of the revenue, 
and the treasury officer. Myitkyina is the head-quarters of the 
Executive Engineer in charge of the Myitkyina Public Works division, 
comprising the Myitkyina, Sadon, and Katha subdivisions ; and of 
the Deputy-Conservator of Forests in charge of the Myitkyina division, 
which, except for a small area in the west, is conterminous with the 
District. 

There are no special civil judges. The subdivisional and township 
officers do all the civil work in their respective courts. Petty civil 
cases in the Kachin hill tracts are settled by the dinvas or headmen. 
Under the Kachin Hill Tribes Regulation of 1895 the Deputy -Com- 
missioner is vested with the powers of a Sessions Judge in cases 
arising in these tracts, the Commissioner confirming death sentences. 
The diiwas are also allowed to settle petty criminal cases according 
to tribal custom. As in Bhamo District, the smuggling of opium from 
China and the Kachin Hills is very common, and the District is never 
wholly free from crimes of violence committed by the Kachins. 

The revenue is made up of the ihathameda tax, which is paid by 
the non-Kachin population at the rate of Rs. ro per household ; the 
tribute levied from Kachins at the rate of Rs. 5 per house in the 
tracts under the civil officers of Mogaung and Kamaing, and at a lower 
rate elsewhere : land revenue paid by all cultivated lands in the plains : 
royalty on minerals ; and revenue from stamps, excise, and fisheries. 
Nearly all the land is state land, the revenue payable being the value 
of one-tenth of the gross produce (as fixed b\ the township officer with 
the aid of assessors), except on lands given out on lease, on which 
a rate of Rs. 1-8 per acre is levied, these being the only surveyed 
lands in the District. 

The growth of the revenue since the formation of the District is 
shown in the following table, in thousands of rupees :-- 





1895-6. 


1900-1. 


1903-4. 

20 

1,88 


Land revenue 
Total revenue . 


1,53 


S 
1,80 



The thatluviieda, wliich is at present the main source of revenue, 
increased from Rs. 46,000 in 1900 i to Rs. 73,000 in 1903 4. 

The income of the District fiuid, which is derived chiefly from ba/ars 
and ferries, was Rs. t8,ooo in 1903-4. No municipalities have been 
constituted. 

Under the District SupcrintciKkiil "I police are z .\^^i^laul Super- 



146 MYITKYINA DISTRICT 

intendents in charge of the subdivisi(jns, an inspector, 4 head con- 
stables, and 96 men. There are 4 civil poHce stations and an outpost, 
with the addition of village police at Lonton, Sinbo, Sadon, and Sima. 
The District is garrisoned by a strong force of military police, con- 
sisting of 9 British officers, 41 native officers, and 1,612 rank and file. 
Of these, 947 are stationed at Myitkyinn ; and posts are held at 
Mogaung, Kamaing, Fort Harrison (Sadon), Fort Morton (Sima), and 
^^'ayabu on the N'maikha, at each of which is an assistant commandant, 
also at Nahpaw (in the cold season), Lapye, Waingmaw, Lonton, 
N'ptmi Bum, Sinbo, and Palawgyi. There is no jail, prisoners being 
sent to Katha when sentenced to imprisonment for a term exceeding 
one month. 

The proportion of persons able to read and write Mas shown in 1901 
as 28 per cent, in the case of males and 2 per cent, in the case of 
females, or 17 per cent, for both sexes together. These figures, 
however, leave out of consideration the population of the ' estimated ' 
tracts, where the number of literate persons must have been infinitesimal. 
A school for Kachin children is maintained by the American Baptist 
Mission, but most of the schools are monastic, and in the hill areas 
even the elementary teaching o'i \h^ pongyi kyaung'x's, absent. In 1904 
the institutions included one secondary, 21 primary, and 61 elementary 
(private) schools, with an attendance of 1,188 pupils (including 90 girls), 
as compared with 1,164 i" 1901. The expenditure on education in 
1903-4 was Rs. 1,600, derived wholly from Provincial funds. 

There are 6 hospitals, with accommodation for 67 in-patients. In 
1903 the number of cases treated was 20,054, including 795 in-patients, 
and 300 operations were performed. The total expenditure of 
Rs. 26,000 is derived almost wholly from Provincial funds. A number 
of patients were treated m the hospitals at the different military police 
outposts. 

In 1903-4 the number of persons succcssfulh' vaccinated was 772, 
representing ri per 1,000 of pO|)ulation. 

[I. Errol Gray, Diary of a Journey to the Bor Khamti Country and 
Sources of t/ie Irrawaddy (1893) : Prince Henry of Orleans, Du Tonkin 
aux Indes (Paris, 1898).] 

Myitkyina Subdivision. Eastern siibdi\ision and township of 
Myitkyina District, Upper Burma, lying between 24'^ 37' and 25° 45' N. 
and 96° 42' and 98° 20' E., with an area of 4,500 square miles. It 
comprises the Irrawaddy valley, here of considerable width, and the 
hills up to the Chinese frontier. Within its geographical limits are 
the three Kachin Hill Tracts, administered under the Kachin Hill 
Tribes Regulation by civil officers with head-quarters at Sadon in 
the north-cast, Sima in the south-cast, and Mmtkvixa (popula- 
tion, 3,6iS), the liead (juarters of the District and township. The 



MY ITXC E 147 

popvilatiun of the township, cxcludinL; llic lirsl Iwo of these tracts, 
was 17,5^)0 in 1901 : tluil of the Sadon trad being 14,012, anil 
that of thi' Sinia trac:t 7,27,^. Ihc M\itkyina Hill Tract was not 
tornu'd till 1904. In llic ])lains, Shans, lUinuans, and Kachins arc 
repix'scntcii in the ratios (;f 7. j, and 1 approximately ; elsewhere 
the inhabitants are practicall)' all Kachins. In r()oi the siibdi\ision 
contained 582 villages, of which 477 were in the Kachin Hill Tracts 
as then constituted. In 1903-4 the area cultivated was 16 s(]uarc 
miles, in addition to tainigyas. The land revenue and tlialhanicda 
amounted to Rs. 46,000. 

Myitkyina Town. Head-ipiarters of the District (jf the same 
name in Upper Jkirma, situated in 25'' 23' N. and 97' 24' 1^.. on 
a level [)lain surrounded by hills on the western bank of the Irra 
wadd\', and at the terminus of the Sagaing-Mxitkyina railway. 724 
miles from Rangoon. Population (1901), 3,6 iS. The station has 
risen to importance onl\' since the British occupation. Prior to 1892 
il was a small Shan-Burmese \illage, its name denoting the fact that 
it was near to the banks of the great ri\er, the Irrawaddy : and even 
now the military police and the officials form more than a fourth 
of the inhabitants. The town was attacked h\ a ]xirty of Sana 
Kachins in December, 1892, when the military ])olice si'd>ahddr-mdi)ox 
WAS killed and the subdivisional officer's courthouse and residence 
w ere burnt ; but since then its history has not been marked by any 
stirring incidents. Myitkyina is increasing in importance as an ex- 
change for Chinese traders, who bring large quantities of opium, and 
take away india-rubber and jade and foreign commodities brought 
up b) rail. Details of the frontier trade, which converges almost 
entirely at Myitkyina, are gi\en in the District article. The town 
contains a ba/.ar and the usual public Ijuildings. 

Myitmaka. Ri\er of Lower Burma. Sec R.\N(ioo\ Ri\ i.K. 

Myitnge (or Doktawaddy). -River of Burma, one of the principal 
tributaries of the Irrawaddy. It rises in about it,"" 18' N. and 
98° 23' E., in the Northern Shan State of North Hsenwi, where 
it is known as tlie Nam 'i'u. Its course is in the main south-westerl)-, 
and fust i)asses through the States o\ North Hsenwi. Tawngpeng, 
and Hsipaw, the first and last of which ha\e their chief towns on 
its banks. For the latter half of its course of 130 miles the river 
forms the boundary, first between the States of Hsipavv and Lawksawk, 
and next between the Districts of Mandalay and Kyaukse. It falls 
eventually into the Irrawaddy about 12 miles south of Mandalay, 
immediately opposite the town of Sagaing. The Myitnge is navi- 
gable only up to the point at which it reaches the plains. The 
Rangoon-Mandalay Railway crosses il near its mouth, ami il will 
shortly be bridged at Hsipaw. The princii)al tributary is the Nam 



T48 MYITNGE 

Ma, which joins it from the east, a Uttle to the east of the town 
of Hsipaw. 

Myittha. — Southern subdivision and tov/nship of Kyaukse District, 
Upper Burma, lying between 21° 12' and 21° t^i' N. and 95° 57' and 
96° 25' E., with an area of 277 square miles. The population was 
43,645 in 1 89 1, and 56,752 in 1901, distributed in 310 villages. The 
head-quarters are at Myittha (population, 3,023), on the railway 12 
miles south of Kyaukse town. The railway runs north and south 
through the centre of the township, the portion to the east, drained 
by the Panlaung river, being a flat plain bounded by the Shan plateau, 
with a scanty rainfall, but a good supply of irrigation canals ; while 
the western portion, once the Dayegaung township, is watered by the 
Samon river and the Sama canal. In 1903-4 the township con- 
tained 104 square miles under cultivation, of which 75 square miles 
were irrigated, and the land revenue and fhathameda amounted to 
Rs. 3,24,000. 

Mylliem {MuIIiem). — Petty State in the Khasi Hills, Eastern Bengal 
and Assam, in the immediate vicinity of vShillong. The population 
in 1 90 1 was 17,863, and the gross revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 9,619. 
The principal products are rice, potatoes, maize, and millet. The 
manufactures are iron hoes and baskets. There are deposits of iron 
in the State, but they are not worked. 

Mymensingh District {Maima/isi/to/i). -District in the north of 
the Dacca Division, Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 23° 57' 
and 25° 26' N. and 89^ 36' and 91° 16' E., with an area of 6,332 
square miles. It derives its name from the old pargana or fiscal 
division of Maimansingh. On the north and east the District marches 
with Assam, being bounded on the north by the Garo Hills, and 
on the east by Sylhet ; on the south-east it adjoins Tippera, and on 
the south Dacca ; on the west it is separated by the Jamuna (or 
Brahmaputra) from the Districts of Pabna, Bogra, and Rangpur. 

Lentil the beginning of the nineteenth century the main stream 

of the Brahmaputra flowed through the middle of the District from 

north to south ; and although it now passes along 

asnects ^^^ western boundary and the Old Brahmaputra has 

shrunk to a mere fraction of its former volume, its 

channel cuts the District into two great natural divisions with a marked 

difference between the country on either bank. The people to the east 

of it resemble in their dialect, social customs, and oljservances those of 

the adjoining District of Sylhet, while those to the west are like the 

inhabitants of Pabna, Dacca, and J<"aridi)ur. To the east the country 

is intersected by marshes or /laors, where large herds of buffaloes 

are grazed in the cold season, and the whole country is submerged 

during the rains, e\ce|)t the crowded village sites wliirh are arlificiall) 



MYMENSIXGH DISTRICT 1,9 

raised above the ordinary flood-level. The general elevation of the 
country west of the Old Brahmaputra is higher, and it contains a great 
part of the formation known as the Madhupur jungle, which stretches 
northwards from the boundary of Dacca District almost as far as the 
town of Mymensingh. This tract, which may be said to constitute a 
third natural division of the District, has an average height of about 
40 feet above the level of the plains, and nowhere exceeds 100 feet ; 
it is about 45 miles in length and from 6 to 16 miles in breadth, with 
a total area of about 420 square miles. The formation, which consists 
of a stiff layer of red ferruginous clay resembling that of the Barind 
in North Bengal, is of considerable depth and ca[)able of offering a 
tenacious resistance to the erosive action of rivers ; and when the 
Old Brahma[)utra, after having raised its bed and lost its velocity, 
was no longer able to hold its own against the Meghna, this bank of 
clay forced it to swing westwards and to mingle its waters with those 
of the Jamuna. The Susang hills rise on the northern border ; but 
elsewhere the District is level and open, consisting of well-cultivated 
fields, doited with villages, and intersected by numerous small rivers 
and channels. 

The Madhupur jungle divides the District into two portions. 
The western and smaller portion is watered and drained by the ri\ei 
system connected with the Jamuna, the eastern by the Old Bkah.ma- 
I'UTRA and its branches together with other numerous streams, which, 
issuing from the Garo Hills on the north, flow eastwards and south 
wards into the Surma and Meghna. The numerous branches and 
tributaries of the Jamuna afford exceptional lacililics for river trade : 
of the former, the Dhaleswari, and of the latter, the Jhinai, an effluent 
of the Old Brahmaputra, are the most important. The Sukma (also 
known as the Dhaleswari or Bheramona) comes down from the Surma 
valley in Assam and forms generally the eastern boundarj-, taking 
the name of the Meghna in the extreme south-east of the District. 
Two branches of the Meghna, the Dhanu and the Ghora-utra, arc 
navigable throughout the year. The Kangsa, a narrow stream, but 
deep and navigable throughout the year by boats of considerable 
burden, forms the boundary for a short distance between Mymensingh 
and Sylhet. There are several marshes in the east and south-east 
of great size and depth, which swarm with fish. 

The greater part of the District is covered with recent alluvium, 
which consists of coarse gravels near the hills, sandy clay and sand 
along the course of the rivers, and fine silt consolidating into clay 
in the flatter parts of the river plain ; beds of impure peat also 
conmionly occur. The red ferruginous clay of the Madhupur jungle 
belongs to an older alluvial formation. 

The District contains no Government forests, l)ul llie Madhuimr 



I50 MYMEXSlXCIl DISTRICT 

jungle is covered with a deiibc growth of tall trees overrun with 
creepers, with numerous large grasses at their base. The forest is 
similar in composition to that under the Himalayan range, containing 
a mixture of Leguminosae, Combretaceae, Anacardiaceae, Urticaceae, 
Me/iaceae, and Sapindaccae. In the north the Susang hills are covered 
with a thick thorny jungle. The surface of the marshes in the east 
and south-east of the District either shows huge stretches of inundated 
rice, or is covered by matted floating islets of sedges and grasses and 
water-lilies, the most striking being the inakana {Euryale ferox) ; while 
the river banks and the artificial mounds on which habitations arc 
situated are, where not occupied by gardens, densely covered with a 
scrubby jungle of semi-spontaneous species, from which rise bamboos 
with a few taller trees, among which the commonest is the jiyal 
{Odina Jfodi'er) and the most conspicuous the red cotton-tree (^Bombax 
malabaricutu). 

Leopards are found throughout the District, and tigers, buffaloes, 
and wild hog are numerous in the Madhupur jungle and the sub- 
montane tracts in the north. 1 )eer are abundant in the same localities, 
the slimbar {Cerviis iinicolor) and the hog deer being the most common ,; 
the barking-deer is also found, and the barasinghd {Cervus duvaiiceli) 
is also met with in the grassy plains at the foot of the hills. Elephants 
abound in the (iaro and Susang hills, and occasionally conmiit great 
depredations among the crops in the vicinity. The rivers and marshes 
swarm with fish, which are dried at Kishorganj and exported to Assam, 
Chittagong, and Rangpur. 

The temperature changes but little between April and October ; the 
average maximum falls from 91° in April to 86° in October, while 
the highest average minimum is 78° in July, August, and September, 
and the mean is almost constant at 82°. In January the average 
minimum falls to 53° and the mean temperature to 64°. The monsoon 
rainfall begins in May and, owing to the ascensional motion of the 
monsoon current caused by the Garo Hills, is heavier throughout 
the season than in any other inland tract of Eastern Bengal. The fall 
is II inches in May and 17-9 in June, after which it slowly diminishes 
to 12-3 in September; the average fall for the year is 86 inches. The 
heaviest fall recorded was 134 inches in 1865, and the lightest 57 inches 
in 1883. Though floods may occur in any monsoon month, very 
heavy precipitation occurs either early or late in the season, being 
due to depressions from the Bay which break up on reaching the 
Assam Hills. 

The earthquake of 1885 caused considerable damage, especially 
along the north of the District, which lay on the arc of greatest 
intensity. 'Hie great earthquake of 1897 shook the District even 
more violently, especially in the north, below the (laro Hills, in the 



JirSTORY ,;, 

J.mialpur and Notrakona Mihili\ i^i(>Ils. Tliroui^lKJiit ihr District l)ri< k 
buildings were destroyed or seriously damaged ; houses were half 
buried ; sand was upheaved through fissures in the soil, and spread 
over the surflicc, damaging the rice crop ; wells ran dry, and tanks had 
their bottoms raised by the u[)heaval of the soil. The mischief, how- 
ever, did not end here, for the beds of a large number of rivers 
formerly navigable were raised, rendering boat trafific impracticable 
except during the rains, roads and bridges were injured, and consider- 
able damage was also done t6 the permanent way and bridges on the 
Dacca-Mymensingh Railway, where traffic was suspended for a fortnight. 
The cost of repairs in Mymensingh town to Government buildings 
alone was estimated at a lakh ; the private losses in the whole District 
were estimated at 50 laklis, while 50 lives were lost. 

In ancient times the District formed part of the old kingdom 01" 
I'ragjyotisha, or Kamarupa as it was subse(]uently called, whose ruler 
lihagadatta was one of the great chiefs who is said 
to have fought at the battle of Kurukshetra. In 
tlie Afahahharata he is styled the king of the Kiratas, and his kingdom 
is said to have extended to the sea. His capital was at Gauhati in 
Assam, but the site of a palace believed to have been erected by him 
is still pointed out in the Madhupur jungle at a place known as Bara 
Tirtha ('twelve shrines'), where a fair is held annually in April. The 
kingdom was ruled by a succession of princes of Mongoloid stock, and 
was still flourishing when visited by Hiuen Tsiang in the seventh 
century. At that time its southern boundary seems to have corre- 
sponded with the present Dhaleswarl in Dacca District, while it 
extended westwards as far as the Karatoya river. The portion of the 
District to the west of the Old Brahmaputra was included in Ballal 
Sen's dominions, but not so the tract to the east of that river ; the 
system of Kulinism instituted by that monarch is still in full force in 
the former,' while it is almost unknown in the latter, tract. The 
Muhammadans first entered Bengal in 1199, but Kastern Bengal was 
not subdued till later. In 135 1 the whole province was united by 
Shams-ud-din Ilyas Shah ; and Sonargaon, near Dacca, became the 
residence of the governors of F.astern Bengal. Eastern Bengal subse- 
quently became the seat of dissensions and rebellions, but it was again 
subdued by Mahinud Shah in 1445. His family reigned till 1487, and 
during their time this tract formed the province of Mua/^aniabad, 
which apparently extended to Laur in Sylhet at the foot of the Garo 
Hills. Local tradition ascribes the subjugation of eastern Mymensingh 
to Sultan Husain Shah and his son Nusrat Shah. The former estab- 
lished a fort at Ekdala, not far from the southern boundary of the 
District, whence he sent an expedition against the Ahoms. Pargana 
Husainshahi is said to have been named after him, and Nusratshahi, 



152 }ry.}rF.xsryG// district 

iiK hiding Susang and twenty-one other par^atios, after his son. The 
conquest does not, however, seem to have been complete, and in the 
latter half of the sixteenth century we find that Eastern Bengal was 
again split up into a number of petty States ruled by independent chiefs 
locally known as Bhuiyas. One of the best known of these, Isa Khan, 
the founder of the great Mymensingh family known as the Diwan 
Sahibs of Haibatnagar and Jangalbari, had his head-quarters at Sonar- 
gaon, and is said to have ruled over a large kingdom, including the 
greater part of Mymensingh, till his death in 1598 ; he is mentioned 
by Ralph Fitch, who visited Sonargaon in 1586, as being the 'chief of 
all the other kings.' Another important Bhuiya of this period, ruling 
over Bhawal in Dacca and the adjoining pargana of Ran Bhawal in 
Mymensingh, was the head of the GhazI family founded by Palwan 
Shah, a military adventurer of the early fourteenth century. 

At the time of the settlement of 1582 by Todar Mai, Mymensingh 
formed part of the great sarkar Bajuha, which stretched eastward from 
sarkar Barbakabad across the Brahmaputra to Sylhet, and southward 
as far as the city of Dacca. When the District passed into the hands 
of the Company, on the grant of the Diwani in 1765, it formed part of 
the nicibai which extended from the Garo Hills on the north to the 
Sundarbans on the south, and from the Tippera Hills on the east to 
Jessore on the west, so called because it was governed by a naib or 
deputy of the Nazim. The District of Mymensingh was formed about 
1787, and placed under one Collector with the revenue charge of 
lihulua, which comprised the Districts of Tippera and Noakhali. This 
union lasted only till 1790, when Bhulua was again separated ; and in 
1791 the head-quarters of the Collector, which had apparently been 
at Dacca, were transferred to their present site in Mymensingh. Some 
changes of jurisdiction have since taken place, of which the most 
important were in 1866, when the Sirajganj thdna was transferred to 
Pabna, and the Dlwanganj and Atia thdnas were added from Bogra 
and Dacca respectively. 

Archaeological remains are meagre. The most important is an 
old mud fort covering 2 square miles at Garb Jaripa near Sherpur, 
probably built more than 500 years ago as an outpost to check the 
incursions of the hill tribes. 

The population recorded at the Census of 1872 was 2,351,695, 

rising to 3,055,237 in i88r, to 3,472,186 in 1891, and to 3,915,068 

_ , . in 1 90 1. The climate is generally salubrious, but 

Popxilation. , ^^ _ ,_ , r r 1 -r>- 

the Durgapur thana at the foot 01 the Garo 

Hills has a reputation for unhealthiness. The majority of the 

deaths are ascribed to fever. Cholera and small-pox often occur 

in an epidemic form. Leprosy is more common than elsewhere in 

ICastern Bengal. 



nOrULA TTOX 



The chief statistics of the Census of 1901 ait- shown below 



Subdivision. 


Area in square 
miles. 


Number of 


' Population. 


S-i 


*o = ^ - 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 




Villages. 


Populatioi 
square va 

Percentag 
variatior 

populatior 
tween i{ 
and IQO 


Mymensinyh 
Netrakona 
Jamalpur . 
Tangail 
Kishorganj 

District total 


1,849 
1,148 
1,289 
1,061 
985 


2 
I 
2 

I 
2 


2,367 
1,965 
1,747 
2,030 
1,661 


977,476 
574.771 
673,398 
970.239 
719,184 


529 

501 
522 
914 
730 


+ 14-6 
+ 7.1 
+ 16. 1 
+ T2.9 

+ 11-8 


34,207 

18,797 
20,180 

45,253 
37,949 


6,332 


8 


9,770 


3,915,068 


618 


■»- 12.8 


146,386 



There is little distinction between the rural and urban population, as 
even in the towns the houses are scattered, and a large proportion of 
the inhabitants are engaged in purely agricultural pursuits. Outside 
the so-called towns there is no village with more than 5,000 inhabitants, 
and nearly half the population lives in villages with less than 500. 
Of the towns, the largest are Jamaij'UK, Tangail, Kishokoanj, and 
Nasir.\p..^1), the head-quarters. Owing to the sparse population in the 
Madhupur jungle and in the hilly north-eastern tract, the District, as 
a whole, is less thickly inhabited than other parts of Eastern Bengal. 
In some parts, however, the population is very dense, and two //id/ias 
of the Tangail subdivision and one in the centre of the District support 
more than 1,000 i)ersons per square mile. During the ten years 
ending 1901, every thana in theDistrict with one exception showed an 
increase of more than 8 per cent., the only tract which did not share 
in the general advance being the swamp)- north-eastern tarai in the 
Durgapur thd/ia, which supports only 299 persons per square mile. 

Mymensingh suffers a slight loss by the ordinary movements of 
population, chiefly in the direction of Rangpur, whither some of the 
riparian inhabitants have gone to cultivate the accretions formed on 
the right bank of the Jamuna. On the other hand it gains considerably 
from Tippera, whose w^omen are in request as wives and maidservants. 
Large numbers of labourers flock in from Saran and the United Pro- 
vinces during the winter, and are employed on earthwork, /<7/y^/-bearing, 
and domestic service. The vernacular is a dialect of Bengali known 
as the Eastern or Musalmanl dialect ; some people of Garo origin talk 
Haijong, a corrupt/a/f^/V of Bengali. Muhammadans number 2,795,548, 
Hindus 1,088,857, and Animists 28,958; the first increased by more 
than 16 percent, during the decade ending 1901, and now form 71-4 
per cent, of the population. 

The majority of the Muhammadans are probably the descendants 
of converts from the aboriginal races whose representatives are still 
numerous in the District: namely, the Namasudras (156,000) and the 



'54 



.]ry.]fExsi.\\;/f nrsTiucT 



Rajbansis or Koch (52.000). Of the i-oiinnon Hindu castes of 
Eastern Bengal the Kaiharttas (131,000) are the most numerous. 
Garos and other cognate aboriguial races — such as Haijongs, Hadis, 
and Dalus — are found along- the foot of the Garo Hills. The Garos 
are for the most part Animists, but the number so returned is diminish- 
ing, owing to the well-known tendency of the aboriginal tribes to adopt 
Hinduism as they approach civilization. Four-fifths of the population, 
or more than three million persons, are supported by agriculture, 
IO-2 per cent, by industries, i per cent, by commerce, and 1-3 percent, 
by the professions. 

The Victoria Baptist Foreign Mission has been in the District since 
1837, and has three branches, at Nasirabad, Tangail, and Birisiri. 
Its work lies mainly among the Garos ; and the Christians enumerated 
in the District, who increased from 211 in 1S91 to 1,291 in 1901, are 
mainly Garo converts. Considerable attention is paid to education ; 
a girls' orphanage is maintained at Nasirabad, a normal school for 
Garo teachers and a girls' boarding school at Birisiri, and a number 
of primary schools. 

The greater portion of the District is a highly cultivated plain 
watered by the great rivers and their offshoots and feeders, but the 
Madhupur jungle is for the most part waste. The 
north lies comparatively high and is generally above 
flood level, but the south is lower and is subject to annual inundations 
and deposits of fertilizing silt. In the neighbourhood of the big rivers 
the soil is a sandy loam, admirably suited for jute and spring crops. 

The principal agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are shown below, areas 
being in square miles : — 



Agriculture. 



Subdivision. 


Total. 


Cultivated. 


Cultivable \ 
waste. 1 


Mymensingh 
Netrakona . 
Jamalpur 
Tangail 
Kishorganj . 

Total 


1,849 
1,148 
1,289 
1,061 
9S.5 


1. 1 24 

477 
758 
669 

730 


180 
164 
12.5 

94 
62 


'>-3.S2 


0-758 


625 ; 



Rice forms the staple food-grain of the District ; the winter rice 
covers 44 per cent, of the cultivated area, early rice 15^ per cent., and 
spring rice 5 per cent. The aus or early rice is sown from March to 
April and even May, and is reaped from the middle of May till the 
middle of September. The harvest takes place earliest in the west of 
the District, and latest in the southern tracts. In the east only two 
kinds of aus are cultivated — the y'c?// and the aits proper; in the west 
the varieties are much more numerous, but all of ihem do best on 



AGRICULTURE 155 

a dry soil. Winter rice is sown in the late spring and reaped in the 
autumn and early winter ; some of the varieties grow in marshy land, 
while the rest grow best in dry lands. The rupd or transplanted winter 
crop is grown in moist soil, being sown in June, transplanted a month 
or two later, and reaped in November, December, and January. The 
long-stemmed rice, which rises with the floods, is common in the deep 
swamps. The spring rice, known in the District as bora, is sown early 
in the winter and reaped during the spring months ; it is a transplanted 
crop, and grows best in low marshy lands. 

A fourth of the Bengal jute crop is raised in Mymensingh District, 
where the fibre occupies 1,015 square miles, or 27 per cent, of the 
cultivated area ; it is grown in all parts, but particularly in the rich 
alluvial tracts formed by the Brahmaputra between Ghafargaon and 
Bhairab Bazar. Oilseeds cover 19 per cent, of the cultivated area, 
yielding nearly an eighth of the rape and mustard grown in Bengal. 
Pulses are extensively grown, and a little wheat and barley are raised. 
There are considerable plantations of sugar-cane in the Husainshahi 
and Joar Husainpur/a;^^a«a^. The betel-vine is cultivated, and tobacco 
is widely grown. Irrigation is little practised, except for the spring rice 
crop. Owing to the regular and copious rainfall, famine is unknown, 
while the large export of jute and oilseeds brings large sums of 
money into the District ; and there is consequently little need fof 
Government loans. 

No attention is given to the feeding or breeding of catde,. and 
the local varieties are weak and undersized. Young bulls are allowed 
to run among the herd before they are fit for the plough, and are 
the only sires of the young stock. In the cold season cattle are 
grazed on the rice stubble ; but during the rains pasturage is very 
limited, and the cattle get only what they can pick up on the sides 
of marshes, tanks, and roads. In the submerged tracts they are fed 
on straw or grass. In the south-east of the District, however, there 
are considerable areas of rich pasture, where clarified butter {gh'i) 
and the so-called Dacca cheeses are prepared ; in the Madhupur 
jungle and Susang hills abundant pasturage is also available. Cattle 
of a better class, imported from Bihar, are in demand throughout 
the District ; and buffaloes are also used for agricultural purposes, 
especially along the foot of the Garo Hills. Pack-ponies of a small 
and weak variety are in common use. 

A large number of fairs are held, some of considerable antiquity 
and largely attended. At the Saraswati viela held in Naslrabad 
in February, and at the Industrial and Agricultural Exhibition recently 
instituted at Tangail, agricultural produce and stock are exhibited 
for prizes. 

In former times the muslins of Kishorganj and Bajitpur were of 

VOL, XVIII, L 



156 MYMENSINGH DISTRICT 

considerable note, and the East India Company had factories at 

both places ; weaving is still widely practised and supports more 

than 30,000 persons. Cloth {e?idi) is woven at 

Trade and Sandhikona in the Netrakona subdivision from wild 
communications. 

silk. Fine sitalpati mats are made on a large scale 

in the east and south-east, where the marshes furnish an abundant 

supply of reeds i^Phrynium dichotomum) for the purpose. Brass 

and bell-metal ware is manufactured at Islampur in the Jamalpur 

subdivision and at Kagmari in Tangail, and the cutlery of Kargaon 

and Bajitpur in the Kishorganj subdivision has a local reputation. 

Cane boxes, molasses, and mustard oil are also prepared in some 

quantities. 

Trade is carried on chiefly by rail and river ; where there are no 
rivers, carts and pack-ponies are used. The chief export is jute ; in 
1903-4 the amount carried direct to Calcutta exceeded 76,000 tons, 
and more than double this quantity was probably baled at Sirajganj 
and Narayanganj for export. Other exports are pulses, rice, oilseeds, 
hides, raw cotton, cheese, ghi, dried fish, and brass-ware. The principal 
imports are salt, kerosene oil, European piece-goods, cotton twist, 
molasses, sugar, corrugated iron, coal and coke from Calcutta ; tobacco 
from Rangpur ; raw cotton from the Garo Hills ; cotton, betel-nuts, and 
chillies from Tippera ; and coco-nuts from the southern Districts. A 
large proportion of the trade with Calcutta is at present carried via 
Narayanganj, but the recent extension of the railway to Jagan- 
nathganj will possibly in time divert this portion of the traffic to the 
more direct route via Goalundo. The large trade-centres mark the 
lines of water communication ; Subarnakhali, lying on the Jamuna 
and connected by road with both Jamalpur and Nasirabad, is the 
principal emporium in the west of the District. Nasirabad, the head- 
quarters town, and Jamalpur are on the banks of the Old Brahmaputra, 
on which also lie Saltia, a large cattle market, Datt's Bazar, and 
Bhairab Bazar ; the latter, at the point of the confluence with the 
Meghna, is the largest and most important mart in the District. 
Katiadi, Karimganj, Kishorganj, and Nilganj are markets whence 
large quantities of jute are sent via the Lakhya and Meghna to the 
presses at Narayanganj. In the east and south-east are Mohanganj 
and Dhuldia, large fish markets ; and in the north are Haluaghat, at 
the foot of the Garo Hills, where the hillmen bring in their merchandise, 
Nalitabari, and Sherpur. Among the Hindus, the Telis and Sahas 
are the chief trading castes ; there is also a large community of 
Marwaris. Middlemen and brokers are usually Musalmans. 

The Dacca-Mymensingh branch of the Eastern Bengal State Railway 
(metre-gauge) enters the District at Kaoraid, whence it runs north 
through Nasirabad to Jamalpur, and from thence south-west to join 



ADMINISTRA TION 1 57 

the Jamuna at Jagannalhganj, having a total length within the Dis- 
trict of Syi miles. The railway has already done much to open out 
the country, and the proposed extensions to Tangail and Netrakona 
will develop those subdivisions. The railway has seventeen stations 
within the District, most of which are connected by feeder roads 
with the marts of the interior. The most important roads are those 
connecting the head-quarters town with Dacca, Subarnakhali on the 
Jamuna, Kishorganj via Iswarganj, Durgapur, Tangail via Phulbaria, 
Jamalpur, and Netrakona. Including 1,620 miles of village roads, 
the District in 1903-4 contained 2,484 miles of road, of which only 
45 miles were metalled. 

Steamers ply on the big rivers which flow along the east and west 
of the District. The most important of these are the daily services 
between Calcutta and Cachar via the Sundarbans, and between 
Goalundo and Dibrugarh, both of which stop at several stations within 
the District. The usual country boats of Eastern Bengal are em- 
ployed for trade, and dug-outs are used on the hill rivers in the north. 
There are 171 ferries, of which 5 are Provincial, while the remainder 
belong to the District board. The most important are those at 
Sambhuganj, Jamalpur, Husainpur, and Piarpur. 

For administrative purposes the District is divided into five sub- 
divisions, with head-quarters at NasIrabad, Netrakona, Jamalpur, 

Tangail, and Kishorganj. They are of unusual 

1 • c c^ -1 Administration, 

size, having an average area of 1,266 square miles, 

and a population of 783,000. Subordinate to the Magistrate-Collector, 
the staff at head-quarters consists of a Joint-Magistrate, seven un- 
covenanted Deputy-Magistrate-Collectors, and one Sub-deputy Magis- 
trate-Collector. Three of the Deputy-Magistrate-Collectors are em- 
ployed exclusively on revenue work, and there is also a Deputy- 
Collector in charge of the partition work of both Dacca and 
Mymensingh. The other four subdivisions are each in charge of a 
Deputy-Magistrate-Collector, the subdivisional officer at Tangail being 
assisted by a Deputy-Collector, and at Netrakona by a Sub-Deputy- 
Collector. 

Civil work is in charge of the District Judge, who is also Sessions 
Judge ; subordinate to him are an additional District and Sessions 
Judge, three Subordinate Judges, one additional Subordinate Judge for 
both Faridpur and Mymensingh, and nineteen Munsifs : namely^ three 
at Mymensingh, and fifteen permanent Munsifs and one temporary 
Additional Munsif at Tangail, Netrakona, Kishorganj, Bajitpur, 
Iswarganj, Pingna, Jamalpur, and Sherpur. The criminal courts 
include those of the Sessions Judge, the District Magistrate, and the 
above-mentioned Joint and Deputy-Magistrates. The wealth and the 
litigious habits of the people make the criminal and civil work very 

L 2 



158 



MYMENSINGH DISTRICT 



heav}', and disputes about land give rise to numerous and complicated 
cases. The District has gained an evil notoriety for kidnapping, 
abduction, and rape; and in 1899 it was found necessary to depute 
special ofificers to inquire into such cases. 

At Todar Mai's settlement of 1582 the present District fell within 
sarkdr Bajuha, which also contained a portion of Dacca District, 
and it was subsequently included in the province of Dacca, from 
which it was not separated until 1787; the separate revenues 
collected by the Muhammadan government cannot therefore be 
ascertained. The revenue permanently settled in 1793 seems to have 
amounted to 7-20 lakhs, which in 1903-4 had risen to 7-68 lakhs 
(payable by 9,534 estates), mainly by the resumption and assessment in 
the first half of the nineteenth century of lands held free of revenue 
under invalid titles. In addition, Rs. 70,000 is payable by 178 tem- 
porarily settled estates, and Rs. 26,000 by 80 estates held direct by 
Government. At the time of the Permanent Settlement only a quarter 
of the District was cultivated, and the result is that the share of the 
produce of the soil which is now taken as revenue is probably smaller 
than in any other part of Bengal. It is equivalent to only R. 0-5-8 
on each cultivated acre, or 11 -8 per cent, of the rental, which itself 
by no means represents the real value of the lands to the zamindars, 
as they impose a large premium, varying from Rs. 5 to Rs. 100 per 
acre, at the beginning of each tenancy. A few tenures are peculiar to 
the District. The nagani jama taluk, an under-tenure held subject 
to a quit-rent, is a relic of the period when tenants were in demand, 
having been created by former Rajas of Susang to induce people to 
settle on their estates. A dikhli tdluk is an absolute transfer in 
consideration of the payment of a lump sum, in addition to rent 
fixed in perpetuity ; and a daisudhi ijdra is a usufructuary mort- 
gage either for a definite period or until repayment. Rents vary 
widely over the District, being highest in pargana Juanshabi, and 
lowest in pargatia Khaliajuri. The rates for homestead land range 
from 9^ annas to Rs. 8-9-6 ; rice lands are divided into three classes, 
the rates varying from Rs. 1-14-9 to Rs. 4-5-6 for first-class lands, and 
from Rs. 1-3 to Rs. 2-7-6 for those of the third class. 

The following table shows the collections of land revenue and of 
total revenue (principal heads only), in thousands of rupees : — 





i88o-i. 


1890-1. 


1900-1. 


1903-4. 


Land revenue . 
Total revenue. 


8,21 
19,10 


8,26 

2 3,3.=; 


8,6^ 
27,78 


8,65 
27,87 



Outside the eight municipalities of NasIrabad, Jamalpur, Sherpur, 
KiSHORGANj, Bajitpur, Muktagacha, Tangail, and Netrakona, 



ADMINISTRA TION 159 

local affairs are managed by the District board, with subordinate local 
boards at each of the subdivisional head-quarters. In 1903-4 the 
income of the District board was Rs. 3,81,000, of which Rs. 1,99,000 
was derived from rates; and the expenditure was Rs. 4,37,000, in- 
cluding Rs. 2,63,000 spent on public works and Rs. 87,000 on 
education. 

There are 19 police stations or thdnas and 11 outposts. The regular 
force subordinate to the District Superintendent in 1903 consisted of 6 
inspectors, 77 sub-inspectors, 38 head constables, and 592 constables, 
including those employed for patrolling purposes wirhin the municipal 
areas. The rural police numbered 7,307 village Avatchmen and 714 head 
watchmen. The District jail at Nasirabad has accom-modation for 550 
prisoners, and the lock-ups at the subdivisional head-quarters for 89. 

Education is still very backward, and in 1901 only 3-7 per cent, of 
the population (6-9 males and 0-4 females) could read and write. A 
considerable advance, however, has been made since i88r. Education 
is most backward in the north of the District, and among the Muham- 
madans, only 2,'Z per cent, of whose males are able to read and write, 
compared with 16-2 per cent, among the Hindus. The total number 
of pupils under instruction, which was 54,284 in 1882-3 ^'^d 51,082 in 
1892-3, increased to 65,812 in 1900-1. In 1903-4, 67,266 boys and 
5,878 girls were at school, being respectively 22-2 and 2*0 per cent. 
of the children of school-going age. The number of educational in- 
stitutions, public and private, in that year was 2,618, including 2 Arts 
colleges, 133 secondary schools, and 2,255 primary schools. The 
expenditure on education was 3-84 lakhs, of which Rs. 26.000 was 
met from Provincial funds, Rs. 83,000 from District funds, Rs. 2,000 
from municipal funds, and 1-98 lakhs from fees. The chief educa- 
tional institutions are the Mymensingh Government school and City 
College at Nasirabad and the Pramatha Mamnatha College at Tangail. 
Special institutions include 12 upper primary and 2 lower primary 
schools, maintained by the District board for the aboriginal tribes in 
the neighbourhood of the Garo Hills and the Madhupur jungle. 

In 1903 the District contained 33 dispensaries, of which 14 had 
accommodation for 137 in-patients. The cases of 370,000 out-patients 
and 2,082 in-patients were treated, and 11,253 operations were 
performed. The expenditure was Rs, 49,000, of which Rs. 2,000 
was met from Government contributions, Rs. 9,000 from Local and 
Rs. 11,000 from municipal funds, and Rs. 27,000 from subscriptions. 

Vaccination is compulsory only within municipal areas. Elsewhere 
there is still some opposition to it, but 154,000 successful vaccina- 
tions were performed in 1903-4, representing 25-4 per r,ooo of the 
population. 

[Sir W. W. Hunter, Statistical Account of Bengal, vol. v (1875).] 



i6.o MYMENSINGH SUBDIVISION 

Mymensingh Subdivision {Maimansingh). — Head-quarters sub- 
division of Mymensingh District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying 
between 24° 7' and 25° 11' N. and 89° 59' and 90° 49'' E., with an 
area of 1,849 square miles. A large part of the subdivision consists of 
a level open plain, covered with well-cultivated fields and intersected 
by numerous small rivers and channels ; but the south comprises the 
Madhupur jungle, where the country is more elevated and contains 
large jungle tracts. The population in 1901 was 977,476, compared 
with 853,020 in 1891. It contains two towns, NasIrabad (population, 
14,668), the head-quarters, and Muktagacha (5,888); and 2,367 
villages. The density is only 529 persons per squgje mile, against an 
average of 618 for the District, owing to the inclusion of a large portion 
of the Madhupur jungle, in parts of which there are only 277 persons 
per square mile, compared with 1,025 ^^ the Nandail thdna. There 
are important markets at Sambhuganj and Datt's Bazar. 

Mymensingh. — Town in Mymensingh District, Eastern Bengal 
and Assam. See NasIrabad. 

Myohaung Township. —Easternmost township of Akyab District, 
Lower Burma, lying between 20° 20'' and 20° 50' N. and 93° 2' 
and 93° 58' E., partly in the valleys of the Kaladan and Lemro, partly 
on the slopes of the Arakan Yoma, with an area of 1,329 square miles. 
The population was 43,366 in 1891, and 49,978 in 1901. There are 
282 villages. In consequence of the scarcity of population in the hill 
areas on the western slope of the Arakan Yoma, the density (37 persons 
per square mile) is lower than that of any other township in the 
District. The head-quarters are at Myohaung or 'old town' (popula- 
tion, 2,833), fo^ centuries the capital of the ancient kingdom of Arakan. 
The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 152 square miles, paying Rs. 2,00,000 
land revenue. 

Myohaung Village ('Old town'). — Head-quarters of the township 
of the same name in Akyab District, Lower Burma, situated in 
20° 35' N. and 93° 12' E., on a branch of the Kaladan, about 40 miles 
from Akyab and the Bay of Bengal. This village was formerly the 
capital of the ancient kingdom of Arakan. The seat of government 
is said to have been moved here from Dwarawadi, farther south in 
Sandoway District, about the close of the tenth century, in consequence 
of aggressions across the Arakan Yoma from the kingdom of Prome ; 
and Myohaung remained the capital till Arakan was finally absorbed 
into the kingdom of Ava in the eighteenth century. In the first 
Burmese War Myohaung was one of the earliest points of attack. It 
was besieged by a British division which had marched by land from 
Bengal, and was captured after a stubborn resistance at the end of 
March, 1825. On Arakan passing under British rule at the close 
of the war, the official head-quarters were not located in the ancient 



MYSORE STATE i6i 

capital, but in the more accessible Akyab, at the mouth of the 
Kaladan ; and Myohaung is now little more than a village. In 1901 
its population amounted to 2,833. 

The ruins of the ancient fort are still in existence ; they consist of 
three square enclosures, one within the other, surrounded by masonry 
walls of very considerable thickness, built of stone and brick set in 
cement. The openings in the hills surrounding Myohaung also con- 
tain remains of defences. In the village itself the site of the old palace 
is still traceable. 

Myothit. — Eastern township of Magwe District, Upper Burma, 
lying between 20° o' and 20° 19' N. and 95° 13' and 95° 51' E., with 
an area of 403 square miles. The eastern portion of the township, 
watered by the Yin, lies low, and is extensively cultivated with rice. 
The western resembles the Myingun township, in so far as it has a dry 
soil on which only millet and sesamum are grown. The population 
was 33,994 in 1891, and 42,925 in 1901, distributed in 125 villages. 
Myothit (population, 1,638), on the Yin river, about 35 miles due east 
of Magwe, is the head-quarters. In 1903-4 the area cultivated was 
107 square miles, and the land revenue and thathameda amounted to 
Rs. 6,500. 

Mysore State {Afaisf/r). — Native State in Southern India, lying 
between 11° 36° and 15° 2' N. and 74° 38' and 78° 36' E. It consists 
of an undulating table-land, much broken up by 
chains of rocky hills and scored by deep ravines. asnects 

Its form is that of a triangle, with the apex to the 
south, at the point where the Western and Eastern Ghat ranges 
converge in the group of the Nilgiris. The general elevation rises 
from about 2,000 feet above sea-level along the north and south 
frontiers to about 3,000 feet at the central water-parting which separates 
the basin of the Kistna to the north from that of the Cauvery to the 
south. This watershed divides the country into two nearly equal parts, 
a little north of lat. 13° and as far as long. 77°, where a transverse line 
jiiarks the eastern watershed. Several chains of hills, running chiefly 
north and south, subdivide the whole into numerous valleys, widely 
differing in shape and size. Isolated peaks of massive rock, called 
' droogs ' (from Sanskrit durga, ' hill-fort '), rear their heads on all sides 
to an elevation of 4,000 or 5,000 feet above the level of the sea. The 
area of the State is 29,433 square miles. The greatest length north 
and south is about 230 miles ; east and west about 290 miles. It is 
bounded by Madras Districts on all sides except on the north-west, 
where it is bordered by two Bombay Districts, and towards the south- 
west, where Coorg intervenes. 

The name is that of the capital, Mysore, for Maisur (from inahisha, 
Sanskrit for ' buffalo,' reduced in Kanarese to maisa, and fini, Kanarese 



i62 MYSORE STATE 

for ' town ' or * country '), which commemorates the destruction of 
Mahishasura, a minotaur or buffalo-headed monster, by Chamundi or 
Mahishasura Mardani, the form under which the consort of Siva is 
worshipped as the tutelary goddess of the ruling family. It is the 
Mahisa-mandala of Asoka's time, and forms the main part of the 
region called throughout Hindu literature Karnata or Karnataka, 
a term now wrongly applied to the districts below the Eastern Ghats 
{see Carnatic). 

Mysore is naturally divided into two regions of distinct character : 
the hill country, called the Malnad, on the west, confined to the tracts 
bordering or resting on the Western Ghats (in Shimoga, Kadur, and 
Hassan Districts) ; and the more open country in the east, known as 
the Maidan or Bayalshlme, comprising the greater part of the State, 
where the wide-spreading valleys and plains are occupied by numerous 
villages and populous towns. The Malnad is a picturesque land of 
mountain and forest, presenting the most diversified and beautiful 
scenery. The various parts of the Maidan take their character from 
the means of water-supply and the prevailing cultivation. The level 
plains of black soil, in the north, grow cotton or millets; the tracts 
in the south and west, irrigated by channels drawn from rivers, are 
covered with plantations of sugar-cane and fields of rice ; those 
irrigated from tanks have gardens of coco-nut and areca palms ; 
the wide tracts of red soil, in the east, yield ragi and other 'dry 
crops ' ; the stony and wide-spreading pasture grounds, in the central 
parts of the country, are stretches of coarse grass, relieved by shady 
groves of trees. 

From the massive group of the Nilgiris, which command the 
southern frontier, stretch forth, north-west and north-east respectively, 
the Western and Eastern Ghat ranges, between which the plateau 
of Mysore lies like a wedge. The hills within this table-land, though 
rarely in continuous connected chains, arrange themselves into systems 
crossing the country longitudinally, in directions more or less parallel 
to the Ghat ranges, according to their proximity to one or the other. 
They attain their greatest elevation somewhat north of lat. 13°, where 
Mulainagiri (the highest point in Mysore), in the Baba Budans, in the 
west, rises to 6,317 feet, and Nandidroog, in the east, to 4,851 feet. 
The best defined of the interior ranges is a belt, from 10 to 20 miles 
wide, running between 77° and 77° 30' E., from the Biligiri-Rangans 
(4.195 f^et), through Savandurga (4,024) and Sivaganga (4,559), north 
up to Maddagiri (3,935), and on by Nidugal (3,772) to Molakalmuru 
and the frontier. In the west a corresponding range, not more than 
10 miles in width, runs north along meridian 75° 30' E., from 
Ballalrayandurga (4,940 feet) beyond Shikarpur, having on its east 
the big loop of the Baba Budans, whose peaks rise to over 6,000 feet. 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 163 

Intermediate between these two internal ranges is a chain, with 
considerable intervals between its component parts, trending to the 
east on the south of the central watershed, and to the west on the 
north of it. Starting from the Wynaad frontier at Gopalswami Betta 
(4,770 feet), it passes by Nagamangala to Chunchangiri (3,221), re- 
appears to the west of Kibbanhalli in the Hagalvadi hills (3,543), and 
crosses in a continuous belt through the middle of Chitaldroog District. 
Of minor ranges the most important is that of Nandidroog, com- 
mencing near the hill of that name, with several peaks of nearly equal 
height, and passing north by Gudibanda to the Anantapur country. 
In the west a similar medial chain, but of lower elevation, runs from 
east of the Baba Budans through Sakunagiri (4,653 feet), by the 
Ubrani hills and Basavapatna, along the right bank of the Tunga- 
bhadra to the frontier, where it meets that river. 

The drainage of the country, with a slight exception, finds its way 
east to the Bay of Bengal, and is divisible into three great river 
systems : that of the Kistna on the north, the Cauvery on the 
south, and the Penner, Ponnaiyar, and Palar on the east. The 
only streams flowing west to the Arabian Sea are those in the north- 
west, which, uniting in the Sharavati, hurl themselves down the Ghats 
in the magnificent Gersoppa Falls ; and some minor streams which 
run down to South Kanara. A line drawn east from Ballalrayandurga 
to Nandidroog, and thence south to Anekal, with one from Devaraya- 
durga north to Pavugada, will indicate approximately the watershed 
separating the three main river basins. From the north of this ridge 
flow the Tunga and Bhadra, rising in the Western Ghats and uniting 
in the Tungabhadra, which, after receiving the Hagari or Vedavati, 
joins the Kistna beyond the limits of Mysore near Kurnool. From 
the south, the Hemavati (tributary the Yagachi), the Lokapavani, 
Shimsha, and Arkavati flow into the Cauvery, which rises in Coorg 
and takes a south-easterly course through the State, receiving also 
from the south the Lakshmantirtha, the Kabbani or Kapila (tribu- 
taries the Nugu and Gundal), and the Honnuhole or Suvarnavati. 
From the east of the watershed, in the immediate neighbourhood 
of Nandidroog, spring three main streams : namely, the Uttara 
Pinakini or Penner (tributaries the Chitravati and Papaghni), which 
runs into the sea at Nellore ; the Dakshina Pinakini or Ponnaiyar, 
which reaches the sea at Cuddalore ; and between them the Palar, 
whose mouth is at Sadras. 

Owing to either rocky or shallow beds, none of these rivers is 
navigable in Mysore ; but timber is floated down the Tunga, the 
Bhadra, and the Kabbani at certain seasons. Most of the streams 
are fordable during the dry months, but during floods traffic over 
them is often suspended until the water subsides. Though useless 



1 64 MYSORE STATE . 

for navigation, the main streams, especially the Cauvery and its tribu- 
taries, support an extensive system of irrigation by means of channels 
drawn from immense dams, called 'anicuts,' which retain the upper 
waters at a high level and permit only the overflow to pass down 
stream. The channels or halves drawn from them meander over 
the country on either bank, following all the sinuosities of the 
ground, the total length maintained being upwards of 1,200 miles. 

There are no natural lakes in Mysore ; but the streams which gather 
from the hill-sides and fertilize the valleys are embanked at every 
favourable point in such a manner as to form series or chains of 
reservoirs called tanks (Kanarese, kere)^ the outflow from one at 
a higher level supplying the next lower, and so on all down the 
course of the stream at a few miles apart. These tanks, varying in 
size from small ponds to extensive lakes, are dispersed throughout 
the country to the number of nearly 30,000, The largest, Sulekere, 
is 40 miles in circumference, but the Mari Kanave reservoir will 
exceed 90 miles. In the north-east arc the spring-heads called 
falpargi, extending east of a line from Kortagere to Molakalmuru. 

' Granites and granitic gneisses, regarded as of Archaean age, occupy 
the greater portion of the State, and traversing these are metamorphic 
schists of Prc-Palaeozoic age. There are besides, (a) more recent acid, 
basic, and ultra-basic dikes, penetrating both the former systems, and 
irrupted probably not later than Lower Palaeozoic times ; {b) a deposit 
of laterite, widely distributed in extensive sheets or oftener in small 
isolated patches, forming an almost horizontal capping on the denuded 
surfaces of the older rocks ; {c) some relatively unimportant alluvial 
and sub-aerial deposits. 

The schistose rocks which traverse the great complex of granite and 
granitic gneiss, and are more or less folded down into it, form three 
well-marked bands running in a generally north and south direction. 
']\vo are of large size, and are known respectively as the Shimoga 
and Chiknayakanhalli bands, from their proximity to those towns, 
'i'he third is the Kolar l)and, very small in extent, but of the greatest 
economic importance. The two first named are southward extensions 
of the great bands in Dharwar and Bellary^ The third is apparently 
an extension of a band running south along the Kadiri valley in 
Cuddapah, but a break of several miles appears to separate the two 
near the boundary line between Cuddapah and Mysore. 

' Tlie earliest account of the geology of Mysore was by Captain Newbold in 
1844-50 (see articles on the ' Geology of Southern Inflia,'y. N. A. S., vols, viii, ix, xii). 
A .Stale Geological department was formed under Mr. Bruce Foote in 1894, and is 
now under Dr. W. F. Smeeth, on whose notes this section is based. 

' .See Hruce Foote's' Geological Features of the South Mahratta Country,' 'Geology 
of the liellary District,' and other papers {Memoirs, Geographical Sttrvey of India, 
vols, xii, xxv; and Records, Geographical Survey of I tulin, vols, xv, xxi, xxii). 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 165 

The Shimoga band crosses the Tungabhadra near Harihar, extends 
to the southern boundary of Kadur District, and spreads from near 
Kadur on the east to the edge of the Western Ghats on the west, 
where it forms much of the high Ghat country culminating in the 
Kudremukh at an elevation of 6,215 ^^^t. From this point the 
western boundary is probably continuous up to Anantapur (Shimoga 
District). West of Anantapur the country is covered by a great 
spread of laterite, beneath which gneiss is exposed in deep nullahs. 

The Chiknayakanhalli band runs through the middle of the State 
in a north-north-west and south-south-east direction. At the northern 
boundary it is divided into two horns by the great granite massif of 
Ghitaldroog. Thence it runs south-south-west as far as Turuvekere 
in Tumkur District, with an average width of about 18 miles. Here 
it suddenly pinches ; and the only continuous extension southward 
is a narrow band, with an average width of 2 to 3 miles, running 
from Baichihalli to the Karigatta hill, north of the Cauvery, opposite 
the east end of the island of Seringapatam. A little to the west 
of this narrow band are several small strings of schist near Myasandra, 
Nelligere, and Nagamangala, some of which appear to be dikes'. 
An important schist belt lying throughout the east of this band has 
been discovered, the rocks of which resemble those of the Kolar 
l)and. The southern extension towards Sivasamudram is rock con- 
taining 50 per cent, of iron. 

The Kolar band lies on the eastern side of the State. It extends 
north and south for a distance of 40 miles, with a maximum width 
of 4 miles, while three narrow strings extend southwards into North 
Arcot and Salem. In general outline the main portion of the band 
may be regarded as consisting of a southern portion about 12 miles 
long by 4 miles wide, in which the present Kolar Gold Field is situated ; 
a northern portion about 1 2 miles long by 5 miles wide ; and a narrow- 
neck of schist about 10 miles long by i mile wide, connecting these 
two parts. The band is composed essentially of hornblendic rocks, 
usually schistose, and some well-marked layers of ferruginous quartz 
rocks. 

Granite exists in large irruptive masses, which have broken up and 
penetrated the older gneisses and schists. The gneisses so largely 
developed in Mysore are for the most part rocks of granitic com- 
position, having a parallel-banded, wavy, or whorl-like structure, due 
to the arrangement of the lighter and darker constituents in more 
or less distinct bands or streaks. They appear to be of igneous 
origin, rather than metamorphosed sedimentary rocks as suggested 
by Mr. Bruce Foote, the banding being due partly to segregation 

' See Mysore Geological Department Records, vol. iii, plate i ; vol. ii, p. Sj ; 
vol. iii, p. 113. 



i66 MYSORE STATE 

of the more basic constituents, and partly to the contemporaneous 
or subsequent veining by pegmatite, aphte, and other forms of granitic 
material. The prevailing type is a biotite-gneiss. 

The Malnad or eastern face of the Western Ghats is clothed with 
magnificent timber and contains the richest flora. The summits of the 
mountains are bare of trees, but covered with grasses and herbs — 
Anthisteria, AndroJ>ogon, Habenaria, &c. The valleys descending from 
them are filled with woods called sholas, leaving grass-covered ridges 
between. Above 4,500 feet is the evergreen belt ; lower down, to 
3,000 feet, is a mixed belt, practically continuous ; and finally the 
deciduous trees are at the foot and throughout the plains. At extreme 
heights occur trees of the Nilgiri flora, but smaller. The South Indian 
tree-fern often ascends into the highest sholas, but rarer ferns abound 
in the mixed zone. It is here that coffee {Coffea arabica), pepper 
{Piper nigrum), and cardamoms {Elettaria cardamomtim) are culti- 
vated. Calophyllmn tomentosuni, Hardivickia binata, Bombax malaba- 
riaim, Vateria indica, Mesua ferrea, Myristica Imirifolia, M. magnifica, 
Lagerstroeniia lanceolata, L. Flos Reginae, Michelia Chafftpaca, Ficus 
of many species, and Tedona grandis are some of the prominent trees 
in this belt, with the prickly bamboo {Bambusa arundinaced). The 
Maidan or open plateau contains numerous species not found in the 
upper hill region. Bassia latifolia, Pterocarpus santalinus, Tamarindus 
indiats, Feronia ekphantian, Mangifera indica, Artocarpus integrifolia. 
Acacia arabica, Pongamia glabra, Santalum album, Phoenix sylvesiris, 
and Cocos nucifera are some of those characteristic of this part. The 
hill ranges here and extensive areas in the plains are covered with 
small trees, shrubs, and twiners of various species, forming what 
is called scrub jungle. The main roads are lined with avenues of 
indigenous trees and the railroads with hedges of the aloe {Agave anieri- 
cana). Most villages have a grove (called a ' tope ') of common trees. 

Elephants range through the southern forests and are also found in 
Shimoga District. A special Khedda department for their capture and 
training was formed in 1873, but was in abeyance from the famine of 
1876 until 1889, when it was again in operation till 1898. Tigers, 
leopards, and bears are numerous. Bison are found in the western 
and southern forests. Various kinds of antelope and deer, wild hog, 
wolf, and wild dog are met with in different parts. Monkeys abound, 
and the southern langur frequents the western woods. Otters and 
pangolins may also be mentioned. Among birds, peafowl are common 
in the west ; pelicans are also found, with numerous game-birds. Jays, 
parrots, kingfishers, orioles, and other birds of gay plumage are common. 
So are vultures, with many kinds of kites, hawks, and crows, as well 
as owls of various kinds. Of reptiles, the hamadryad is met with in 
remote and dense forests. Cobras, pythons, the karait, the rat snake 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 167 

or dhdmin, the green snake, and others are general in all parts. Iguanas 
and chameleons may often be seen, while large lizards called ' blood- 
suckers ' are universal. Crocodiles abound in most of the western 
rivers, where mahseer and other large fish are also to be found. Of 
insects, leeches are common in the forests in the wet season, and are 
very troublesome. The lac insect propagates on the jd/dn tree. Bees 
of many kinds are common. A small fly, not bigger than a flea, called 
the eye-fly or mango-fly, is quite a pest, especially in the mango season, 
and spreads ophthalmia. Mosquitoes are universal, and white ants or 
termites insatiable in their ravages. There is a great variety of mantis, 
some of which simulate straws or leaves. 

The year in Mysore may be divided into three seasons : the rainy, 
the cold, and the hot. The first commences with the bursting of the 
south-west monsoon, generally early in June, and continues, with some 
interval in August and September, to the middle of November, closing 
with the heavy rains of what is popularly called the north-east monsoon. 
It is followed by the cold season, which is generally entirely free from 
rain, and lasts till the end of February. The hot season then sets in 
during March, and increases in intensity to the end of May, with 
occasional relief from thunderstorms. The temperature is most agree- 
able during the rainy months, the range of the thermometer at 
Bangalore at that season being between 64° and 84°. In the cold 
season the mercury falls there as low as 51° in the early morning, and 
sometimes rises to 80° during the day. The minimum and maximum 
in the shade during the hottest months are about 66° and 91°, or in 
extreme seasons 96°. 

The annual rainfall ranges from over 360 inches on the crest of the 
Western Ghats to as little as 19 inches in the north centre. But these 
are extremes that apply only to limited areas. The excessive rain of 
the Malnad rapidly diminishes eastwards, and from 20 to 37 inches 
may be accepted as the general annual average for the greater part of 
the State \ The zone of heavy rain, 60 inches and over, is confined 
to the Western Ghat region from Sorab to Manjarabad. From 40 to 
60 inches of rain fall between Sorab and Shikarpur, in the Baba 
Budans region, and in Heggadadevankote. The zone of 25 to 40 
inches extends over all the remainder of the State, except Chitaldroog 
District, the north of Tumkur and Kolar Districts, and the extreme 
south-east of Mysore District, which have less than 25 inches. The 
distribution closely follows that of the forest belts, the heaviest rain 
coinciding with the evergreen belt, the next with the deciduous forest, 
and the least rainy tracts with the dry belt. 

• The mean annual relative humidity of the Mysore State is set down by Mr. H, F. 
Blanford as 66, that of Malabar and Coorg being 79, and of the Carnatic 67. {Clirnates 
and IVeather of India.) 



i68 



MYSORE STATE 



The cold-season rains, December to March, are insignificant, scanty, 
and not much needed for the standing crops. But they are useful in 
keeping up the pasture supply. The hot-season rains, in April and 
May, sometimes called mango showers, are of the accidental kind, 
and give heavy short storms from the east. They are very important 
for agriculture, as a copious fail replenishes the tanks, and enables the 
cultivators to prepare the land for the ensuing monsoon. The south- 
west monsoon from June to September is perhaps the most essential 
for the country, which requires the steady drizzling rains of this season 
to make the soil productive. The north-east monsoon in October and 
November is essentially important for filling the tanks, and providing 
a store of water that may last over the rainless months. 

A Meteorological department was formed in 1893, with obser- 
vatories at Bangalore, Mysore, Hassan, and Chitaldroog, and having 
under its direction 203 rain-gauge stations. The following table shows 
the average temperature and rainfall recorded at Bangalore, Mysore, 
and Chitaldroog for a period of years prior to 1901 :— 



Station. 


Height of 
Observatory 
above sea- 
level in 
feet. 


Average temperature (in degrees Fahrenheit) for the 
twenty-five years ending igoi in 


January. 


May. 


July. 


November. 


Mean. 


Diur- 

nal 
range. 


Mean. 


Diur- 
nal 
range. 


Mean. 


Diur- 
nal 
range. 


Mean. 


Diur- 
nal 
range. 


Bangalore* 
Mysore + . 
Chitaldroog { . 


3,021 
2,518 
2,405 


68.8 
72-5 
73-5 


233 
24-5 

22-9 


8o-4 
8o-9 
827 


22-2 
22-6 
22'9 


74-2 
75-0 
75-3 


16-3 

15-9 
13-6 


708 
733 
73-5 


17-3 
i8-4 
i8-3 



Note. — The diurnal range is the average difiference between the maximum and minimum 
temperatures of each day. 
* The figures for January are for twenty-four years and the others for twenty-five. 
t The fii^ures for January are for eight years and the others for nine. 
J The figures are for nine years. 



Station. 


Average rainfall (in inches) for the twenty-five years ending 1901 in 


Jan. 


Feb. 


-Mar. 


Apr. 


M.iy. 


June. 

297 
2-57 
2-77 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 

6-34 
7-8i 
4-26 


Nov. 

3*' 3 

2-33 
278 


Dec. 


Total 

of 
year. 


Bangalore . 
M ysore 
Chitaldroog 


0-12 

007 
0-17 


020 

0-20 
0-04 


0-45 
0-66 
0*27 


1-31 
2-6o 
1-47 


4-29 
5-57 

3-22 


3-9' 
2-36 
270 


5-02 

3-12 

2-77 


682 
4-85 
4-05 


049 
Q-47 
°"33 


35-05 
32-61 
24-83 



The authentic history of Mysore, like that of India in general, begins 

after the invasion by Alexander the Great in 327 r. c, and has been 

„. , gathered from the inscriptions, several thousands in 

History. " , , ,, " , , ^ , 

number, scattered all over the country \ On the 

retirement of Alexander, the north of India came under the dominion 
of Chandra Gupta, the first of the Maurya emperors, with his capital 
' These have been published by Mr. L. Rice, C.I.E., the Mysore Director of Archae- 
ology, in a series called Epigraphia Caniatica, numbering twelve volumes. 



HISTORY 169 

at Pataliputra (Patna on the Ganges). According to the Jain tradi 
tions, supported by inscriptions and monuments, Chandra Gupta 
ended his days at Sravana Belgola in Mysore. In accordance with 
the dictates of the Jain religion, he gave up his throne in order 
to close his life in religious exercises, and accompanied the great 
teacher Bhadrabahu on the migration which he led to the South 
from Ujjain, at the beginning of a twelve years' famine which he 
had predicted. When they reached Sravana Belgola, Bhadrabahu felt 
his end approaching, and sent on the body of pilgrims under Visakha 
to the Punnata country, the south-western portion of Mysore, he 
himself remaining behind, tended by a single disciple, who was no 
other than Chandra Gupta. There he died, and Chandra Gupta also, 
after surviving his teacher twelve years. Whatever truth there may 
be in this story, the discovery by Mr. Rice of edicts of Asoka in the 
north-east of the Mysore country has put it beyond doubt that that 
portion of the State formed part of the Maurya empire. Asoka also 
sent missionaries, among other places, to Mahisa-mandala (Mysore) 
and Vanavasi (Banavasi, north-west of the State). These were probably 
just beyond the limits of his empire. 

The north of Mysore next came under the rule of the Andhra or 
Satavahana dynasty. From the latter name is derived the form 
Salivahana, applied to an era, dating from a.d. 78, which is in common 
use. Their period extends from the second century b. c. to the second 
century a.d., and their dominions stretched from east to west over the 
entire Deccan. Their chief capital was Dhanakataka (Dharanikotta 
on the Kistna), but they had a western capital at Paithan on the 
Godavari. The kings who ruled in Mysore bore the general name 
Satakarni. 

The Andhras were succeeded by the Kadambas on the north-west, 
and by the Pallavas in the north-east. The former were of indigenous 
origin, their birthplace being Sthanagundur (Talagunda in the Shikarpur 
idluk). Banavasi was their capital, and Shimoga District a part of their 
kingdom. The Pallavas had Kanchi (Conjeeveram) as their capital, 
and Tundaka or Tonda-mandala (the Madras country east of Mysore) 
as their territory, and displaced the Mahavalis or Banas, claiming 
descent from Bali or Maha Bali, apparently connected with Maha- 
balipur (the Seven Pagodas, on the Madras coast). From the ninth 
century the Pallavas are also called Nonambas or Nolambas, and gave 
their name to Nonambavadi or Nolambavadi (Chitaldroog District), 
the inhabitants of which are represented by the existing Nonabas. 

Meanwhile two Ganga princes from the north, of the Ikshvaku and 
therefore Solar race, named Dadiga and Madhava, aided by the Jain 
priest Simhanandi, whom they met at Perur (still called Ganga-Perur, 
in Cuddapah), established themselves towards the close of the second 



I70 MYSORE STATE 

century throughout the remaining parts of the Mysore country, with 
Kuvalala or Kolala (Kolar) as their chief city, and Nandagiri (Nandi- 
droog) as their stronghold, founding the Gangavadi kingdom, whose 
inhabitants survive in the existing Gangadikaras. The name of this 
dynasty, which ruled in Mysore till the opening of the eleventh century, 
connects them with the Gangas or Gangaridae, the people of the 
Ganges valley, who according to Greek and Roman writers were 
the chief subjects of Chandra Gupta. The Gangas also founded 
dynasties in Kalinga (Orissa and adjacent parts), and are mentioned 
by Pliny as Gangaridae Calingae. It was remorse for the slaughter 
and devastation that attended his conquest of Kalinga which led Asoka 
to devote himself to peace and religion, as stated in his thirteenth Rock 
Edict. The boundaries of Gangavadi are given as : north, Marandale 
(not identified) ; east, Tonda-nad ; west, the ocean in the direction of 
Chera (Cochin and Travancore) ; south, Kongu (Salem and Coim- 
batore). All the kings had the cognomen Kongunivarma. The third 
king removed his capital to Talakad on the Cauvery. The seventh 
king, Durvinlta, made extensive conquests in the south and east, 
capturing some of the Pallava possessions. In the middle of the 
eighth century the Ganga dominion was in a high state of prosperity, 
and was designated the Srirajya or ' fortunate kingdom.' The king 
Sripurusha subdued the Pallavas and took from them the title of 
Permmanadi, always applied to the subsequent Ganga kings. He 
fixed the royal residence at Manyapura (Manne in Bangalore District). 
To revert to the north-west of the country. In the fifth century 
the Chalukyas, claiming to come from Ajodhya, appeared in the 
Deccan and overcame the Rashtrakiitas, but were stopped by the 
Pallavas. In the sixth century the Chalukya king Pulikesin wrested 
Vatapi (Badami in Bijapur District) from the Pallavas and made it his 
capital. His son subdued the Mauryas ruling in the Konkan, and 
the Kadambas of Banavasi. Another son conquered the Kalachuris 
also. Pulikesin II, in the seventh century, came into contact with 
the Gangas. About 617 the Chalukyas separated into two branches. 
The Eastern Chalukyas made Vengi (in Kistna District), taken from 
the Pallavas, and subsequently Rajahmundry, their capital, while the 
Western Chalukyas continued to rule from Vatapi, and eventually from 
Kalyani (in the Nizam's Dominions). These are styled the Satyasraya 
family, from a name of Pulikesin, the first king of this branch, who 
was a great conqueror. His chief victory was over Harshavardhana, 
king of Kanauj, the most powerful monarch in Northern India. By 
this conquest he gained the title of Paramesvara. Both kings are 
described by the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsiang. Pulikesin exchanged 
presents with Khusru II of Persia. After his death the Pallavas 
inflicted severe losses on the Western Chalukyas, but Vikramaditya 



HISTORY 17 r 

restored their power. He subdued the Pandya, Chola, Kerala, and 
Kalabhra kings, and captured Kanchi, forcing the Pallava king, who 
had never bowed to any man, to place his crown at his feet. The 
three next kings followed up these victories, until all the powers from 
the Guptas on the Ganges to the southernmost rulers of Ceylon had 
submitted to them. 

But the Rashtrakutas, under their kings Dantidurga and Krishna or 
Kannara, now succeeded in freeing themselves, and for 200 years from 
the middle of the eighth century became supreme. They were also 
called Rattas, and their territory Rattavadi. Their capital, at first 
Mayurakhandi (Morkhand in Nasik District), was early in the ninth 
century at Manyakheta (Malkhed in the Nizam's Dominions). They 
commonly bore the title Vallabha, taken from the Chalukyas, which, 
in its Prakrit form Ballaha, led to their being called Balharas by Arab 
travellers of the tenth century. At the end of the eighth century 
Dhruva or Dharavarsha made the Pallava king pay tribute, and 
defeated and imprisoned the king of the Gangas, who had never been 
conquered before. During the interregnum thus caused, Rashtrakuta 
viceroys governed the Ganga territories, of whom inscriptions tell us 
of Kambharasa, surnamed Ranavaloka, apparently a son of Dhara- 
varsha, and in 813 Chaki Raja. Eventually the Rashtrakuta king 
Govinda or Prabhutavarsha released the Ganga king, probably Siva- 
mara, and replaced him on the throne. Nripatunga or Amoghavarsha 
had a very long reign during the ninth century, and has left writings in 
the Kanarese language which show his great interest in the people and 
country of Karnataka ^ His successor was engaged in constant wars 
with the Eastern Chalukyas. These were subdued in the middle of 
the tenth century by the Cholas, who thus came into collision with the 
Rashtrakutas, then in intimate alliance with the Gangas. Butuga of 
the latter family had married a Rashtrakuta princess, and helped his 
brother-in-law Kannara or Akalavarsha to secure the throne. He now 
rendered him a great service by slaying Rajaditya, the Chola king, at 
Takkola (near Arkonam). This put a stop to the Chola invasion ; 
and Butuga was rewarded with the north-western districts of Mysore, 
in addition to those in the Bombay country which formed the dowry 
of his bride. In 973 Taila restored the supremacy of the Western 
Chalukyas, and Indra, the last of the Rashtrakutas, died at Sravana 
Belgola in 982. 

From the time of Rachamalla, about 820, the Gangas had again 
prospered, and all the kings to the end take the title Satyavakya 
in addition to Permmanadi. Rachamalla was followed by Nitimarga, 
and he by Satyavakya and Ereyappa. Then came Butuga, already 
mentioned. His successor, Marasimha, utterly destroyed the Nolambas. 

* A small Sanskrit work by him on morality was translated into Tibetan. 
VOL. XVIII. M 



172 MYSORE STATE 

With Rakkasa Ganga and a Nitimarga or Ganga Raja the dynasty 
came to an end, in the manner related below. 

The revival of the Western Chalukya power continued for 200 years, 
during the first half of which they were engaged in continual wars 
with the Cholas. The latter had from 972 completely subjugated 
the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, whose kingdom was eventually made 
an apanage of the Chola empire, being ruled by Chola princes as 
viceroys. At the same time a Chola princess was married to the 
Kalinga Ganga king still farther north. In 997 the Cholas under 
Rajaraja had invaded Mysore in the east. In 1004 they reappeared 
in overwhelming force, under his son Rajendra Chola, took Talakad, 
and subverted the Ganga sovereignty, capturing all the south and 
east of the country, up to a line from about Arkalgud through 
Seringapatam and Nelamangala to Nidugal. 

The remaining portions of Mysore, that is, the north and west, were 
subject to the Western Chalukyas, of whom the most celebrated was 
Vikramaditya, the son of a Ganga mother, who ruled from 1076 to 
1 1 26. Their empire is generally called Kuntala, of which the 
Banavase-nad, or Shimoga District, was a principal province. The 
capital of this was Balligave, now Belgami in the Shikarpur taluk, 
which contained splendid temples, dedicated to Jina, Buddha, Vishnu, 
Siva, and Brahma. Famous scholars were at the head of its five 
maths, where, as in the mediaeval monasteries of Europe, food and 
medicine were dispensed to all comers. 

The Chalukyas were supplanted in 1155 by the Kalachuris in the 
person of Bijjala, who had been their minister and general. During 
his time took place the Saiva revival which resulted in the establish- 
ment of the Lingayat creed, still the popular religion of the Kanarese- 
speaking countries. The Kalachuri power lasted but a short time, 
till about 1 1 83. 

The local dynasty which rose to dominion in Mysore on the over- 
throw of the Gangas was that of the Poysalas or Hoysalas, by origin 
a line of chiefs in the Western Ghats. Their birthplace was Sosevur 
or Sasikapura (now Angadi in Kadur District). The founder was Sala, 
who at the exclamation poy Sala (strike, Sala !) by a Jain priest slew 
the tiger that was threatening him, and thence took the name Poysala 
(of which Hoysala is the modern form), the priest aiding him in estab- 
lishing a kingdom. The Hoysalas claimed to be Yadavas and therefore 
of the Lunar race. At first they recognized the Western Chalukyas 
as overlords. Their capital was fixed at Dorasamudra (now Halebid 
in Hassan District). In the time of Vinayaditya, who ruled to the 
end of the eleventh century, the kingdom included Konkana, Alva- 
kheda (South Kanara), Bayalnad (Wynaad), Talakad (the south of 
Mysore District), and Savimale (somewhere north towards the Kistna). 



HISTORY 173 

His son Ercyanga was a great general under the Chalukyas, and among 
other exploits burnt Dhar, the Malava capital. He died before his 
father, and the throne passed to his sons. Of these, Bitti Deva, 
who ruled from 1104 to 1141, was the most distinguished. Under 
the influence of the reformer Ramanuja, who had taken refuge in his 
kingdom from Chola persecution, he exchanged the Jain faith for 
that of Vishnu, and took the name of Vishnuvardhana. He also 
entered upon an extensive range of conquests, an early achievement 
being the capture of Talakad about 11 16. This was followed by 
the expulsion from Mysore of the Cholas. The boundaries of the 
kingdom in his reign were extended to the lower ghat of Nangali 
(Kolar District) on the east ; Kongu, Cheram, and Anaimalia (Salem 
and Coimbatore) on the south ; the Barkanur ghat road of Konkana 
on the west ; and Savimale on the north. Rameswaram is also 
given as a boundary on the south. His own country he gave to the 
Brahmans, while he ruled over countries won by his sword. He 
died at Bankapur (in Dharwar District) and was succeeded by his 
son Narasimha. His grandson, Vira Ballala, who came to the throne 
in 1 1 73, gained such renown that the kings of this family are some- 
times called the Ballalas. He won important victories to the north 
over the Kalachuris and the Seunas (or Yadavas of Deogiri), especially 
one at Soratur, and carried the Hoysala kingdom up to and beyond 
the Peddore or Kistna, taking up his residence at Lokkigundi (Lak- 
kundi in' Dharwar). He reduced all the hill forts about the Tunga- 
bhadra ; and, capturing Uchchangi, which the Cholas, after besieging 
for twelve years, had abandoned as hopeless, he brought into subjec- 
tion the Pandyas of that place. His son, Narasimha H, repulsed the 
Seunas in the north-west, but was mostly engaged in wars to the 
south-east, where he overthrew the Pandya, subdued the Kadava 
(or Pallava) and Magara kings, and rescued the Chola leader, reseating 
him on his throne. The Seunas took this opportunity to press south- 
wards, and succeeded in settling in parts of the north-west. Som- 
eswara next came to the throne in 1233 ; and in his time the Seunas 
attempted to advance as far as Dorasamudra, the capital, but were 
driven back, though their general, Saluva Tikkama, claimed some 
success. The Hoysala king, however, went to live in the Chola 
country, at Kannanur or Vikramapura (near Srlrangam and Trichi- 
nopoly). On his death in 1254 a partition was made of the Hoysala 
territories, the capital and the ancestral Kannada kingdom going to 
his son Narasimha HI, while the Tamil provinces and Kolar District 
were given to another son, Ramanatha. The Seunas, under their 
king Mahadeva, were again put to flight by Narasimha. The kingdom 
was then once more united under Ballala HI, who came to the throne 
in 1 291. During his reign the Musalmans invaded the country in 

M 2 



174 MYSORE STATE 

1 310, under Kafur, the general of Ala-ud-din of the Khilji or second 
Pathan dynasty. The king was defeated and taken prisoner : Dora- 
samudra was sacked, and the enemy returned to Delhi literally laden 
with gold. The king's son, carried off as a hostage, was restored 
in 1313. A later expedition in 1326, sent by Muhammad III of the 
house of Tughlak, completely demolished the capital. The king 
seems to have retired to Tondanur (Tonnur, north of Seringapatam), 
but eventually went to live at Unnamale (Tiruvannamalai or Tri- 
nomalee, in South Arcot). He returned, however, to a place in 
Mysore called Virupaksha-pattana (perhaps Hosdurga), and died fight- 
ing against the Turakas or Musalmans at Beribi in 1342. A son 
Virupaksha Ballala was crowned in 1343, but the Hoysala power 
was at an end. 

The last great Hindu empire of the south was established in 1336 
at Vijayanagar on the Tungabhadra. Two princes of the Yadava 
line and Lunar race, named Hakka and Bukka, probably subordinates 
of the Hoysalas, were aided in founding a new state by Madhava 
or Vidyaranya, head of the math of Sankaracharya, the great re- 
former of the eighth century, at Sringeri in Kadur District. Hakka 
took the name of Harihara, in which Vishnu and Siva are combined, 
but the tutelary deity of the line was Virupaksha. Harihara was the 
first king, and was succeeded by Bukka, whose son Harihara II 
followed. They speedily became paramount throughout the South, 
but their extension northwards was checked by the foundation in 
1347 of the Bahmani kingdom, which was Musalman. Altogether 
eight kings of the first or Sangama dynasty ruled till 1479. Among 
them more than one of the name of Deva Raya was celebrated. 
Indeed the first Deva Raya, son of Harihara II, takes the title 
Pratapa, and claims to be the progenitor of a Pratapa dynasty. 
The most prominent feature of this period was the sanguinary wars 
between the Vijayanagar kings and the Bahmani Sultans of Gulbarga, 
the description of which fills the pages of Firishta. The wealth and 
magnificence of the capital are attested by the accounts of the Italian 
traveller Nicolo de' Conti in 142 1, and of Abd-ur-razzak, Persian envoy 
to Deva Raya in 1443. The later kings were less powerful ; and 
Muhammad Shah II was overrunning the whole territory, when he 
was opposed by Narasimha, a chief of the Saluva family, related 
in some way to the king, whose possessions extended over Telingana 
and the east of Mysore. Though the Sultan captured the strong 
fort of Malfar (in Kolar District) and some other places, and plundered 
Kanchi, Narasimha staved off the danger, but usurped the throne 
himself. His son, however, was in turn ousted by his general Nara- 
singa, who belonged to the Yadava race, and was descended from 
a line of Tuluva kings. He crossed the Cauvery, it is said, when 



HISTORY 175 

in full flood, and seizing his enemy alive, took possession of Seringa- 
patam. The conquest of the whole of the South followed, and he 
became the founder of the Narasinga dynasty. About the same 
period the Bahmani kingdom was broken up by revolts, and five 
Musalman states took its place in the Deccan. That which had 
most to do with Mysore was Bijapur. 

Narasinga's sons— Narasimha, Krishna Raya, and Achyuta Raya — 
in turn succeeded to the Vijayanagar throne. Krishna Raya was 
one of the most powerful and distinguished of its monarchs. He 
inflicted a severe defeat upon the Muhammadans about 1520, in 
consequence of which a good understanding prevailed between the 
courts of Vijayanagar and Bijapur for a considerable time. One 
of the earliest expeditions of the reign was against Ganga Raja, the 
chief of Ummattur (in Mysore District), who had rebelled and claimed 
Penukonda, perhaps as being a Ganga. His main stronghold was 
on the island of Sivasamudram, at the Falls of the Cauvery, and 
parts of Bangalore District were known as the Sivasamudram country. 
Krishna Raya captured his fort at the Falls, and also took Seringa- 
patam. He extended the limits of the empire until they reached 
to Cuttack on the east, and to Goa on the west. He was a great 
patron of Sanskrit and Telugu literature. Interesting accounts of the 
capital in his reign have been left by Duarte Barbosa. On the death 
of Achyuta his infant son succeeded, but died early. His nephew 
Sadasiva Raya was then placed on the throne by the great minister 
Rama Raja, who was his brother-in-law, and by the council. But 
Rama Raja himself wielded the chief power of the State. In spite 
of great ability, his arrogance was such that the Musalman States 
of Bijapur, Golconda, Ahmadnagar, and Bidar were provoked to 
combine in an attack on Vijayanagar as their common enemy. In 
the battle of Talikota near Raichur, on January 23, 1565, Rama 
Raja was slain, on which the Hindu army fled panic-stricken, and 
the royal family escaped to Penukonda. The victorious Muham- 
madans marched to Vijayanagar, which they utterly sacked and 
destroyed. Cesare de' Federici describes the desolation which ensued. 

Rama Raja's brother, Tirumala Pvaja, removed the capital to Penu 
konda, and his son succeeded to the throne left vacant by Sadasiva 
Raya, thus establishing the Rama Raja dynasty. In 1577 Penukonda 
was bravely defended against the Musalmans by Jagadeva Raya, who 
was the king's father-in-law, and became chief of Channapatna (Banga- 
lore District). In 1585 the capital was again moved, now to Chandra- 
giri. But the empire was breaking up. In 1610 the Mysore king 
seized Seringapatam, and other feudatories began to throw off their 
allegiance. It was in 1639 that the English obtained from Sri Ranga 
Raya the settlement of Madras. Six years later, Chandragiri and 



176 MYSORE STATE 

Chingleput, another nominal capital, being taken by the forces of 
Golconda, the king fled to the protection of Sivappa Naik of Bednur 
(Shimoga District), who installed him at Sakkarepatna and neigh- 
bouring places, and attempted to besiege Seringapatam under pre- 
tence of restoring him. But with him the empire ended. A member 
of the family established himself at Anegundi, on the opposite side 
of the river to Vijayanagar; and his line continued till 1776, when 
Tipu Sultan overran the whole country, dispossessed the reigning chief, 
and burnt Anegundi. Some survivors of the family are still there. 

During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the Vijayanagar kings 
had bestowed on, or confirmed to, vassal chiefs, bearing various titles, 
sundry tracts in Mysore, on the condition of paying tribute and render- 
ing military service. Those in the north were controlled direct from 
the capital. The southern chiefs were under a viceroy, termed the 
Sri Ranga Rayal, at Seringapatam. After the disaster of Talikota, 
although a nominal allegiance continued to be paid to the viceroy, such 
of the chiefs as had the power gradually declared their independence. 
Among these were the Naiks of Keladi or Bednur, Basavapatna, and 
Chitaldroog in the north ; the Naiks of Belur in the west ; the Naiks 
of Hagalvadi, and the Gaudas of Yelahanka and Ballapur, in the 
centre ; the Cauda of Sugatur in the east ; the Changalvas, and the 
Wodeyars of Mysore, Kalale, Ummattur, and others, in the south. 
These poligms \ as they were called, will be noticed in connexion with 
their respective Districts. 

Bijapur and Golconda entered into a mutual agreement in 1573 
to extend their conquests in such directions as not to interfere with 
one another. The Bijapur line was to the south. Adoni having been 
captured, and the West Coast regions overrun, an attempt was made in 
1577 on Penukonda. But it found a gallant defender, as before stated, 
in Jagadeva Raya, who forced the Bijapur army to retire. For this 
brilliant service, his territory of Baramahal was extended across Mysore 
to the Western Ghats, and he made Channapatna his capital. At about 
the same period Tamme Gauda of Sugatur rendered some important 
service, for which he received the title of Chikka Raya, with a grant of 
territory from Hoskote in the west to Punganur in the east. Mean- 
while the Wodeyars of Mysore had been absorbing all the lesser States 
to their south, till in 16 10 they secured Seringapatam, ousting the 
effete viceroy. In 1613 they took Ummattur, in 1630 Channapatna, 
and in 1644 uprooted the Changalvas in Piriyapatna, thus becoming 
the dominant power in the south of the country. 

But in the north and east an invasion by Bijapur in 1636 was success- 
ful. After the appointment of Aurangzeb as viceroy of the Deccan, 
Bijapur became tributary to Delhi. Its arms were then directed to the 
' Properly /(j/rt-j'rt^ffra, the holder oi3.palaya or baronial estate. 



HISTORY 177 

south, under RanduUah Khan, accompanied by Shahjl, father of the 
famous Sivajl, as second in command, with the promise oiz-jagir in the 
territories to be conquered. The Bednur kingdom was now overrun, 
and the chief besieged in Kavaledurga, but he bought off the enemy. 
An attempt on Seringapatam was repulsed with great slaughter by 
Kanthirava, the Mysore Raja. The invaders then captured Bangalore 
and Kolar District in 1639, and, descending the Ghats, took Vellore and 
Gingee. On returning to the table-land, Dod-Ballapur, Sira, and the 
south of Chitaldroog District fell into their hands by 1644. A province 
named Carnatic-Bijapur-Balaghat was now formed, including Kolar, 
Hoskote, Bangalore, and Sira. This was bestowed as a jaglr on 
Shahjl, who was also governor of the conquered territory below the 
Ghats, called Carnatic-Bijapur-Payanghat. Under him a large Maratha 
element was introduced into Mysore. Shahjl died in 1664, and his 
son Venkoji or EkojT, who lived at Tanjore, inherited his father's 
possessions. But Sivaji, the only surviving son of the first marriage, 
resolved to claim a half-share. To enforce this he overran the Carnatic 
provinces above and below the Ghats in 1677, and in the end Venkoji 
was induced to agree to a partition, by which he retained Tanjore. 

In 1684 the Mughal arms, under Aurangzeb, were once more directed 
to the Deccan for the purpose of crushing the Marathas, and subjugating 
the Muhammadan States of Bijapur and Golconda. Bijapur was taken 
in 1686, Golconda in 1687. Flying columns were sent out after each 
of these captures to secure the dependent districts south of the Tunga- 
bhadra. A new province was thus formed in 1687, with Sira (Tumkur 
District) as the capital. It was composed of the seven parganas of 
Basavapatna, Budihal, Sira, Penukonda, Dod-Ballapur, Hoskote, and 
Kolar ; and it had, as tributary States, Harpanahalli, Kondarpi, 
Anegundi, Bednur, Chitaldroog, and Mysore. Bangalore was sold to 
the Raja of Mysore for 3 lakhs of rupees, the sum he had agreed to 
give for it to Venkoji, who finding it too far off to control had offered it 
for sale. Kasim Khan, with the designation of Faujdar Diwan, was the 
first governor of this province of Sira. It continued a Mughal pos- 
session till 1757. 

We must now retrace our steps, to relate the history of the Mysore 
family. Their origin is ascribed to two Kshattriya princes of the 
Yadava race, named Vijaya and Krishna, who came to the South from 
Dwarka in Kathiawar in 1399, and, being pleased with the country, 
took up their abode in Mahishur or Mysore, the chief town. Here 
they heard that the Wodeyar or chief of Hadinadu, a few miles to 
the south-east, had wandered away, being out of his mind, and that 
the neighbouring chief of Karugahalli, who was of inferior caste, taking 
advantage of the defenceless condition of the family, had demanded 
the only daughter of the house in marriage. To this a consent had 



178 MYSORE STATE 

been given under compulsion, and arrangements unwillingly made 
for the ceremony. The two brothers vowed to espouse the cause of 
the distressed maiden, and, having secreted themselves with some 
followers, fell upon the chief and his retinue while seated at the 
banquet and slew him. Marching at once on Karugahalli, they sur- 
prised it and returned in triumph to Hadinadu, where the girl be- 
came the willing bride of Vijaya, who took the title of Odeyar or 
Wodeyar, and assumed the government of Hadinadu and Karugahalli, 
with a profession of the religion of the Jangama or Lingayats. The 
fourth king, Chama Raja III, who reigned from 1513 to 1552, made a 
partition of his dominions between his three sons. To Chama Raja 
IV, surnamed Bol or 'bald,' he gave Mysore, and, no male heir 
surviving to either of the other brothers, the succession was con- 
tinued in the junior or Mysore branch. 

It was in the time of Chama Raja IV that the fatal disaster of Tali- 
kota befell the Vijayanagar empire, and the authority of its viceroy at 
Seringapatam was in consequence impaired. Accordingly Chama Raja 
evaded payment of tribute, while the imbecile viceroy attempted in 
vain to arrest him. When, after the short reign of his elder brother, 
Raja Wodeyar was raised to the throne by the elders, the fortunes 
of the royal family became established. He contrived in 16 to to gain 
possession of Seringapatam, ousting the aged viceroy Tirumala Raja, 
who retired to Talakad. In 16 13 Raja Wodeyar subdued Ummattur 
and annexed its possessions to Mysore. He also made some ac- 
quisitions northwards from Jagadeva Raya's territories. His policy 
was to suppress the Wodeyars or local chiefs and to conciliate the 
ryots. He was followed by his grandson Chama Raja VI, who pursued 
the same policy, and by the capture in 1630 of Channapatna absorbed 
into Mysore all the possessions of Jagadeva Raya. 

Of the succeeding kings, Kanthirava Narasa Raja was distinguished. 
The year after his accession in 1638 he had to defend Seringapatam 
against the Bijapur forces, and, as already related, drove them off with 
great slaughter. He extended the kingdom on all sides, taking Satya- 
mangalam and other places from the Naik of Madura southwards ; 
overthrowing the Changalvas in the west, thus gaining Piriyapatna and 
Arkalgud ; capturing Hosur (now in Salem) to the north ; and inflicting 
a severe defeat at Yelahanka on Kempe Cauda of Magadi, who was 
forced to pay a heavy contribution. He added to and strengthened the 
fortifications of Seringapatam, assumed more of royal state at his court, 
and was the first to establish a mint, where were coined the Kanthiraya 
(Canteroy) huns and fanams named after him, which continued to be 
the current national money of Mysore until the Muhammadan usurpa- 
tion. He died without issue, and of two claimants to the throne, 
Dodda Deva Raja, grandson of Bol Chama Raja, was selected. It was 



HISTORY 179 

during his reign that Sri Ranga Raya, the last representative of 
Vijayanagar, fled for refuge to Bednur. Sivappa Naik, the head of 
that State, on the plea of restoring the royal line, appeared before 
Seringapatam with a large force. But he was compelled to retreat, 
and the Mysore armies overran the tracts in the west which he had 
conferred on Sri Ranga Raya. The Naik of Madura now invaded 
Mysore, but was also forced to retire, while Mysore troops, capturing 
Erode and Dharapuram, levied contributions from Trichinopoly and 
other chief places. Dodda Deva was a great friend of the Brahmans, 
and profuse in his donations to them. He died at Chiknayakanhalli, 
then the northern boundary of the State, the southern being Dhara- 
puram in Coimbatore. The western and eastern boundaries were 
Sakkarepatna and Salem. Chikka Deva Raja, previously passed over, 
now came to the throne, and proved to be one of the most distinguished 
of his line. When a youth at YelandQr he had formed a friendship with 
a Jain pandit, who was now made the minister, though obnoxious on 
account of his faith. A regular postal system was for the first time estab- 
lished, which was also utilized for detective purposes. Maddagiri and 
other places to the north were conquered, making Mysore conterminous 
with Carnatic-Bijapur-Balaghat, then disorganized by the raids of Sivaji. 
For ten years following a variety of vexatious petty taxes were imposed, 
in order to increase the revenue without incurring the odium of en- 
hancing the fixed land tax. Great discontent ensued, fanned by the 
Jangama priests. The ryots refused to till the land, and, deserting their 
villages, assembled as if to emigrate. The king resolved upon a 
treacherous massacre of the Jangama priests, and this sanguinary 
measure stopped all opposition to the new financial system, but the 
minister was assassinated as being the instigator of the innovations. With 
his dying breath he recommended as his successor a Brahman named 
Tirumalarya, one of the most learned and eminent ministers of Mysore. 
This brings us to 1687, when the Mughals, having captured Bijapur, 
were forming the province of Sira. Venkoji had agreed, as before 
related, to sell Bangalore to the Mysore Raja for 3 lakhs of rupees. 
But Kasim Khan, the Mughal general, first seized it and then carried 
out the bargain, pocketing the money himself. Through him the 
Raja assiduously cultivated an alliance with Aurangzeb, and meanwhile 
subdued such parts of the country as would not interfere with the 
Mughal operations. A great part of Baramahal and Salem below 
the Ghats was thus added to Mysore, and by 1694 all the west up to 
the Baba Budan mountains. In 1696 the territory of the Naik of 
Madura was invaded and Trichinopoly besieged. In the absence 
of the main army, a Maratha force marching to the relief of Gingee 
suddenly appeared before Seringapatam, attracted by the hope of 
plunder. The Mysore army, recalled by express, returned by forced 



i8o MYSORE STATE 

marches, and by a skilful stratagem totally defeated the enemy, who 
lost everything, Kasim Khan now died ; and the king, in order to 
establish fresh interest at coifrt and obtain if possible recognition of 
his new conquests, sent an embassy to the emperor at Ahmadnagar, 
which returned in 1 700 with a new signet, bearing the title Jug Deo 
Raj, and permission to sit on an ivory throne. The king now formed 
the administration into eighteen departments, in imitation of what the 
envoys had seen at the Mughal court. He died in 1704, at the age 
of seventy-six, having accumulated a large treasure, and, notwithstanding 
the troublous times, established a secure and prosperous State, extend- 
ing from Palni and Anaimalai in the south to Midagesi in the north, 
and from Carnatic Garh in Baramahal in the east to Coorg and Balam 
in the west. 

In the reign of Dodda Krishna Raja (1713-31) the Nawab of Sira's 
jurisdiction was restricted to the Balaghat, a separate Nawab of Arcot 
being appointed to the Payanghat. The ascendancy of the throne in 
Mysore began to decline, and all power fell into the hands of the 
ministers, Devaraj and Nanjaraj '. At frequent intervals armies sent 
by the rival Nawabs or by the Subahdar of the Deccan appeared, 
claiming contributions, and, if they could not be driven away, had to 
be bought off. When at length the Marathas appeared in 1757 
under Balaji Rao, so impoverished had the State become that several 
taluks were pledged to them as security to induce them to retire. 

Meanwhile, at the siege in 1749 of Devanhalli, then a frontier 
fortress, a volunteer horseman had come to notice who was destined 
before long to gain the supreme power in the State and to play no 
mean part in the history of India. This was Haidar All, whose 
courage in the field induced Nanjaraj to give him a command. He 
managed to increase his force; and amid the struggles between rival 
candidates for the Nawabship of the Carnatic, supported by the 
English and French respectively, he secured for himself valuable 
booty. His services before Trichinopoly led to his appointment as 
Faujdar of Dindigul (Madura District), where he added to his force 
and enriched himself by wholesale plunder. The army at the capital 
having become mutinous on account of their pay being in arrears, 
Haidar was sent for to settle the disputes, which he did with un- 
scrupulous ability. The fort and district of Bangalore were now given 
to him as a jagtr. On his advice the Marathas had been expelled 
from the pledged taluks when the rains set in and farther invasion was 
at the time impossible. They appeared again in 1759 in great force 

* There were two of this name. The first Nanjaraj was a cousin of Devaraj, who 
on his deathbed, in 1740, refunded 8 lakhs of rupees, estimated as the amount he had 
improperly acquired. He was succeeded by the second Nanjaraj, a younger brother 
of Devaraj. 



HISTORY i8r 

under Gopal Hari. Haidar was appointed to the chief command to 
oppose them, and by his skill rescued Bangalore and Channapatna, 
whereupon the Marathas, finding themselves outdone, agreed to leave 
the country on payment of a certain sum in discharge of all claims. 
Returning in triumph to Seringapatam, he was received in a splendid 
darl'dr, where Nanjaraj rose up to embrace him, and he was saluted 
with the title Fateh Haidar Bahadur. The pay of the troops before 
long again fell into arrears, and again Haidar had to satisfy them, for 
which purpose more than half the country was placed in his hands, 
while Nanjaraj was forcibly retired. 

In 1760 the French commander Count de Lally, cooped up by the 
English in Pondicherry, sought the aid of Haidar, and a treaty was 
made. When his troops had gone away on this expedition, Khande 
Rao, his coadjutor in all his schemes hitherto, turned against him and 
induced the Raja's party to try to get rid of him. A cannonade was 
suddenly opened on his camp near Seringapatam, and he was forced 
to flee for his life. Bangalore was gained just in time. Collecting 
his scattered forces, assisted by some French, he marched against 
Khande Rao, by whom he was defeated near Nanjangud. All now 
seemed lost, but he repaired secretly to Nanjaraj and persuaded him 
to resume his authority. Armed with this, he contrived a stratagem 
by which Khande Rao was completely deceived, and fled under the 
impression that he was betrayed, leaving all his forces to go over to 
Haidar. The latter reconquered the southern districts and returned 
to Seringapatam at the head of a great army, with which, again by 
stratagem, he got possession of the island. The Raja was now at his 
mercy ; Khande Rao was given up, and Haidar's usurpation was 
inevitable, though he always maintained a royal occupant on the 
throne. 

Haidar soon subdued all the petty States to the east and north of 
the country, and marched against Bednur, which was taken in 
March, 1763, and a booty valued at twelve millions sterhng fell 
into his hands, together with the countries on the West Coast. This 
conquest was always spoken of by him as the foundation of his 
subsequent greatness. He conceived the idea of making a new 
capital for himself here, and gave it the name of Haidarnagar (now 
Nagar). He established a mint, from which coins in his own name 
were issued, and formed a dockyard and naval arsenal on the coast. 
But he had to reckon with the Marathas and the Nizam, who laid 
claim to some of the countries he had conquered. He was defeated 
by the former at Rattihalli, but contrived by negotiations to retrieve 
his fortunes with both powers. When, before long, they again planned 
a joint invasion of Mysore, he bought off" the Marathas and induced 
the Nizam to join with himself against the British. These he attacked 



i82 MYSORE STATE 

in 1767, but they forced the Nizam to break off the alliance, and in 
1769 peace was concluded with Haidar. It is impossible here to 
follow in detail all the operations and varying fortunes of the wars 
which Haidar, supported by the French, waged against the British. 
His last invasion of the British territories was in July, 1780, and while 
the war was in progress he died in camp near Arcot on December 7, 
1782, at the age of sixty. An unlettered adventurer, he had raised 
himself to a throne and founded a kingdom. 

His son and successor, Tipu, had not the ability of his father ; his 
mind was warped by a fanatical bigotry, and he bore the most 
inveterate hatred against the British. The war with them was pro- 
longed until 1784, when a treaty of peace was concluded, followed by 
a successful war with the Marathas and the Nizam. Expeditions to 
the West Coast followed, in which the most cruel persecutions befell 
the inhabitants. The only country there which Tipu had not subdued 
was Travancore, which was under the protection of the British. But 
at the end of 1789 he invaded it, and the British at once prepared for 
war, having the Marathas and the Nizam as allies. Lord Cornwallis, 
the Governor-General, himself took command of the army. After 
capturing Bangalore and many of the strongest hill forts around, he 
besieged Seringapatam with such vigour that, in February, 1792, Tipu 
was driven to accept the terms offered him : namely, the surrender of 
half his territories, the payment of 3 crores and 30 lakhs of rupees, 
and the delivery of two of his sons as hostages. With his misfortunes 
the Sultan's caprice, fanaticism, and spirit of innovation were carried 
to the verge of insanity. He began to alter everything in the country. 
The name of every object was changed — of cycles, years, and months ; 
of weights, measures, and coins ; of forts and towns ; of offices, military 
and civil ; the official designation of all persons and things : a strange 
parody of what was happening in France, of which he had probably 
heard something. Exports and imports were prohibited, in order to 
protect domestic trade ; the growth of poppy for opium was stopped, 
and all liquor shops abolished, to prevent intoxication. Grants to 
Hindu temples and the ifid7ns of pdtels were confiscated. The fine old 
irrigation works were to be destroyed and reconstructed in his own 
name. His evident aim was to obliterate every trace of previous 
rulers, and to introduce a new order of things beginning with himself. 
On the death in 1796 of the pageant Raja, no successor was appointed, 
and the royal family were turned out of the palace, stripped of all. 

Tipu next strained every nerve to form a coalition for the expulsion 
of the British from India. Embassies were sent to Constantinople 
and Kabul ; letters to Arabia, Persia, and Maskat ; agents to Delhi, 
Oudh, Hyderabad, and Poona ; proposals to Jodhpur, Jaipur, and 
Kashmir. The French in particular were repeatedly applied to, 



HISTORY 183 

and Bonaparte's invasion of Egypt encouraged the hope of imme- 
diate aid, while overtures were made by him to Tipu. But Nelson's 
great victory at the Nile soon put an end to Bonaparte's designs on 
the East. Lord Mornington, the Governor-General, had called on the 
Sultan for an explanation of his proceedings, and, receiving evasive 
answers, resolved on war. The Nizam was again allied with the 
British, but the Marathas stood aloof. General Harris, in command 
of the grand army, having defeated Tipu at Malavalli, sat down before 
Seringapatam on April 5. The Sultan opened negotiations ; but the 
time having passed away without his accepting the terms offered, 
the fortress was carried by assault on May 4, 1799, and his body was 
found among the slain. 

After mature deliberation it was decided to restore the descendant 
of the former Rajas, under British protection, to the sovereignty of 
part of the dominions thus left vacant, and to divide the rest among 
the allies. The young prince, Krishna Raja Wodeyar, five years old, 
was placed on the throne on June 30. Colonel Arthur Wellesley (the 
future Duke of Wellington) was invested with the entire civil and 
military control of the State ; Piirnaiya, the Brahman minister of 
Haidar and Tipu, was made Diwan ; and Colonel (afterwards Sir) Barry 
Close was appointed Resident. Colonel Wellesley soon put down the 
marauding chiefs who strove to establish themselves in various parts, 
the country was reduced to good order, and the government was 
eminently successful. A considerable portion of the Mysore army 
subsequently took part in the war against the Marathas, marked by 
Wellesley's decisive victories on the fields of Assaye and Argaon. 

In 181 1 the Raja, having come of age, was entrusted with the 
government and Purnaiya retired, dying the following year. The 
reign began with the brightest prospects, but the Raja's extravagance 
and lack of governing ability soon brought the affairs of a prosperous 
country to the verge of ruin. By 18 14 the treasure accumulated by 
Purnaiya had been dissipated on worthless favourites, the pay of the 
army was in arrears, and the counsels of good advisers were unheeded. 
Offices of state were sold to the highest bidder, and the revenue was 
realized under an oppressive system called sharti. The jails were 
filled with prisoners awaiting sentence, to award which the judges 
had no power. The British Government warned the Raja of the con- 
sequences of his reckless conduct, and in 1825 Sir Thomas Munro, 
Governor of Madras, personally visited Mysore to remonstrate with 
him. But litde good resulted, and in 1830 disaffection came to 
a head in the Nagar country. A pretender was set up, and the in- 
surrection spread to other parts. The State troops were sent against 
the insurgents ; but the latter continued to increase in strength, and 
it became imperative to employ the British subsidiary force. After 



i84 MYSORE STATE 

various operations, Nagar was taken and the rebellion brought to 
an end. 

The British Government now appointed a Committee to inquire 
into the affairs of Mysore ; and on their report the Governor-General, 
Lord William Bentinck, resolved to act upon a clause of the original 
treaty made with the Raja, and to deprive him of ruling power. 
In October, 1831, he peaceably surrendered the reins of government 
to the British Commissioners appointed to administer the country. 
The Raja himself was allowed to remain at the capital, and a liberal 
provision was made for him. The Mysore Commission consisted 
at first of a very few British officers, at the head of whom from 
1834 was Colonel (afterwards Sir) Mark Cubbon. It was an onerous 
task to free the administration from the abuses of long standing which 
had crept into every department, and to place the revenues on a 
sound basis. But his wise and patient measures gradually bore fruit 
in a people made happy by release from serfdom, and a ruined State 
restored to financial prosperity. No less than 769 petty items of 
taxation were swept away, but the revenue continued to rise ; and 
numberless oppressive practices were remedied. The Governor- 
General, Lord Dalhousie, visited Mysore in 1855, and recorded his 
full appreciation of what had been done, but considered that the 
time had come to bring the system of administration into accordance 
with modern ideas. Judicial, public works, and educational depart- 
ments were therefore formed, and a larger British element brought 
in. In 1 86 1 Sir Mark Cubbon fell ill, and retired from the position 
he had long filled with great honour. 

The Raja had no male heir ; and though his loyalty in the Mutiny 
was undoubted, a sanad of adoption was not granted to him by Lord 
Canning, on the ground that he was not a ruling chief. The Raja, 
however, exercised his right as a Hindu, and adopted a son in 1865 ; 
and after some deliberation the adoption was recognized in 1867 
as valid in regard to the succession also. With the satisfaction that 
his dynasty would be continued, he died in 1868, at the ripe age 
of seventy-four. 

Meanwhile, many changes had been made in the administration 
of Mysore, bringing it more into line with the Regulation Provinces. 
On Mr. Bowring, who succeeded Sir Mark Cubbon in 1862, the 
introduction of these innovations devolved. The State was portioned 
into new Divisions and Districts, with a larger staff of British officers. 
Revenue survey and indm settlement, channel and forest conservancy, 
village schools and municipalities, were some of the new measures 
brought into operation before the recognition by the British Govern- 
ment of a successor to the throne and during the minority of the 
new Raja. 



HISTORY 185 

This young prince was carefully trained for his position under 
European tutors ; and on his attaining his majority, the rendition of 
Mysore was carried out on March 25, 1881, on terms embodied 
in an Instrument of Transfer \ which superseded all former treaties. 
The powers of the Maharaja were defined, and the subsidy to be 
paid in lieu of military assistance was enhanced. Mr. C. Rangacharlu 
was appointed Diwan, and continued at the head of the administration 
till his death in 1883. He was assisted by a small Council, and 
the formation of what was called a Representative Assembly was 
one of the most prominent measures of his time. The reduction 
of expenditure being imperative, owing to the disastrous effects of 
the famine of 1876-8, European officers were freely dispensed with, 
many posts were abolished, various Districts broken up, and judicial 
offices and jails reduced. The British Government gave substantial 
relief by postponing the levy of the enhanced subsidy of 10^ lakhs 
for five years. 

Mr. (from 1893, Sir) K. Sheshadri Iyer succeeded as Diwan ; and 
during his tenure of office, which he held till near his death in 
1 90 1, Mysore was raised to a high state of prosperity. Protection 
against famine, which had again threatened the State in 1884 and 
1 89 1, was specially in view in the earlier operations. Railways and 
irrigation works were pushed on, and the British Government again 
postponed for ten years the payment of the increased subsidy. By 
that time the revenue had more than doubled, the State debts had 
been extinguished, and surplus funds had accumulated in the treasury. 
This result was not due to new taxation in any form. Next to 
good seasons, it was the effect of natural growth, under the stimulus 
afforded by the opening out of the country by means of new roads 
and railways, the execution of important irrigation works, and the 
general expansion of industries, as well as in some measure of a better 
management of particular sources of revenue. Every branch of the 
administration was strengthened and improved ; public works of un- 
surpassed magnitude were carried out ; gold-mining was fostered 
in such a manner as to bring in a very substantial addition to the 
coffers of the State ; postal facilities were greatly increased ; cavalry 
and transport corps were maintained for imperial defence ; educational 
institutions and hospitals were established on a large scale ; civil 
service examinations of a high standard were instituted ; departments 
were formed for archaeology and for the management of religious 
and charitable institutions, later also for meteorology and geology ; 
laboratories were founded for bacteriology and agricultural chemistry ; 
and, to crown all, the Cauvery Falls were harnessed and the first 
electric power works in India installed. To glance at the reverse 
^ See Mysore Gazetteer (1897 edition), vol. i, p. 450. 



1 86 MYSORE STATE 

of the shield, the fell spectre of plague appeared at Bangalore in 
August, 1898, and has since stalked through all parts. But this 
dire foe was vigorously grappled with. Congested areas were opened 
out, and general sanitary improvements enforced. The vacancy in the 
office of Dlwan was filled in 1901 by Mr. (now Sir) P. N. Krishna 
Murti, descended from Purnaiya, who was succeeded in 1906 by 
Mr. V. P. Madhava Rao. 

At the end of 1894 occurred at Calcutta the sudden death of the 
universally respected Maharaja Chama Rajendra Wodeyar, in whose 
person the administration of Mysore had been revived in 1881, and 
the Maharani became Regent during the minority of her eldest son. 
This young prince, Krishna Raja Wodeyar, who has been assiduously 
trained by European tutors, on attaining his majority was invested 
with power in 1902 by the Viceroy in person. 

An epigraphic survey has been completed of the whole State ^, 
and about 9,000 inscriptions copied iti sitie'^. The most memorable 
discovery was that of edicts of Asoka in the Molakalmuru taluk in 
1892, thus lifting the veil that had hidden the ancient history of the 
South and marking an epoch in Indian archaeology. These and the 
Jain inscriptions at Sravana Belgola relating to Chandra Gupta and 
Bhadrabahu, and the Satakarni inscription at Malavalli in the Shikar- 
pur taluk, have filled up the gap between the rise of the Mauryas 
and that of the Kadambas. The origin and accession to power 
of the latter have been made clear by the Talgunda pillar-inscription 
in the same taluk, while the Vokkaleri plates from Kolar District 
throw light upon the true significance of the Pallavas. The forgotten 
dynasties of the Mahavalis or Banas, and of the Gangas who ruled 
Mysore for so long, have been restored to history. The chronology 
of the Cholas has for the first time been definitely fixed. The birth- 
place of the Hoysalas has been discovered, and their history worked 
out in detail. Most important additions have been made to the in- 
formation relating to the Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, the Nolambas, 
the Seunas, the Vijayanagar kings, and other more modern dynasties. 

There have been finds of prehistoric punch-marked pieces, called 
piirdna by the earlier Sanskrit writers, at Nagar ; of Buddhist leaden 
coins of the Andhra period, second century b.c. to second century a.d., 
at Chitaldroog ; and of Roman coins dating from 21 b.c. to a.d. 51, 
near Bangalore. Hoysala coins, before unknown, have been identified 
and their legends deciphered. The diversified coins of the modern 

' An Archaeological department was formed in 1S90, under Mr. Lewis Rice, who 
had been engaged for some years previously in archaeological work, in conjunction 
with other duties. 

^ These are published in a series called Epigraphia Carnatica, extending to twelve 
volumes. 



HISTORY 187 

States that occupied Mysore, and of Haidar and Tipu, have been 
tabulated and described. 

Palm-leaf manuscripts have been collected, bringing to light the 
Kanarese literature from the earliest period, which had been lost 
in oblivion '. 

Prehistoric stone monuments, such us cromlechs and kistvaens, are 
found in most of the rocky tracts. The latter, generally called Pdndu 
koli, are known in Molakalmuru as Moryara viaiie, 'houses of the 
Moryas ' or Mauryas, and they are so named also among the Badagas 
of the Nilgiris. Stone slabs erected as memorials of heroes who 
fell in battle are called vlrakal. They are sculptured with bas-reliefs, 
of which the bottom one depicts the hero's last light, and the others 
his triumphal ascent to paradise and rest there. Similar memorials 
to widows who have become satl and been burnt with their husbands 
are called mdstikal. They bear the figure of a post with a human arm 
extended from it, holding a lime between the thumb and forefinger. 
These are found mostly in the west. 

The Jain temples are called basadi or basti, and are in the Dravidian 
style. The chief group is on Chandragiri at Sravana Belgola. They 
are more ornamental externally than Jain temples in the North of 
India, and, Fergusson considers, bear a striking resemblance to the 
temples of Southern Babylonia. In front is often a mdna-stainbha, 
a most elegant and graceful monolith pillar, 30 to 50 feet high, 
surmounted by a small shrine or statue — lineal descendants, says the 
same authority, of the pillars of the Buddhists. But the Jains also 
have bettas, literally ' hills,' which are courtyards on a height, open to 
the sky, and containing a colossal nude image of Gomata. That at 
Sravana Belgola is 57 feet high ^, and stands on the summit of 
Indragiri, 400 feet in elevation. It was erected about 983 by 
Chamunda Raya, minister of the Ganga king. Nothing grander or 
more imposing, says Fergusson, exists anywhere out of Egypt, and 
even there no known statue exceeds it in height. 

The Hindu temples are of cither the Chalukyan or the Dravidian 
style. The Hoysalas were great i)romoters of art, and temples erected 
by them or under their patronage in the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries, in the highly ornate Chalukyan style, are not surpassed by 
any in India. The best existing examples are those at Halebid, Belur, 
and Somanathpur. Fergusson, than whom there is no higher authority, 
says : — 

' The great temple at Halebid, had it been completed, is one of the 

' See introduction to Karnataka-Sahdanusasana. This and other classical works 
are being published in a series called Bibliotheca Carnatica, of which six volumes 
have been issued. 

'^ The only other two known, which are in South Kanara and much more modem, 
their dates being 1431 and 1603, are 41 and 37 feet high. 

VOL. XVIll. N 



iSS 



MYSORE STATE 



buildings on which the advoaitc of Hindu architecture would desire to 
take his stand. The artistic combination of horizontal with vertical 
lines, and the play of light and shade, far surpass anything in Gothic 
art. The effects are just what mediaeval architects were often aiming 
at, but which they never attained so perfectly '.' 

Examples of temples in the Dravidian st)le, of which the gopuram or 
pyramidal tower is generally the most imposing feature, may be seen 
at Seringa[)atam, Chamundi, Melukote, and other places in the south. 
'Ilie bridges of Hindu construction at Seringapatam and Sivasamudram 
are noticed in connexion with the CAUVER^ . 

Of Saracenic architecture the best remains are the Mughal buildings 
at Sira, and the Pathan mosque at Sante Bennur. The Gumbaz or 
mausoleum of Haidar and Tipu at Ganjam and the mosque at Seringa- 
patam deserve notice. But the most ornamental is the Darya Daulat, 
Tipu's summer palace at the latter place. Mr. J. D. Rees, who has 
travelled much in India and Persia, says : — 

' The lavish decorations, wliich cover ever}- inch of wall from first to 
last, from top to bottom, recall the i)alaces of Ispahan, and resemble 
nothing that I know in India.' 

The temples of the Malnad in the west correspond in style to those 
of Kanara. The framework is of wood, standing on a terrace of 
laterite, and the whole is covered with a tiled and gabled roof. The 
wooden pillars and joists are often well carved. 

The table below gives details of the population of the State and 

^ , its constituent Districts as returned at the Census 

Population. r 

oi 1901 : — 





Area 
in 


Number of 


Total population. 


Urb 


nn po)nil 


ilion. 


I'ersons 


JJibtrict. 


i/i ■'■ 












per 
square 














square 


own 
lag 












mile in 




miles. 


Persons. 


Males. ttiiiale-. 


Persons. 


Males. 


!• enialcs. 


rural 






^ > 


879,263 












areas. 


IJangalore . 


3,092 


18 ' 2,750 


441,912 


437,35' 


230,147 


116,466 


113,681 


.volar . . 


,S,it!o 


12 , 3,409 


723,600 


367,683 


355,917 


88,860 


47,745 


41, "5 


201 


I umkUr 


4,158 


18 j 2,753 


679,162 


342,070 


,137,092 


=8,668 


29,33' 


29,337 


'49 


Vlysore . . 


5,496 


27 3,212 


1,295,172 


641,150 


654,022 


163,062 


81,389 


81,673 


206 


Hassan . . 


2,647 


14 2,546 


568,919 


283,043 


285,876 


45,901 


23,207 


22,694 


'97 


Kadur . . 


;-,«•, S 


lo 1,352 


362,752 


190,126 


172,626 


40,698 


21,739 


18,959 


"5 


Shimosa . 


4,025 


14 1 2,017 


531,736 


277,258 


254,478 


4'>236 


21,082 


20,154 


I2-.1 


Chitaldroog 
Total 


4,022 


'5 1,440 


498,795 
5,539,399 


253,782 


245,013 


53,53' 


26,918 


26,613 


1 II 


?9,433 


128 


19.479 


2,797,024 


2,742,375 


722,103 


367,877 


35 (,226 


164 

1 



Taking the natural divisions of Malnad and Maidan, 17 per cent, of 
the area of the State and 12 per cent, of the population belong to the 

' Hiitory of Indian and Easter n .irchitectnrc. See d\^o Architedurc of Dharwar 
and Mysore, where he sa)'S : 'It is worthy of remark that the great architectur<il age 
in India should have been the thirteenth century, which witnessed such a wonderful 
development nf a kindred style [meaning the (iulliic i)i Emope.' 



rOPULATlON 1S9 

first, and the remainder to the second. The mean density is 185 
persons per square mile. Mysore is the largest District, and contains 
the dynastic capital. Its total population is the highest, but in density 
of rural population it stands second. Bangalore District, the si.xth in 
area, is second in total population and first in density of rural popula- 
tion. In it are situated the administrative capital of Mysore, and the 
Civil and Military Station with its large garrison, which is an Assigned 
Tract under British administration. The most populous taluks are 
those watered by the Cauvery, with Bangalore and Anekal. 

The urban population is 13 per cent, of the whole. Four places 
have been treated as cities in the Census of 1901 : namely, Mysore, 
Bangalore, the adjoining British Civil and Military Station, and 
the Kolar Gold Fields. The population of Bangalore (taking the 
city and the Civil and Military Station together) was 159,046, of 
Mysore city 68, in, and of the Gold Fields 38,204. Owing chiefl}- 
to plague, there had been since 1891 a loss of 21,320 in Bangalore 
and of 5,937 in Mysore, while, in spite of plague, the Ciold ?'ields 
gained 31,119. The number of towns is 124, of which Mysore, 
Tumkur, and Bangalore Districts contain 26, 18, and 16 respectively, 
and Kolar and Kadur only 11 and 10. A town is a municipality of 
whatever size, or a place not absolutely rural containing a population 
of 5,000 and above. Only five of these towns have a population 
exceeding 10,000 — Kolar, Tumkur, Channapatna, Davangere, and 
Tarikere — while the population of twenty-seven lies between 5,000 and 
10,000, of which eight belong to Mysore and five to Bangalore 
District. The inhabited villages number 16,884. In the Maidan 
a village may have dependent hamlets grouped with it. In the 
Malnad, villages are often such only in name, being composed of 
scattered homesteads at various distances apart. The towns and 
villages vary little as regards the main occupations and habits of life of 
the people, but those which are also market places or taluk head- 
quarters become centres of trade and home industries. The number 
of houses per square mile rose from 25 in 1881 to 37 in 1901, and 
the occupants per house averaged 5 at the latter date as compared with 
5 -6 twenty years before. 

The variation in total population at each Census has been : (187 i) 
5)055>io2, (1881) 4,186,188, (1891) 4,943,604, and (1901) 5,539,399. 
The fall in t88i was due to the great famine of 1876-8, but was almost 
compensated by the rise in 189 1. In spite of plague, the last Census 
shows a marked general increase of 1 2 per cent. The rise has been 
greatest in Kolar and Chitaldroog Districts, and least in Kadur, the 
population of which has scarcely varied. The increase in the Districts 
of Mysore, Hassan, and Shimoga is below the average. 

In 1901, according to the census returns, 306,381 persons enumerated 

N 2 



lyo 



MYSORE STATE 



in the State had been born out of it, and 132,342 born in the State 
were registered elsewhere. The greatest increase of foreign immigrants 
is of course in Kolar, in connexion with the gold-mines. But all the 
Districts show an increase under this head, especially Hassan and 
Kadur, which are coffee-growing tracts. 

The percentage distribution of the total population under different 
age periods is as follows : 13-03 of ages o to 5 ; 26-87 of 5 ^-O 15 ; 22-01 
of 15 to 30; 20-63 of 30 to 45 ; 11-93 of 45 to 60; and 5-51 of 60 
and over. Females are in a total ratio of 981 to 1,000 males, but they 
exceed males at ages 3 to 4, 20 to 35, 50 to 55, and at 60 and over. 

Except in Bangalore city and Civil and Military Station, and in 
INIysore city, vital statistics cannot be accepted as reliable : and even in 
those places it is chiefly since the outbreak of plague in 1898 that 
particular attention and scrutiny have been given to them, with special 
reference to the number of deaths. In other parts the pdkl or 
headman has to keep up the register, under the control of the revenue 
officers ; but as there is no obligation on householders to report 
domestic occurrences, he can hardly be held responsible for the 
accuracy of the returns. The following table is compiled from such 
statistics as are available, but the numbers of both births and deaths 
are manifestly understated : 



Year. 


Population 

under 
rejfistration. 


Ratio of 
registered 

births 
per 1,000. 


Ratio of 
registered 

deaths 
per 1,000. 


Deaths per i,ooo from 


Cholera. 


'p"x.'- 1 P--- 


Bowel 
com- 
plaints. 


1881 
189I 
1 90 1 
1904 


4,186,188 

4.843>523 
5,449,800 

5.449.800 


23-77 
19.80 
15-28 
14-05 


17.01 
14.03 
19.98 
21.83 


O-OI 
0-25 
-••oS 
0-09 


0.61 
1.05 
1.19 
0.23 


10.47 
7.91 

S.I2 
10-64 


1-15 
1-02 
1.04 

1.12 



For the decade ending 1901, Chitaldroog and Mysore show the highest 
and lowest birth-rates respectively, and Shimoga and Tumkur the 
highest and lowest death-rates. 

There were 1,025,838 cases treated in the hospitals and dispensaries 
of the State in 1901, of which 46 per cent, were those of men, and the 
rest of women and children in the proportion of about 2 to 3. The 
diseases treated are classed as general or local, 42 per cent, belonging 
to the former class. Of these, the most numerous were malarial fevers, 
worms, rheumatic affections, debility and anaemia, and venereal 
diseases. Of local, the greater number were diseases of the skin, 
the digestive system, the eye, the lungs, and injuries. 

Plague first appeared in August, 1898, at Bangalore, being imported 
by rail from Dharwar. By the end of June, 1904, it had claimed 
106,950 victims in the whole State, uul of 141,403 cases of seizure. In 



PO PUT. ATT ON 



191 



other words, 2.5 per cent, of the population were attacked l)y plagne, 
and of those attacked nearly 76 per cent. died. The figures for each 
year show a large decrease in 1899-1900 and a rise since, ^^"ith 
1903-4 the numbers are again going down. The temporary decrease 
in the second year was probably due to extensive exodus to other parts, 
a drier season owing to deficient rainfall, general inoculation, and 
enforcement of passport regulations. Special restrictions hsive since 
been virtually withdrawn ; but evacuation of infected places, general or 
local disinfection by chemicals or desiccation, and the opening out of 
congested parts are in operation \ No place has suffered more than 
Mysore city, where 17 per cent, of the deaths have occurred. A 
regulation was passed in 1903 appointing a special board for the 
improvement of the city. Shimoga and Kadur Districts were free till 
1900, and Chitaldroog District had no deaths from plague in that 
year. The disease seems to be at its maximum about October, and 
at its minimum about May, these being respectively the wettest 
and driest months in the year. 

The figures obtained at the Census of 1901 are a gauge of the 
infant mortality occasioned by the famine of 1876-8, and by the 
unhealthy years, culminating in plague, of the decade ending 1901. 
The following table gives the ratio of infants of either sex to 1,000 of 
the same sex : — 



Age. 


1881. 


i8gi. 


190 1. 


0-5 
5-TO . 


M. 91 1 F. 98 
M. 137 F. 141 


M. 138 F. 147 
M. 136 F. 141 


M. 128 1 F. J 32 
M. 142 1 F. 145 



The proportion of females to 1,000 males in the whole State in 1901 
was 981, the figures for the urban population being 963, and for the 
rural 983. Tn 1871 the proportion was 994, in i88r it was 1,007, ^'^^ 
in 1 89 1 it was 991. The relative number of females has thus fallen 
considerably in the thirty years. Hindus exceeded the general average 
at each Census. Christians had the fewest females in the three 
previous census years, and in 1901 this position was held by the Jains. 
Females exceed males in Mysore and Hassan Districts (1,020 and 
1,010), and are most in defect in Shimoga and Kadur (918 and 908"). 
In the Civil and Military Station of Bangalore the ratio is 986, in 
Mysore city 984, in Bangalore city 931, and in the Kolar Cold Fields 
only 699, as might be expected. Since 1891 males ha\e increased by 
i2«6 per cent, and females by ii«4. 

The unmarried, the married, and the widowed are respectively 47-46, 
40-34, and 1 2.20 per cent, of the population. Females form 41 per cent. 

' Large extensions have been added to Bangalore city, and a new town on modern 
lines has been laid out at the Kolar Ciold Fields. 



Tf)2 MYSORE STATE 

of the unmarried, 51 of ilu- married, and 79 of the widowed. Christians 
have the liighest proportion of unmarried and the lowest of widowed 
in both sexes. Next come Animists and Musahnans, with lower 
proportions of unmarried and higher of widowed. The Jains have a 
higher ratio of bachelors than the Hindus, but among them spinsters 
are proportionately fewest and widowers and widows most numerous. 

Infant marriage of girls prevails most among the Jains and Hindus, 
and scarcely at all among Christians, but there are cases in all religions. 
Of 1,000 married females, 54 are under five years of age. But of 
course these are really cases of betrothal, though as irrevocable as 
marriage, and causing widowhood if death should intervene, Chital- 
droog District shows the highest proportion of such cases • certain sub- 
divisions of Wokkaligas there are said to have a custom of betrothing 
the children of near relations to one another within a few months of 
their birth, the tali, or token of the marriage bond, being tied to the 
cradle of the infant girl. Some of the Panchala artisans and devotee 
Lingayats seem especially given to infant marriage. By a Regulation 
of 1894 the marriage of girls under 8 has been prohibited in Mysore, 
and also that of girls under 14 to men of over 50. Of the total num- 
ber of married females, 7-6 per cent, are under 15, and i2'3 per cent, 
between 15 and 20. Among Brahmans and Komatis girls must be 
married before puberty, and in the majority of cases the ceremony 
takes place between 8 and 12. In other castes girls are mostly 
married between the ages of 10 and 20. Above this age there are very 
few spinsters, and these principally among native Christians, though 
among Lambanis and Iruligas, classed as Animists, brides are often 
over 30. Of widows, more than 73 per cent, are over 40. Roughly 
speaking, among Christians and Jains one widow in 3 is under 40, in 
the other religions one in 4. After 40 more than half the women are 
widows. Remarriage of widows is utterly repugnant to most Hindu 
castes, though permissible in some of the lower ones. It appears from 
the census returns that 5-8 per cent, of widows were remarried : but 
this was principally among Woddas and Jogis, who are not socially very 
important, and among Musalman Labbais and nomad Koramas. 

Of the male sex, seven youths under 15 in 1,000 are married ; from 
15 to 20 there are 13-3 per cent, married and 0-2 per cent, widowers ; 
from 20 to 40 there are 69 per cent, married and 3-7 per cent, 
widowers ; over 40 there are 78*7 i)er cent, married and 17*7 per cent, 
widowers. 

Polygamy is rare, though allowed by all classes except Christians. 
Cast-off or widowed women of the lower orders sometimes attach 
themselves as concubines to men who have legitimate wives. Among 
the liigher castes a second wife is taken only when the first proves 
barren, or is incurably ill, or immoral. T>ut unless put away for 



roi'Uf.ATrox 193 

immoial contluct, lln- first wife alum- is tiuillcd lo join tlu- husliaiul in 
religious ceremonies, and the second can do so only with her consent. 
The proportion of married men who have more than one wife is i8 in 
1,000. Animists and Musalmans stand highest in this respect, and 
next come labouring and agricultural classes such as Woddas, Idiga.s, 
Wokkaligas, and Kurubas. 

There are no statistics for divorce. Polyandry and infanticide are 
unknown in Mysore, as also inheritance through the mother. The 
joint family system continues among Hindus, but modern influences 
are tending to break it up. 

The distinctive language of Mysore is Kannada, the Karnata or 
Karnataka of the pandits, and the Kanarese of European writers. It is 
the speech of 73 per cent, of the population, and prevails everywhere 
except in the east. 'I'elugu, confined to Kolar District and some of 
the eastern taluks, is the language of 15 per cent. Tamil (called here 
Arava) is the speech of 4 per cent., and predominates at the Kolar 
Gold Fields and among the servants of Europeans, camp-followers, and 
cantonment traders. A more or less corrupt Tamil is spoken by 
certain long-domiciled classes of Brahmans (SrTvaishnava, Sanketi, and 
Brihachcharana), and by Tigala cultivators, but its use is only colloquial. 
Marathl, which is spoken by 1*4 per cent, of the population, is the 
language of Deshasth Brahmans and Darzis or tailors, the former being 
most numerous in Shimoga District. Hindustani, the language of 
Musalmans, who form 5-22 per cent, of the population, is spoken by 
only 4-8 per cent., the difference being due to the Labbais and other 
Musalmans from the south who speak Tamil. In each of these 
vernaculars there has been since 1891 an increase of about 11 per 
cent., except in Tamil, which has increased 42 per cent., owing to 
the influx of labour at the gold-mines and partly on the railways. 

'l"he Hindus have been arranged under 72 castes or classes. Of 
these, the strongest numerically are Wokkaligas (1,287,000), Lingayats 
(671,000), and Holeyas (596,000), who between them make up 46 per 
cent, of the total population. The ^Vokkaligas (in Hindustani, Kunbi) 
are the cultivators or ryots. They include numerous tribes, some of 
Kanarese and some of Telugu origin, who neither eat together nor 
intermarry. Their headmen are called Gaudas. Marriage is not 
always performed before puberty, and polygamy has some vogue, the 
industry of the women being generally profitable to the husband. 
Widow remarriage is allowed, but lightly esteemed. The ^^'okkaligas 
are mostly vegetarians and do not drink intoxicating liquor. They 
bury their dead. The Gangadikara, who form nearly one-half of the 
class, are purely Kanarese, found chiefly in the central and southern 
tracts. They represent the subjects of the ancient Gangavadi whii h 
formed the nucleus of the Ganga empire. At the present day they are 



194 MYSORF. STATF 

followers some of Siva and some of Vishnu. Next in numbers are the 
Morasu \\'okkaligas, chiefly in Kolar and Bangalore Districts. They 
appear to have been originally immigrants from a district called 
ATorasu-nad, to the east of Mysore, whose chiefs formed settlements 
at the end of the fourteenth century in the parts round Nandidroog. 
The section called Beralukoduva (' finger-giving ') had a strange custom, 
which, on account of its cruelty, was put a stop to by Government. 
Every woman of the sect, before piercing the ears of her eldest daughter 
preparatory to betrothal, had to suffer amputation of the ring and little 
fingers of the right hand, the operation being performed by the village 
blacksmith with a chisel. The sacred place of the Morasu Wokkaligas 
is Slti-betta in the Kolar fa/i/l% where there is a temple of Ehairava. 
Of other large tribes of A\'okkaligas, the Sada abound mostly in the 
north and west. They include Jains and Lingayats, Vaishnavas and 
Saivas. Not improbably they all belonged originally to the first. In 
the old days many of them acted in the Kandachar or native militia. 
They are not only cultivators but sometimes trade in grain. The 
Reddi are found chiefly in the east and north, and have numerous 
subdivisions. To some extent they seem to be of Telugu origin, and 
have been supposed to represent the subjects of the ancient Rattavadi, 
or kingdom of the Rattas. The Nonabas, in like manner, are relics of 
the ancient Nolambavadi or Nonambavadi, a Pallava province, situated 
in Chitaldroog District. At the present day they are by faith 
Lingayats, the residence of their chief guru being at Gaudikere near 
Chiknayakanhalli. The acknowledged head of the Nonabas lives at 
Hosahalli near Gubbi. The Halepaiks of the Nagar Malnad are of 
special interest as being probably aboriginal. Their name is said to 
mean the ' old foot,' as they furnished the foot-soldiers and body-guards 
of former rulers, to whom they were noted for their fidelity. Their 
principal occupation now is the extraction of toddy from the bagfii- 
palm {Caryofa inrns), the cultivation of rice land, and of kdns or woods 
containing pepper vines ; but they are described as still fond of fire- 
arms, brave, and great sportsmen. In Vastara and Tuluva (South 
Kanara) they are called Billavas or ' bowmen.' In Manjarabad they 
are called Devara makkalu, ' God's children.' The Halu Wokkaligas 
are mostly in Kadur and Hassan Districts. They are dairymen and 
sell milk {ha/u), whence their name, as well as engage in agriculture. 
The Hallikara are also largely occupied with cattle, the breed of their 
name being the best in the Amrit Mahal. The Lalgonda, chiefly 
found in Bangalore District, not only farm, but hire out bullocks, or 
are gardeners, builders of mud walls, and traders in straw, &:c. The 
Vellala are the most numerous class of Wokkaligas in the Civil and 
Military Station of Bangalore. Another large class, as numerous as 
the Reddi, are the Kunchitiga, widely spread but mostly found in the 



POPVLATIOX T05 

central tratts. The women prepare and sell diil (pigeon pea), while 
the men engage in a variety of trades. 

The Holeyas (l\amil, Paraiya ; Marilthl, Dhed) arc outcastcs, 
occupying a quarter of their own, called the Holageri, outside every 
village boundary hedge. They are indigenous and probably aboriginal. 
They have numerous subdivisions, which eat together but only inter- 
marry between known families. A council of elders decides all 
questions of tribal discipline. They are regarded as unclean by the 
four principal castes, and particularly by the Erahmans. In rural parts 
especially, a Holeya, having anything to deliver to a Brahman, places 
it on the ground and retires to a distance, and on meeting a Brahman 
in the road endeavours to get away as far as possible. Brahmans and 
Holeyas mutually avoid passing through the parts they respectively 
occupy in the villages ; and a wilful transgression in this respect, if it 
did not create a riot, would make purification necessary, and that for 
both sides. They often take the vow to become Dasari, and regard 
the Satani as priests, but a Holeya is himself generally the priest of the 
village goddess. Under the name of Tirukula, the Holeyas have the 
privilege of entering the great temple at Melukote once a year to pay 
their devotions, said to be a reward for assisting Ramanuja to recover 
the image of Kri.shna which had been carried off to Delhi by the 
Musalmans. The Holeya marriage rite is merely a feast, at which the 
bridegroom ties a token round the bride's neck. A wife cannot be 
divorced except for adultery. AVidows may not remarry, but often live 
with another man. The Holeyas eat flesh and fish of all kinds, and 
even carrion, provided the animal died a natural death, and drink 
spirituous liquors. As a body the Holeyas are the servants of the 
ryots, and are mainly engaged in following the plough and watching 
the herds. They also make certain kinds of coarse cloth, worn by the 
poorer classes. The Aleman section furnishes recruits for the Barr 
sepoy regiments. In the Maidan a Holeya is the kulavddi^ and has 
a recognized place in the village corporation. He is the village police- 
man, the beadle, and the headman's factotum. The kulavddis are the 
ultimate referees in cases of boundary disputes, and if they agree no 
one can challenge the decision. In the Malnad the Holeya was merely 
a slave, of which there were two classes : the huttdl, or slave born in 
the house, the hereditary serf of the family ; and the viaiindl, or slave 
of the soil, who was bought and sold with the land. Now these have 
of course been emancipated, and some are becoming owners of land. 
In urban centres they are rising in respectability and acquiring wealth, 
so that in certain cases their social disabilities are being overcome, and 
in public matters especially their complete ostracism cannot be main- 
tained. 

Ten other castes, each above 100,000, make up between them 30 



igC, MYSORE ST.ITK 

per cent, of tlie population. They are the Kurubu (378,000), Miidiga 
(280,000), Beda or Bedar (245,000), Brahman (190,000), Besta 
(153,000), Golla (143,000), Wodda (135,000), Banajiga (123,000), 
Panchala (126,000), and Uppara (106,000). The Kurubas are shep- 
herds and weavers of native blankets {ka?nl>li). There is no intercourse 
between the general body and the division called Hande Kurubas. 
The former worship Bire Deva and are Saivas, their priests being 
Brahmans and Jogis. The caste also worship a box, which they 
believe contains the wearing apparel of Krishna, under the name of 
Junjappa. Parts of Chitaldroog and the town of Kolar are noted for 
the manufacture by the Kurubas there of a superior woollen of fane 
texture like homespun. The women spin wool, and as they are very 
industrious, polygamy prevails, and even adultery is often condoned, 
their labour being a source of profit. The wild or Kadu Kurubas 
(8,842) are subdivided into Betta or 'hill,' and Jenu or 'honey,' 
Kurubas. The former are a small and active race, expert woodmen, 
and capable of enduring great fatigue. The latter are a darker and 
inferior race, who collect honey and beeswax. Their \illages or 
clusters of huts are called hadi ; and a separate hut is set apart at one 
end for the unmarried females to sleep in at night, and one at the other 
end for the unmarried males, both being under the supervision of the 
headman. Girls are married only after puberty, either according to 
the Wokkaliga custom, or by a mere formal exchange of areca-nut and 
betel-leaf. Polygamy exists, but the offspring of concubines are not 
considered legitimate. All kinds of meat except beef are eaten, but 
intoxicating drinks are not used. In case of death, adults are cremated 
and children buried. The Betta Kurubas worship forest deities called 
Xorale and Mastamma, and are said to be revengeful, but if treated 
kindly will do willing service. The Jenu Kurubas neither own nor 
cultivate land for themselves, nor keep live-stock of their own. Both 
classes are expert in tracking wild animals, as well as skilful in eluding 
]jursuit by wild animals accidentally encountered. Their children 
when over two years old move about freely in the jungle. 

The Madigas are similar to the Holeyas, but distinguished from 
them by being workers in leather. They remove the carcases of dead 
cattle, and dress the hides to provide the villagers with leathern 
articles, such as the thongs for bullock yokes, buckets for raising water, 
\:c. They are largely engaged in field labour, and in urban centres are 
earning much money, owing to the increasing demand for hides and 
tlieir work as tanners. They worship Vishnu, Siva, and their female 
counterparts or Saktis, and have five different giitiis or maths in the 
.State. They have a division called I )esabhaga, who do not intermarry 
with the others. They acknowledge Srivaishnava Brahmans as their 
gurus, and have also ihe names Jambavakula and Matanga. 'I'liey are 



I'OPULATTON u): 

privileged io eiiler llie c(jurlyard of ihe I'elfir temple at eeitain times to 
present the god with a i)air of slippers, which it is the duty of those in 
Channagiri and Basavapatna to provide. Their customs are much the 
same as those of the Holeyas. The Bedas (Bedar), or Naiks, are 
both Kanarese and Telugu, the two sections neither eating together nor 
intermarrying. One-third are in Chitaldroog District, and most of the 
rest in Kolar and Tumkur. They were formerly hunters and soldiers 
by profession, and largely composed Haidar's and Tipu's infantry. 
Many of the Mysore poligars were of this caste. They now engage 
in agriculture, and serve as police and revenue peons. They claim 
descent from Valmiki, author of the Ramayana, and are chiefly ^^aish- 
navas, but worship all the Hindu deities. In some parts they erect 
a circular hut for a temple, with a stake in the middle, which is the 
god. In common with the Golla, Kuruba, iMadiga, and other classes, 
they often dedicate as a Basavi or prostitute the eldest daughter in a 
family when no son has been born ; and a girl falling ill is similarly 
vowed to be left unmarried, i.e. to the same tate. If she bear a son, he 
is afifiliated to her father's family. Except as regards beef, they are not 
restricted in food or drink. Polygamy is not uncommon, but divorce 
can be resorted to only in case of adultery. ^Vidows may not remarry, 
but often live with another Beda. The dead are buried. The caste 
often take the vow to become Dasari. Their chief deity is the god 
V'enkataramana of Tirupati, locally worshipped under the name 
Tirumala, but offerings and sacrifices are also made to Mariamma. 
Their gttru is known as Tirumala Tatacharya, a head of the Srlvaish- 
nava Brahmans. The Machi or Myasa branch, also called Chunchu, 
circumcise their boys at ten or twelve years of age, besides initiating 
them with Hindu rites. They eschew all strong drink, and will not 
even touch the date-palm from which it is extracted. They eat beef, 
but of birds only partridge and quail. Women in childbirth are 
segregated. The dead are cremated, and their ashes scattered on 
tangadi bushes {Cassia auriculata). This singular confusion of cus- 
toms may perhaps be due to the forced conversion of large numbers 
to Islam in the time of Haidar to form his ("!hela battalions. The 
Telugu Bedas are called Boya. One section, who are shikiiris, and live 
on game and forest produce, are called Myasa or Vyadha. The others 
are settled in villages, and live by fishing and day labour. The 
latter employ Brahmans and Jangamas as priests, but the former call 
in elders of their own caste. The Myasa women may not wear toe- 
rings, and the men may not sit on date mats. 

Bestas are fishermen, boatmen, and palanquin-bearers. This is their 
name in the east ; in the south they are called Toreya, Ambiga, and 
Parivara : in the west Kabyara and Gangemakkalu. Those who speak 
Telugu call themselves Bhoyi, and have a headman called Pedda 



198 .VYSORE STATE 

Bhoyi. One section arc lime burners. Some are peons, and a large 
number engage in agriculture. Their domestic customs are similar to 
those of the castes above mentioned. Their goddess is Yellamma, 
and they are mostly worshippers of Siva. They employ Brahmans and 
Satanis for domestic ceremonies. The Gollas are cowherds and dairy- 
men. The Kadu or ' forest ' Gollas are distinct from the Uru or 
' t0A\ni ' Gollas, and the two neither eat together nor intermarry. One 
section was formerly largely employed in transporting money from 
one part of the country to another, and gained the name Dhanapala. 
One of the servants in Government treasuries is still called the GoUa. 
They worship Krishna as having been born in their caste. The 
Kadu Gollas are nomadic, and live in thatched huts outside the villages. 
At childbirth the mother and babe are kept in a small hut apart from 
the others for from seven to thirty days. If ill, none of her caste 
will attend on her, but a Naik or Beda woman is engaged to do so. 
Marriages are likewise performed in a temporary shed outside the 
village, to which the wedded pair return only after five days of 
festivity. Golla women do not wear the bodice, nor in widowhood 
do they break off their glass bangles. Remarriage of widows is not 
allowed. 

The Woddas are composed of Kallu ^^\)ddas and Mannu A\'oddas, 
between whom there is no social intercourse or intermarriage. The 
Kallu A\'oddas, who consider themselves superior to the others, are 
stonemasons, quarrying, transporting, and building with stone, and 
are very dexterous in moving large masses by simple mechanical 
means. The Mannu Woddas are chiefly tank-diggers, well-sinkers, 
and generally skilful navvies for all kinds of earthwork, the men 
digging and the women removing the earth. Though a hard-working 
class, they have the reputation of assisting dacoits and burglars by 
giving information as to plunder. The young and robust of the 
Mannu Woddas of both sexes travel about in caravans in search of 
employment, taking with them their infants and huts, which consist 
of a few sticks and mats. On obtaining any large earthwork, they 
form an encampment in the neighbourhood. The older members 
settle in the outskirts of towns, where many of both sexes now find 
employment in various kinds of sanitary work. They were probably 
immigrants from Orissa and the Telugu country, and generally speak 
Telugu. They eat meat and drink spirits, and are given to polygamy. 
Widows and divorced women can remarry. Both classes worship all 
the Hindu deities, but chiefly Vishnu. 

The Banajigas are the great trading class. The subdivisions are 
numerous, but there are three main branches — the Panchama, Telugu, 
and Jain Banajigas — who neither eat together nor intermarry. The 
first are Lingayats, having their own priests, who officiate at marriages 



POPULATION 199 

and funerals, and punish breaches of caste discipHne. Telugu Bana- 
jigas are very numerous. The Saivas and Vaishnavas among iheni 
do not intermix socially. The latter acknowledge the guric of the 
Srivaishnava Brahmans. They frequently take the vow to become 
Dasari. Many dancing-girls are of this caste. The Panchala, as their 
name implies, embrace five guilds of artisans : namely, goldsmiths, 
brass and coppersmiths, blacksmiths, carpenters, and sculptors. They 
wear the triple cord and consider themselves equal to the Brahmans, 
who, however, deny their pretensions. The goldsmiths are the 
recognized heads of the clan. The Panchala have a };uru of their 
own caste, though Braiimans officiate as purohits. The Uppara are 
saltmakers. This is their name in the east ; in the south they are 
called Uppaliga, and in the west Melusakkare. There are two classes, 
Kannada and Telugu. The former make earth-salt, while the latter 
are bricklayers and builders. They are worship[)ers of Vishnu and 
Dharma Raya. 

The agricultural, artisan, and trading communities form a species 
of guilds called /y^a«rt (apparently a very ancient institution), and these 
are divided into two factions, termed Balagai (right-hand) and Yedagai 
(left-hand). The former contains \Z phana, headed by the Banajiga 
and Wokkaliga, with the Holeya at the bottom ; while the latter 
contains 9 phaiia, with the Panchala and Nagarta (traders) at the head, 
and the Madiga at the bottom. Brahmans, Kshattriyas, and most 
of the Sudras are considered to be neutral. Each party insists on 
the exclusive right to certain privileges on all public festivals and 
ceremonies, which are jealously guarded. A breach on either side 
leads to faction fights, which formerly were of a furious and sometimes 
sanguinary character. Thus, the right-hand claim the exclusive 
privilege of having 12 pillars to the marriage pandal, the left-hand 
being restricted to 11; of riding on horseback in processions, and 
of carrying a flag painted with the figure of Hanuman. In the Census 
of 1 89 1 the people by common consent repudiated the names Balagai 
and Yedagai, and preferred to return themselves as of the 18 phana 
or the 9 phana. In the Census of 1901 even this distinction wa^ 
ignored, and the people returned themselves in various irreconcilable 
ways, mostly as belonging to the 12 phana. The old animosity of 
the factions seems to be wearing away. 

Of nomad tribes, more than half are Lambanis and another fourth 
are Koracha, Korama, or Korava. The first are a gipsy tribe that 
wander about in gangs with large herds of bullocks, transporting grain 
and other produce, especially in the hilly and forest tracts. Of late 
years some have been employed on coffee estates, and some have even 
partially abandoned their vagrant life, and settled, at least for a time, 
in villages of their own. These, called idndas, are composed of groups 



2 00 MYSORE STATE 

of their usual rude wicker huts, pitched on waste ground in wild places. 
The women bring in bundles of firewood from the jungles for sale 
in the towns. The Lambanis speak a mixed dialect called Kutni, 
largely composed of Hindi and Marathi corruptions. The women 
are distinguished by a picturesque dress different from that worn by 
an\- other class. It consists of a sort of tartan petticoat, with a 
stomacher over the bosom, and an embroidered mantle covering the 
head and upper part of the body. 'I"hc hair is worn in ringlets or 
plaits, hanging down each side of the face, decorated with small shells, 
and ending in tassels. The arms and ankles are profusely covered 
with trinkets made of bone, brass, and other rude materials. The 
men wear tight cotton breeches, reaching a little below the knee, with 
a waistband ending in red silk tassels, and on the head a small red 
or white turban. There is a class of Lambani outcastes, called Dhalya, 
who are drummers and live separately. They chiefly trade in bullocks. 
'I'lie Lambanis hold Gosains as their gurus, and reverence Krishna ; 
also Basava, as representing the cattle that Krishna tended. But their 
chief object of worship is Banashankari, the goddess of forests. Their 
marriage rite consists of mutual gifts and a tipsy feast. The bridal 
pair also pour milk down an ant-hill occupied by a snake, and make 
offerings to it of coco-nuts and flowers. Polygamy is in vogue, and 
widows and divorced women may remarry, but with some disabilities. 
'I"he Lambanis are also called Sukali and Brinjari. The Koracha, 
Korama, or Korava are a numerous wandering tribe, who carry salt 
and grain from one market to another by means of large droves of 
cattle and asses, and also make bamiwo mats and baskets. The men 
wear their hair gathered uj) into a l)ig knot or bunch on one side of 
the top of the head, resembling what is seen on ancient sculptured 
stones. The women may be known by numerous strings of small 
red and white glass beads and shells, worn round the neck and falling 
over the bosom. In the depths of the forest they are even said to 
dispense with more substantial covering. A custom like couvade is 
said to linger among the Korava, but this is not certain. The dead 
are buried at night in out-of-the-way spots. The women are skilful 
in tattooing. The Iruliga are the remaining wild tribe, and include 
the Sholaga, who live in the south-east in the Biligiri-Rangan hills. 
They are very dark, and are keen-sighted and skilful in tracking game. 
They cultivate small patches of jungle clearings with the hoe, on the 
kumri or shifting system. l*olygamy is the rule among them, and 
adultery is unknown. When a girl consents to marriage, the man runs 
away with her to some other place till the honeymoon is over, when 
they return home and give a feast. 'I'hey live in bamboo huts thatched 
with plantain leaves. 

The percentage of the followers of each religion to the whole popu- 



j'orrLATiox 20 1 

laliuu at llic Census ol lyoi was, m (jrder ul slrcngth : Hindus, 92-1 : 
Musaliiians, 5-2 : Animists, i-6 ; Christians, 0-9 ; Jains, 0-2. There 
remained 158 persons who were Parsls, Sikhs, Jews, Jirahmos, or 
Buddhists : loi were I'arsTs and 34 Jews. The percentage of increase 
in each rehgion since 1891 was: Christians, 3i'3 : Musahnans, 14-5 : 
Hindus, 11-5 ; Jains, 3. 

Of Hindu religious sects in Mysore, I>ingayats are by far the 
strongest in numbers ; and if, in addition to those returned as such, 
the Nonaba, Banajiga, and others belonging to the sect be taken into 
iiccount, they cannot be much below 800,000. Their own name for 
themselves is Sivabhakta or Sivachar, and \'ira .Sai^•a. Their distinctive 
mark is the wearing (jf a Ja/igaiiia (or portable) lingai/i on the person, 
hence the name Cingavata or Lingavanta. The /v/ga//i is a small stone, 
about the si/e of an acorn, enshrined in a silver casket of peculiar 
shape, worn suspended from the neck or bound to the arm. 'J'hey 
also mark the forehead with a round white spot. The clerics smear 
their faces and bodies with ashes, and wear garments of the colour 
of red ochre, with a rosary of nidraksha beads round the neck. 

Phallic worship is no doubt one of the most ancient and widely 
diffused forms of religion in the world, and the Lingayats of late have 
made doubtful pretensions to date as far back as the time of Buddha. 
Among the Saiva sects mentioned b}- the reformer Sankaracharya as 
existing in India in the eighth century were the Jangamas, who he says 
wore the trident on the head and carried a liiigam made of stone on 
their persons, and whom he denounces as unorthodox. Of this sect 
the Lingayats claim to be the representatives. AVhether this be so 
or not, it is undoubted that the Linga}at faith has been the popular 
creed of the Kanarese-speaking countries from the twelftli century. 

Lingayats reject the authority of Brahmans and the inspiration of 
the Vedas, and deny the elificac\- of sacrifices and srdddhas. They 
profess the Saiva faith in its idealistic form, accepting as their principal 
authority a Saiva commentary on the Vedanta Sutras. They contend 
that the goal of kartna or performance of ceremonies is twofold — the 
attainment of svarga or eternal heavenly bliss, and the attainment of 
jndna or heavenly wisdom. The f(jrmer is the aim of Brahman 
observances ; the latter, resulting in union with the deity, is the 
suvimiim bonuni of the Lingayats. 

The Lingayat sect in its present form dates from about iibo, a little 
more than forty years after the establishment of the Vaishnava faith 
and the ousting of the Jains in Mysore by Ramanujacharya. Its 
institution is attributed to Basava, prime minister of the Kalachuri 
king Bijjala, who succeeded the Chalukyas and ruled at Kalyani (in 
the Nizam's Dominions) from 1155 to 1167. Basava (a vernacular form 
of the Sanskrit vrisliabha^ ' bull ') was supposed to be an incarnation 



20J MYSOJ^E STATE 

of Siva's bull Nandi, sent to the earth to revive the Saiva religion. 
He was the stjn of an Aradhya Brahman, a native of Bagevadi in 
Bijapur District. He refused to be invested with the sacred thread, 
or to acknowledge any guru but Siva, and incurred the hostility of the 
Brahmans. He retired for some time to Sangamesvara, where he was 
instructed in the tenets of the Vira Saiva faith. Eventually he went 
to Kalyani, where the king Bijjala, who was a Jain, married his 
beautiful sister and made him prime minister. This position of 
influence enabled him to propagate his religious system. Meanwhile, 
a sister who was one of his first disciples had given birth to Channa 
Basava, supposed to be an incarnation of Siva's son Shanmukha, and 
he and his uncle are regarded as joint founders of the sect. The 
Basava Purana and Channa Basava Purana, written in Hala Kannada, 
though not of the oldest form, containing miraculous stories of Saiva 
gurus and saints, are among their chief sacred books. Basava's liberal 
use of the public funds for the support of Jangama priests aroused the 
king's suspicions, and he thoughtlessly ordered two pious Lingayats 
to be blinded, which led to his own assassination. Basava and Channa 
Basava fled from the vengeance of his son, and are said to have been 
absorbed into the god. The reformed fixith spread rapidh-, superseding 
that of the Jains ; and according to tradition, within sixty years of 
Basava's death, or by 1228, it was embraced from Ulavi, near Goa, to 
Sholapur, and from Balehalli (in Kadur District) to Sivaganga (Banga- 
lore District). It was a State religion of Mysore from 1350 to 1610, 
and especially of the Keladi, Ikkeri, or Bednur kingdom from 1550 
to 1763, as well as of various neighbouring principalities. Since the 
decline of the Jains, the Lingayats have been preservers and cultivators 
of the Kanarese language. 

The sect was originally recruited from all castes, and observances 
of caste, pilgrimage, fasts, and penance were rejected. Basava taught 
that all holiness consisted in regard for three things, guru, lingam, and 
iangam — the guide, the image, and the fellow religionist. But caste 
distinctions are maintained in regard to social matters, such as inter- 
marriage. 'J'he lingam is tied to an infant at birth, must always be 
worn to the end of life, and is buried with the dead body. At a 
reasonable age the child is initiated by the guru into the doctrines of 
the faith. All are rigid vegetarians. Girls are married before puberty. 
AN'idows do not marry again. The dead are buried. The daily ritual 
consists of Saiva rites, and it may be stated that Imgain worship, in 
both act and symbol, is absolutely free from anything indecorous. 
Five spiritual thrones or simhasaiuis were originally established : 
namely, at Balehalli (Kadur District), Ujjain, Kasi (Benares), Srisailam 
(Kurnool District), and Kedarnath (in the Himalayas). Maths '~\\\\ exist 
in these places and exercise jurisdiction over their respective spheres. 



poprr.ATTOx 203 

The Lingayats arc ;i peaceful and intelligent eoiiiniunity, chiefly 
engaged in trade and agriculture. In commerce they occupy a very 
prominent place, and many are now taking advantage of the facilities 
for higher education and qualifying for the professions. 

The Brahmans (190,050) are divided among four sects: namely, 
Smartas, who form 63 per cent.; Madhvas, 23 per cent.; Srivaishnavas, 
10 per cent.; and Bhagavatas, 4 per cent. Smartas are followers of the 
smriti, and hold the Advaita doctrine. Their chief deity is Siva, and 
the sect was founded by Sankaracharya in the eighth century. Their 
guru is the head of the math established by him at Sringeri (Kadur 
District), who is styled the Jagad Guru. They are distinguished by 
three parallel horizontal lines of sandal paste or cow-dung ashes on the 
forehead, with a round red spot in the centre. The Madhvas are 
named after their founder Madhvacharya, who lived in South Kanara 
in the thirteenth century. They especially worship Vishnu, and hold 
the Dvaita doctrine. Their gurus are at Nanjangud, Hole-Narsipur, 
and Sosile. They wear a black perpendicular line from the junction 
of the eyebrows to the top of the forehead, with a dot in the centre. 
The Srivaishnavas worship Vishnu as identified with his consort Sri, 
and hold the Visishtadvaita doctrine. The sect was founded by 
Ramanujacharya early in the twelfth century. There are two branches ; 
the Vadagalai (' northerners '), who form two-thirds, and adhere to the 
sacred texts in Sanskrit: and the Tengalai ('southerners"), who form 
one-third, and have their sacred texts in Tamil. Their mark is a trident 
on the forehead, the centre line being yellow or red and the two outer 
ones white. The Tengalai continue the central line of the trident in 
white for some distance down the nose. The Bhagavatas are probably 
a very ancient sect. They are classed with Smartas, but chiefly 
worship Vishnu, and wear Vaishnava perpendicular marks. Nearly all 
the Brahmans in Mysore belong to the Pancha Dravida or ' five tribes 
of the south.' 

The Satani (22,378) are the next most numerous religious sect. 
They are regarded as priests by the Holeya and other inferior castes, 
and themselves have the chiefs of the Srivaishnava Brahmans and 
.Sannyasis as their gurus. They are votaries of \'ishnu, especially in 
the form of Krishna, and are followers of Chaitanya. As a rule they 
are engaged in the service of Vaishnava temples, and are flower- 
gatherers, torch-bearers, and strolling musicians. They call themselves 
Vaishnavas, the Baisnabs of Bengal. 

Of Musalmans the majority are Sunnis, very few being Shiahs. 
There are thirteen Musalman classes, the most numerous of which are 
Shaikh (178,625), Saiyid (42,468), Pathan (41,156), Mughal (8,241), 
Labbai (6,908), and Pinjari (4,558). The first four are mostly in the 
army, police, and other Government service, but many are merchants 

VOL. XVIII. o 



204 



MYSORE STATE 



and traders. The Labhai are descendants of iVrabs and women of the 
country. They come from Negapatam and other parts of the Coro- 
mandel coast, and speak Tamil. They are an enterprising class of 
traders, settled in most of the towns, vendors of hardware and other 
articles, collectors of hides, and traders in coffee ; but they take up 
any lucrative business. Some are settled as agriculturists at Gargeswari 
in Mysore District. The Mappilla or Moplah are of similar origin but 
from the Malabar coast, and speak Malayalam. They are principally 
on the coffee plantations in the west. At one time there were many 
at the Kolar gold-mines. The Pinjari are cotton-ginners and cleaners ; 
other Musalmans as a rule have no intercourse with them. At Channa- 
patna and one or two other places is a sect called Daire, who came 
originally from Hyderabad. They believe the Mahdi to have come 
and gone, and do not intermarry with other Musalmans. They trade 
in silk with the West Coast. 

Christians at the Census of 1901 numbered 50,059: namely, Euro- 
peans, 4,753; Eurasians, 5,721; and native Christians, 39,585. The 
first two classes are mostly in Bangalore and the Kolar Gold Fields, 
but they are also scattered in various parts of the country. European 
coffee-planters reside in Kadur and Hassan Districts. The principal 
Eurasian rural settlement is Whitefield in Bangalore District. The 
same District and the Kolar Gold Fields contain the largest number 
of native Christians. They have increased by 41-6 per cent, since 
1891, or, excluding the Civil and Military Station of Bangalore, by 62-8 
per cent. The following were the principal denominations returned : — 



Denomination. 


Europeans. 


Eurasians. 


Natives. 


Total. 


Roman Catholic . 
Anglican 
Methodist . 


1,095 
2,911 

437 


2,834 
2,280 

391 


33,687 
2,606 
1,816 


37,616 

7,797 
2,644 



The Roman Catholics increased by 29 per cent, in the decade. As 
regards the Anglicans and Methodists, it appears that some belonging 
to the latter denomination entered themselves merely as Protestants, 
and were thereby included among the former. Putting both together, 
to rectify the error in some degree, the increase was 25-3 per cent. 
The Methodists include Wesleyans and American Methodist Episco- 
palians. The Roman Catholic diocese of Mysore extends over Mysore, 
Coorg, Wynaad, Hosiir, and KoUegal. The Bishop resides at Banga- 
lore. The Anglican churches are in the diocese of the Bishop of 
Madras. 

Of (Christian missions to Mysore, the oldest by for was the Roman 
Catholic. So far back as 1325 the Dominicans are said to have com- 
menced work in the Hoysala kingdom. In 1400 they built a church 



PO PUT. ATT ox 20S 

at Anekal'. The Vijayanagar Dlwan in 1445 is said to have been 
a Christian, and also the viceroy at Seringapatani in 1520. In 1587 the 
Franciscans arrived on the scene. But it was not till the middle of 
the seventeenth century that mission work was firmly established. 
At that period some Jesuit priests from Coimbatore founded the 
Kanarese Mission at Satyamangalam, Seringapatam, and other places 
in the south. In 1702 two French Jesuits from Vellore founded a 
Telugu mission in the east, building chapels at Bangalore, Devanhalli, 
Chik-Ballapur, and other places. The suppression of the Jesuit Order 
in 1773 was a severe check; and in the time of Tipu all the churches 
and chapels were razed to the ground, except one at (kama near 
Hassan, and one at Seringapatam, the former being preserved by 
a Muhammadan officer, and the latter defended by the native Christian 
troops under their commander. After the fall of Seringapatam in 1799 
the work was taken up by the Foreign Missions Society of Paris, and 
the Abbe Dubois, who was in the south, was invited to Seringapatam 
by the Roman Catholics. He laboured in Mysore for twenty-two 
years, adopting the native dress and mode of living. He was highly 
respected by the people, who treated him as a Brahman, and he 
became well-known from his work on Hhidu Manners, c^r., the manu- 
script of which was bought by the British Government". He was the 
founder of the church at Mysore, and of the Christian agricultural 
community of Sathalli near Hassan, and is said to have introduced 
vaccination into the State. The East India Company gave him a 
pension, and he died in France in 1848 at the age of eighty-three. 
In 1846 a Vicar Apostolic was appointed, and in 1887 Mysore was 
made a Bishopric. The Roman Catholics have 98 places of worship 
in the State. At Bangalore they maintain a high-grade college and 
college classes for girls, a convent with schools, a well-equipped 
hospital, orphanages and Magdalen asylum, and a Home for the 
Aged under the Little Sisters of the Poor ; and at Mysore there are a 
convent and various schools. Agricultural farms for famine orphans 
have been formed in the taluks bordering on Bangalore. 

Of Protestant missions the first to the Kanarese people was that at 
Bellary established by the London Missionary Society, which in 1820 
was extended to Bangalore. The first dictionaries of the language, 
and the first translation of the Bible into the vernacular, together with 
the first casting of Kanarese type for their publication, were the work 
of this mission. They were also the pioneers of native female educa- 
tion, in 1840. They have Kanarese and Tamil churches at Bangalore, 

1 An old inscription, surmounted by a cross, has been found there relating to 
the kttmbdra aiie or potters' dam. 

- The best and most authentic edition of this work was jniblished at Oxford in 1897, 
edited by the late H. K. Beauchamp. 

O 2 



2o6 MYSORE STATE 

a high sch(wl, and various schools for girls. TIk- out stations arc to 
the east and north of Bangalore, the chief being at Chik-Ballapur. 
The Wesleyan Mission began work in 1822, but only in Tamil, in the 
cantonment of Bangalore. Their Kanarese mission was commenced 
in 1835. In 1848 a great impetus was given to the publication of 
vernacular literature by their establishment of a printing press at 
Bangalore, and the vast improvements introduced in Kanarese type. 
The mission has now about forty circuits in Bangalore, Mysore, and 
the principal towns, with high schools at those cities, and numerous 
vernacular schools all over the country, besides hospitals for women 
and children at Mysore and Hassan. They also have some industrial 
schools, and issue a Kanarese newspaper and magazine. The Church 
of England has a native S.P.G. mission at Bangalore, taken over in 
1826 from the Danish Lutherans, by whom it had been begun a few years 
earlier ; and the Zanana Mission of the Church has a large Gosha 
hospital (for women) there, with a branch hospital at Channapatna, 
and a station at Mysf)re city. The American Methodist Episcoj)al 
Church began work in 1880, and has places of worship and schools in 
Bangalore, chiefly for Eurasians, and a native industrial school at 
Kolar. A Leipzig Lutheran mission was established at Bangalore on 
a small scale in 1873 : and there is a small Faith mission at Malavalli 
in Mysore District. 

The occupations of the people have been returned under eight main 
classes. Of these the most important are : pasture and agriculture, 
which support 68 per cent, of the population ; preparation and supply 
of material substances, 1 1 per cent. ; and unskilled labour not agri- 
cultural, 9 per cent. Actual workers number 1,875,371 (males 
1,485,313, females 390,058), and dependents number 3,664,028 (males 
1,311,711, females 2,352,317). 

Jiagi {E/eusine coracana) is the staple food of all the lower orders 
and labouring classes. The flour is made into a kind of pudding 
called hittu, and into cakes, which are fried in oil. Of other millets, 
jo/a (^Sorghum vulgare) is the most commonly eaten, especially in the 
north. Puddings and cakes are made of the flour, and it is also boiled 
whole to eat with curry. Of pulses, avare {Dolichos Lablali) is the 
favourite, and is used in curries. Rice {Oryza sativd) of many varieties 
is the principal food of Brahmans and the higher classes. 

White or coloured cotton stuffs of stout texture supply the principal 
dress of the people, with a woollen kambli or blanket as an outer 
covering for the night or a protection against cold or damp. Brahmans 
go bare-headed, the head being shaved all except the tuft at the crown, 
and most Hindus observe the same practice. The moustache is the 
only hair worn on the face. The dhotra, a thin sheet, covers the 
lower limbs, one end being gathered into folds in front and the other 



POPULATION 207 

passed between the legs and tucked in at the waist behind. A similar 
garment is thrown over the shoulders. A bright magenta worsted cap 
and a scarlet, green, or blue blanket are often worn in the early 
morning or on a journey. At office, Brahmans wear a turban and 
a long coat, either woollen or cotton. Students wear a sort of smoking- 
cap instead of a turban. The ryots are generally content with a turban 
and a kainbli, with commonly a short pair of drawers. When not at 
work they often wear a blouse or short smock-frock. 

The dress of the women is graceful and becoming. A tight-fitting 
short bodice is universally worn, leaving the arms, neck, throat, and 
middle bare, the two ends being tied in a knot in front. It is generally 
of a gay colour, or variegated with borders and gussets of contrasting 
tints, which set off the figure to advantage. In the colder tracts, to the 
west, a somewhat loose jacket, covering all the upper part of the body 
and the arms, is worn instead. The shin or sdrl, a long sheet, 
ordinarily dark blue or a dull red with yellow borders, is wrapped 
round the lower part of the body, coming down to the ankles. One 
end is gathered into a large bunch of folds in front, while the other, 
passed across the bosom and over the head, hangs freely over the 
right shoulder. In the west it is tied there in a knot. Brahman 
women pass the lower end of the cloth between the legs and tuck 
it in at the waist behind, which leaves the limbs more free. Their 
heads too are not covered, the hair being gathered into one large plait, 
which hangs straight down the back, very effectively decorated at the 
crown and at different points with richly chased circular golden cauls 
or bosses. Vaisya women are similarl)' dressed, but often with less 
good taste. They smear themselves with saffron to jDroduce a fair 
or yellow tint, and not only on their cheeks but also over their arms 
and legs. This practice, so common among the trading class, is by no 
means attractive, nor is the habit of blackening the teeth, adopted by 
married women, more pleasing to European ideas. Many fair women 
are elaborately tattooed on the arms. Sudra women generally gather 
the hair into a chignon or bunch behind, stuffed out with a bunch 
of wool, and run a large pin through, with an ornamental silver head, 
which is rather becoming. In the Malnad the women often arrange 
the back hair in a very picturesque manner, with a plait of the cream- 
white ketaki flower {Pandanus odoratissimus), or with orchid blossoms 
or pink cluster-roses. Ornaments are commonly worn by all classes 
in the ears and nose, and on the arms, with rings on the fingers and 
toes, and as many and costly necklets and chains round the neck 
as means will allow. Chains frequently connect the u[)per rim of the 
ear with the ornamental [)in in the back hair, and have a pretty effect. 
The richer Brahman and other girls wear silver anklets, often of a very 
ponderous make, which are by no means elegant. .\ silver /one 



2o8 MYSORE STATE 

clasped in front is a common article of attire among all but the poorer 
women, and gi\es a pleasing finish to the costume. The only marked 
difference is in the dress of Lambani women, already described in 
treating of them. 

In Manjarabad the dress of the headmen is usually a black kambli 
or blanket, passed round the body and fastened over the left shoulder, 
leaving the right arm free. The waist is girded with a similar article, 
or with a cloth, generally dark blue with a white stripe. The turbans 
are mostly white, or dark blue with a narrow gold edging. The 
labourers have a similar dress of coarser material, and usually wear 
a leathern skull-cap. All classes carry a big knife, fastened to the 
girdle behind. 

The dress of Muhammadan males differs from that of the Hindus 
chiefly in cut and colour, and in the wearing of long loose drawers. 
But for undress a piece of dark plaided stuff is worn like the dhoira. 
They shave the head completely, but retain all the hair of the face. 
A skull-cap is worn, over which the turban is tied in full dress. The 
women wear a coloured petticoat and bodice, with a large white sheet 
enveloping the head and the whole person, and pulled also over the 
face. 

The higher caste Hindus wear leathern slippers, curled up at the 
toe and turned down at the heel ; the labouring classes wear heavy 
sandals, Avith wooden or leathern soles and leathern straps. Muham- 
madans also wear the slipper, but smaller, and frequently a very 
substantial big shoe, covering the whole foot. ^V^omen are never shod, 
except occasionally on a journey, or in very stony places, when the)- 
sometimes wear sandals. 

Religious mendicants appear in a variety of grotesque and harlequin 
costumes, with hair unshorn. But garments dyed with red ochre or 
saffron are the commonest indications of a sacred calling. 

The dwellings of the people are generally of mud, one-storeyed 
and low, with few, if any, openings outwards except the door, but 
possessed of courtyards within, surrounded with verandas and open 
to the sky. In the better class of houses these are well paved and 
drained, while the wooden pillars are elaborately carved or painted. 
The huts of the outcaste and poorer classes are thatched ; but the 
houses of the higher orders are covered with either terraced or tiled 
roofs, the latter more especially in the west, where the rainfall is heavy. 

Animal fights, between rams, cocks, and quails, are popular. Com- 
panies of tumblers, jugglers, snake-charmers, &:c., wander about and 
earn a living. Theatrical performances are also well patronized. 
In the south they take place in the open at a certain season in all the 
large villages, the performers being the villagers themselves. The 
Hindu festivals most generally observed by all sects are the Holi and 



AGRTCUf.TUKE 209 

the Dasara, which respectively mark, the seasons of the vernal and 
autumnal equinox ; the Pongal, at the time of the winter solstice, 
a sort of harvest festival ; the Dipavali or feast of lights ; and the 
Yugadi or new year's day. The Sivaratri, or watch-night of fasting, 
is kept by all adherents of Siva. The Muhammadans keep the 
Ramzan, when thirty days of abstinence are observed, and also the 
Muharram, properly a season of lamentation, but generally kept here 
as a festival. Their other principal public feasts are the Bakr-Td and 
Shab-i-barat. 

Among respectable Hindus a man generally has three names the 
first being that of his village or the place of origin of his family ; 
the second his personal name ; and the third that of his caste or sect. 
It is a common custom to name the eldest son after his paternal grand- 
father, and the next after his maternal grandfather, but only if they 
are dead. If they are living, then after the great-uncle or other corre- 
sponding near relative who is dead. Girls are similarly named after 
the female grandparents, &c. But if a child was born in response 
to a religious vow, it is named after the god who is supposed to have 
granted it. Muhammadans are named after the apostle under whose 
star they are born, or from one of the ninety-nine sacred names, to 
which is added the sect. Girls are named after the wives or female 
relatives of the apostles. 

Agriculture is chiefly dependent on the rains. If they are sufficient 

and seasonable, it prospers ; but such a favourable conjuncture is only 

occasional. ' Wet crops ' irrigated from river channels . . , 

Agriculture* 
or perennial wells, and products of the self-sustaining 

black soil, are therefore least affected by vicissitudes of the seasons. 

The soils in Mysore vary from black cotton to light sandy loam. 
A red-coloured loam, or clay loam, predominates. Differing from 
other soils of India, they are generally deficient in phosphoric acid^ 
most of them containing less than o-i per cent, and the average con- 
taining barely 0-05 per cent. The percentage of potash is much 
higher, averaging three or four times that of phosphoric acid. In the 
hilly virgin-forest region in the west of the State, where coffee is largely 
grown, the percentage of nitrogen is very high, averaging more than 
0-2 per cent, in the surface soil and nearly 0-15 per cent, in the 
second foot. In the eastern portion of the State, w^here the land has 
been cultivated a long time, less nitrogen is found. The surface is 
generally undulating (though flat in some parts and very hilly in others), 
here and there broken up by rocky hills and gravelly ridges. The 
annual rainflill varies from about 200 inches in the Western Ghats 
to about 25 or 30 inches in the eastern part of the State. Excepting 
rice, coffee, cardamoms, pepper, areca-nut, and betel-leaf, very little 
cultivation is carried on in the forest reL!;i(jn of heavy rainfall in the 



2IO .VYSORE STATE 

extreme west. The other part of the State, with a rainfall varying from 
about 20 to 60 inches, grows principally ragi, jola, various pulses and 
oil plants on the ' dry ' lands, with cotton and tobacco in some localities, 
and principally rice and sugar-cane on the irrigated fields \ 

The population engaged in and dependent on agriculture, according 
to the Census of 1901, is 3,657,462, or 66 per cent, of the total. Of 
these, 951,056 males and 179,876 females are actual workers, and 
941,867 males and 1,584,663 females are dependents. 

'i'he staple food-grains are : rdgi {Elensine coracana), rice (Orvza 
sativa),Jo/a {Sorghum vulgare), other millets {Pa?iici/i/i), gram {Dolichos 
bifionis), and other pulses. Oilseeds include gingelly [Sesaiiu/iii) and 
castor {Ricinus) ; the chief fibres are cotton and ^a/z-hemp ; among 
spices may be mentioned chilli or capsicum, ginger, coriander, cumin 
seed, &c. ; and among miscellaneous crops — ^tobacco, mustard, onions, 
garlic, &c. 

The months for sowing the principal crops are June and July, and 
November is the general harvest time ; but the pulses avare and 
iogari, which are sown along with rdgi, ripen two or three months 
later. Horse-gram is sown in October or November, and ripens in 
three months. Of rice there are two crops, the Kartika fasal, or Mr, 
maturing in October or November, and the Vaisakha fasal, or haiti, 
maturing in April or May. The ordinary sugar-cane is planted about 
April and takes twelve months to mature. Other kinds are planted in 
August or February, and require fourteen months. Cotton is sown in 
June and ripens in six months, continuing to yield for four months, and 
the second year's cro]) is better. 

Ku/iiri or shifting forest cultivation is practised only by wild hill 
tribes in the west and south, and is permitted in some }xirts under 
certain restrictions. Under this system jungle is burnt down and seed 
planted in the ashes. 

Agricultural implements in general are such as have been in use for 
ages. 'J'he principal new appliance that has been to some extent 
adopted is an iron mill for expressing the juice of the sugar-cane, 
which has in many parts replaced the old cumbrous apparatus. 

Fruit and vegetable production has received special attention in the 
neighbourhood of Bangalore. Apples, strawberries, potatoes, peas, and 
cauliflowers may be mentioned among European products that are well 
established. Of native fruits, the grafted mango is largely cultivated. 
Areca-nuts, coco-nuts, and plantains arc general in irrigated land. The 
best areca-nuts are a special production of Nagar and the moist west. 
Coco-nuts are grown without irrigation in the central parts of the State, 
and the dried kernels are an article of export. A horticultural garden 

' This inuag.-aj)h was contributed In I>i. A. i.Llinianu. .\L,'ricnlUiiaI (, licinist lo ihj 
(jovernment of Mvsoic. 



a(;ri err. TURK 21 1 

is maintained by tlic State in the T.al Bagh at Bangalore, and an exotic- 
fruit garden at Xandidroog. Native florists do a good business in 
plants. 

To the Agrieultural department are attached an agricultural chemist, 
with assistants, a mycologist, and an entomologist. A well-equipped 
chemical laboratory has been fitted up at Bangalore, where analyses 
are made of soils, of the composition of manures and fertilizers, of the 
quality of special products like coffee, and of roots, bulbs, and other 
wild edibles that may be of use as food in time of famine. Prevalent 
insect pests and plant diseases are investigated with a view to devising 
remedies. Plot experiments are being c<jnducted in the cultivation of 
sugar-cane, ragi^ sweet potatoes, and ground-nuts. A plant-house for pot 
culture is being erected. An experimental farm has been formed near 
Bangalore, where ' wet " and ' dry crops ' are being raised. In the Lai 
Bagh garden at Bangalore rubber, fibre, and cotton plants are receiving 
attention. At the Kunigal stud farm special kinds of rice are being 
tried. Arrangements have been made for imparting instruction in 
])ractical agriculture at the normal school in Mysore and at eight other 
State schools, and in sericulture at Mr. Tata's silk farm in Bangalore. 
Moreover, a few model holdings in each taluk are being selected by 
the amalddrs, belonging to intelligent tenants who are willing to 
cultivate them on improved methods according to expert advice. 
Agricultural shows are to be held at the District head-quarters and 
prizes awarded by the State. 

Loans for land improvement during the thirteen years ending 1903-4 
amounted to a total of i-6 lakhs. In the same period y-i lakhs was 
also advanced for 3,068 irrigation wells, of which 2,212 were completed. 
For sdgiiva/i katfes or cultivation embankments Rs. 11,000 was ad- 
vanced. 

There were fifty-nine agricultural lianks in 1904, of which twenty-one 
were reported to be working satisfactoril}-, but taken altogether they 
have not been a success. Two banks intended for the benefit bf 
native coffee-planters had received loans up to nearly 9 lakhs, of 
which more than 3^ lakhs was outstanding. They have since been 
closed, and individual contracts for repayment made with the estates 
which had received loans. The advances to the remaining banks had 
amounted to 7^ lakhs, of which i lakh was recovered. Owing to lax 
management thirteen banks have had the advances made to them 
recalled. 'J"he loans granted by the banks, exclusive of renewals, 
amounted to lo^ lakhs, of which 7 lakhs was used to liquidate previous 
debts, and the rest for agricultural purposes. The balance due to the 
State in 1904 for loans and interest was 13 lakhs. 

']"hc cultivators arc for the most ])art in debt, but not b(a\il\-. their 
liabililics generally ranging between Rs. 50 and Rs. 100. In \ illago 



212 



MYSORE STATE 



the creditors are, as a rule, themselves agriculturists, but in towns they 
are more often money-lenders. The rate of interest on private loans 
to agriculturists varies. In some places in the Malnad the rate till 
recently ranged between 24 and 36 per cent. In other tracts it used 
to be 18 per cent. The rate is now everywhere lower, the minimum 
being 12 and the maximum 18 per cent. A Co-operative Societies 
Regulation was passed in 1905, from which good is anticipated. 

Statistics of AfjRicuLTURE 

(Areas in square miles) 





Average, 
1881-90. 


Average, 
1891-1900. 


IQOO-I. 


1903-4. 


Total area shown in village 








papers .... 






27,248 


27,270 


Total uncultivated area 


17,404 


19,706 


'8,057 


17,588 


Cultivable but not cultivated 


4,700 


2,891 


4,321 


3-871 


Uncultivablc 


12,704 


II>155 


13,736 


13,717 


Total cultivated area 


8,261 


8,978 


9,191 


9,682 


Irrigated from canals 




137* 


166 


175 


,, ,, wells and tanks 




773* 


878 


992 


, , „ other sources . 




347* 


314 


406 


Total irrigated area 


1,100 


I. -497 


1,358 


1,573 


Unirrigated area . 


4,644 


7,331 


7.833 


8,109 


Ci'Oppcd area. 










^^'^igi 




3-746 


3,293 


3,499 


Rice ..... 


94.=^ 


1,107 


i,iiS 


1.239 


Other food-grains and pulses 


?,548t 


2,^^ 


3,682 


3,752 


Oilseeds .... 


280 


458 


516 


543 


Sugar-cane .... 


4.=^ 


^° 


64 


65 


Cotton ..... 


5^> 


87 


7' 


109 


Other fibres .... 


4 


10 


37 


18 


Coffee ..... 


203 


209 


199 


195 


Tobacco . . ... 


36 


22 


21 


26 


Miscellaneous 


291 


453 


581 


627 


Total area cropped 


7,408 


9,039 


9,582 


10,073 


Area double cropped 




237 


.391 


391 



Note. — The principal crops raised by means of irrigation are rice, sugar-cane, 
and wheat. * Only nine years' average. t Includes ra_^/. 

The Amrit Mahal is the principal cattle-breeding establishment. 
Its head-quarters are at Hunsur, and grazing-grounds called kavah 
are reserved for its use in different parts of the country. In 1903-4, 
with 9,686 head of cattle, the births were 42-5 per cent, on the average 
number of breeding cows, and the deaths 9-3 per cent, on the total 
stock. The sales, including 150 young bullocks to the Madras 
Transport Depot at the usual rate of Rs. 50 each, realized an average 
of Rs. 36 per head. Amrit Mahiil bullocks are famed for their pluck 
and endurance, being as superior to others as thoroughbreds among 
horses. The best breed is the Hallikar. The ordinary cattle are of 
the Madesvaran-betta and Kankanhalli breeds, both named from places 
in the south-east of the State. Amrit Mahal bulls are stationed bv 



AGRICULTURE 213 

(juvcrnmcnt in various [)iuts for improving liic breed of cattle used by 
the ryots. Six Amrit Mahal cows were sent to the Chin Hills in Northern 
Burma to be crossed with mithaii bulls i^Bos frontalis). Large cattle 
fairs are held at Nandi, at the ghat north of Dod-Ballapur, at Sante- 
maranhalli, and other places. An ordinary pair of plough bullocks 
costs from Rs. 30 to Rs. 50 or more ; superior trotting and draught- 
bullocks, Rs. 70 to Rs. 200 or more. Ikiffaloes are extensively used for 
supplying milk, and for carrying manure and plougliing in heavy land. 

Sheep and goats were kept on fiirms under the Amrit Mahal darogas. 
In 1902, with 1,694 head, there were 308 births and 294 deaths. 
Owing to similar po(M- results over a series of years, the flocks were 
then sold, only 257 sheep of Australian and Kashmir breeds being 
retained. The ordinary country sheep are the Kurubar. They are 
shoiii twice a year, and the wool is made into rough kamblis. Ymo. 
fighting rams are produced. Sheep are folded on fields for the sake of 
their dung, which is highly valued. 

The stud farm is at Kunigal. In 1904 there were five stallions, 81 
brood mares, and 200 foals, of which 35 were born in the year. Good 
native cavalry remounts are produced. From Kathiawar three wild 
asses {Equus hemionus) were obtained in order to breed a larger type 
of donkeys in the State, and for mule-breeding, for which there is a 
farm near Devanhalli. 

The principal cattle diseases are anthrax, foot-and-mouth disease, 
malignant catarrh, and lung diseases. Rinderpest has also been 
known. There is a civil veterinary officer only for Bangalore ; but the 
natives have their own remedies and methods of treatment, among 
which cautery or branding with hot iron is very common. 

The sources of irrigation are channels drawn from dams on the 
rivers, besides tanks and wells. The most important of the river 
channels are in the south of the State, connected with the Cauvery 
and its tributaries. Most of them were originally constructed centuries 
ago, but have been improved and extended. The water is let out 
according to the needs of the rice or sugar-cane crops, and confined to 
the proper seasons for them. To put an end to complaints of unequal 
distribution, the management of the river channels in the irrigation 
season was in 188S put under the amalddrs of the taluks through 
which they run, and the hot-season supply to sugar-cane and garden 
tracts was arranged to be given at fixed periods, in consultation with the 
Deputy-Commissioners concerned. There is no separate water rate, 
but the fixed assessment includes the full value imparted by soil and 
water combined. The value of the channel water-supply is determined 
on the basis of quantity, duration, and facility, according to the 
established capacity of each channel. 'I'he supply of water from tanks 
is similarly regulated. The receipts from ri\er-fed channels in 1903-4 



2 14 MYSORE STATE 

amcjunted to 6| lakhs, and the net profits to 5 lakhs. The best wells 
are those throughout the north-east, fed by talpargis or spring-heads. 
The water is raised by either the yata or the kapile. The former, also 
known as picottah, is a lever with an iron bucket attached at the water 
end by a bamboo rod. The lever is weighted at one end with stones, 
or else raised and depressed by a man standing on it near the fulcrum 
post. The kapile has an inclined plane or ramp, down which bullocks 
draw a stout rope attached to a large leathern bucket. 

A very large irrigation work is under construction at Mari Kanavc 
on the Vedavati. Other prominent recent works for the same purpose 
are Bora Kanave, Mavatur tank, Srinivasa Sagara, &:c. Various projects 
in different tracts have been examined. 

The general system of land tenure is rvohvdri, under which sinall 

separate holdings are held direct from government. There is also 

a certain number of i/idm tenures, which are wholly 

Rent, wages, ^j. p^r^j^iiy revenue free. In 1004 there were 
and prices. ' ^ _.,,,. . , ^ 

965,440 ryohvan holdmgs, with an average area 

of 7-1 1 acres, and an average assessment of Rs. 9-6-1. The indm 
holdings numbered 84,548, with an average area of 20-8 acres, and 
an average assessment of Rs. 6-5-0. A special class are the lease- 
holders of gold-mines, whose holdings numbered 44, with an aver- 
age area in each estate of 912-5 acres, assessed at an average of 
Rs. 439-6-7. 

The sum payable by the cultivator, which is revenue rather than 
rent, is determined mainly by the class of soil and kind of cultiva- 
tion. After the revenue survey, the settlement of this point is effected 
on the following system. Nine classes of soil are recognized, and 
all the land is divided into 'dry,' 'wet,' and 'garden' land. In the 
two latter, in addition to soil classification, the water-supply is taken 
into consideration, and its degree of permanency or otherwise regu- 
lates the class to which it is referred. In the case of gardens irrigated 
by wells, in addition to the classification of soil, the area of land 
under each, and the distance of the garden from the village, as 
affecting the cost of manuring, &:c., are carefully ascertained. Vil- 
lages are grouped according to their respective advantages of climate, 
markets, communications, and the agricultural skill and actual con- 
dition of the cultivators. The maximum rates for each class of 
cultivation are then determined by reference to the nature and effects 
of past management of the taluk for twenty years, and by examina- 
tion and comparison of the annual settlements of previous years. 
These having been fixed, the inferior rates are at once deduced 
from the relative values laid down in the classification scales. 

Of measures intended to iin[)rove the position of the cultivators 
and to relieve them from indebtedness, one of the principal has 



REXT. ]]:iGF.S, .l.y/) rRTCF.S 



2T5 



l)t,en the collection of rcvemif in instalments at ^uch limes as cnahK- 
the cultivalor to sell his croi) first. 'I'heie is also the recent Co- 
operative Societies Regulation. taking the natural divisions of east 
and west, the average rate per acre in the former in 1904 was Rs. 1-7-3, 
the maximum and minimum being Rs. 2-1-11 and R. 0-10-8; in 
the latter, the average was Rs. 1-13-1, the maximum and minimum 
being Rs. 1-14-1 and Rs. 1-12-5. The batai system, or payment 
of revenue by division of the crop, which formerly prevailed, has 
been entirely replaced by cash rates. 

The daily wages for skilled labour vary in different parts from 
6 annas to Rs. 1-8, and for unskilled labour from 2 annas to 8 
annas. While the latter has remained at about the same figure as 
regards the minimum, with a tendency to rise, the former has in- 
creased in the last twenty years from 50 to 100 per cent. Payment 
in kind is becoming less common, probabl) owing to the influence 
of railways, mining and other industries, and large public works, the 
labourer being less tied down to single localities, and having greater 
facilities to travel at a cheap rate. 

The following table relating to the staple food-grains and salt shows 
that there has been a general rise in prices, except in the case of 
salt, which is cheaper : — 





In 1S80. 


Average for lo years ending 




1890. 


1900. 


r>^ • \ East 
Rice (common) . j \^^^^^ 

J"' ■ ■ ■ l£ 

Gram (Bengal) . j ^^^^ 
S^^^ • • • jWest 


1 40-^4 
1 15-4 

14.46 
j 8.98 


\ .36-2.:; 

/ 34-38 

\ 13-63 
\ 14.61 

J 13-.5I 
i '4-59 
i 10.42 
( 10.06 


30.40 
33-^3 
io-6o 
11.66 

\ 24..S3 

( 24.28 

11-29 

11.72 

^ 1000 



Taking five-year periods from 1876, the percentage of increase in 
the retail prices of these grains on those for 187 1-5 at the central 
marts of Bangalore and Mysore is shown in the following table : — 







Bangalore. 






Mysore. 






Ragi. 


Rice. 


Jola. 


Gram. 


Ragi. 


Rice. 


Jola. 


Gram. 

65 


1876-80 . 


99 


45 


41 


40 


123 


40 


94 


1881-t; . 


19 


21 


— 12 


— 20 


56 


2 


31 


I 


1 1886-90 . 


9 


26 


— 5 


96 


25 


3 


5 


136 


1 1891-5 • 


44 


5« 


10 


"5 


68 


35 


51 


'73 


1 1896-1900 


79 


55 


30 


149 


107 


34 


74 


210 



2 1 6 ^/YSONF. STATE 

The initial increase was due to the famine of 1876-8. A great 
drop succeeded till 1895, owing at first to good seasons and dimin- 
ished population, and later to freer means of communication also. 
In the last period prices have been rising, owing probably both to 
short crops locally and to the demand from famine-stricken parts else- 
where, especially in Western India. 

The general condition of the people has been steadily improving 
since the middle of the last century, and has made special progress 
in the past thirty years, as shown by the rise in both wages and 
prices, and in the standard of living. K moderate assessment has 
relieved the cultivators, while the easy means of communication pro- 
vided by roads and railways, together with freer postal facilities, have 
stimulated the enterprise of traders and benefited all classes. The 
prosecution of extensive public works has given labourers and artisans 
ready employment, and public servants have had exceptional oppor- 
tunities of rising to good positions. On the other hand, there have 
been bad seasons in certain years, and in 1876-8 a great famine. 
Coffee-planting has been almost ruined by the fall in prices. Carda- 
moms have suffered from the same cause, and areca-nuts have been 
injured on a large scale by disease. Plague has also in recent years 
interfered greatly with the well-being of the people. But education 
and medical aid are now brought to the doors of all classes, and 
in important centres the population are better housed, better clothed, 
and better fed than in the generations past. 

The area of State forests, which are * reserved ' and are under 
a Conservator of Forests, was 2,094 square miles in 1904, besides 

about 1,400 square miles of Ghat forests and kaiis. 

The unreserved or District forests, which are under 
the revenue authorities, covered 612 square miles. The forests may 
be divided into evergreen and deciduous. The evergreen forests 
are confined to the Western Ghats and the country below them on 
the east, extending from the north of Sagar to the south of Manjar- 
abad, in a belt from 6 to 14 miles wide. On all sides may be 
seen magnificent trees with clear stems of 80 to 100 feet to the 
first branch. Poon-spar {Calophyllum toniefiiosum), ebony {Diospyros 
Ebe/mni), and wild jack {^Artocarpus hirsuta) are some of the trees. 
East of this is a mixed belt, from 10 to 45 miles wide, extending 
from the north of Sorab to the south of Gundalpet. It contains 
the finest timber-producing forests, and is bordered on the east with 
much sandal-wood. It also comprises the best areca-nut and carda- 
mom gardens, and the coffee plantations of Koppa and Manjarabad. 
Its junction with the evergreen belt on the west is marked by splendid 
nandi {Lagerstroemia laticeolatd) and black-wood {Da/l>ergia latifolia). 
Teak, satin-wood, sissti, ironvvood, and other trees abound in it, as 



FORESTS 



217 



well as bamboo. East again is the dry belt, covering the greater 
part of the State. Many of the trees fotmd in the mixed belt recur 
here, but they arc smaller, and the tree vegetation is generally in- 
ferior. Besides different kinds of Ficus, the mango, tamarind, and 
jdmun, the ippe {Bassia iati/olia), and jack {Artocarpus integrifolid) 
grow well here. Acacias, the wood-apple, bael-ire^, and honge {Fon- 
gamia glabra) also thrive. The bastard date-palm {Phoenix sylvestris) 
grows in the western part, and the dwarf date-palm {Phoenix farifii/era) 
in the centre and west. 

There are twelve kinds of ' reserved ' trees : sandal-wood {Santalum 
a/bum), teak {Tectona grandis), poon {Calophyllum tomentosiini)^ black- 
wood {Dalbergia latifo/ia), honne {Pterocarpus Marsupiuni)^ lac or 
jdldri ( Vatica laccifera), nandi {Lagerstroemia lanceolata), wild jack or 
kesswa {Artocarpus hirsuta), karachi or kcimtnar {Hardwickia binatd), 
bili niatti {Termina/ia Arjuna\ kari matti {Terminalia tomenfosa), 
and ebony {Diospyros Ebenuni). 

The principal articles of minor forest produce are gall-nuts, tanning 
bark from tangadi {Cassia anriculata)^ and lac. Also soap-nuts, gum, 
honey, beeswax, (Sec. 

Elephants are employed in dragging timber from inaccessible places, 
and logs are floated down the western streams and channels. Large- 
sized timber is sold at the regular timber depots, and small-sized 
timber at temporary depots opened in convenient places. Bamboos 
are cut by licence. Sandal-wood, which is a State monopoly and 
the principal item of forest revenue, is sold at the various sandal- 
wood depots. 

Fuel reserves are formed in the District forests, and by special 
plantations, often of casuarina. Local needs are also provided for 
by the formation of village forests. Grazing is permitted to a cer- 
tain extent on a system of licences ; but in times of scarcity the 
State forests are thrown open where necessary. 

Working-plans are being prepared for all the most important forests. 
Fire preventive measures have been extended over 1,823 square miles, 
of which 1,653 were successfully protected in 1903-4. 

The forest revenue, expenditure, and surplus have been as follows : — 





Average, 
1882-90. 


Average, 
1891-1900. 


1900-1. 


1903-4. 


Revenue . 
Expenditure . 
Surplus . 


Rs. 

8,96,847 
3,16,215 
5,80,632 


Rs. 

13,27,064 

5,26,374 
8,00,690 


Rs. 

12,48,083 
3,78,222 
8,69.861 


Rs. 

15,90,761 

5,18,121 

10,72,640 



Gold is the only mineral raised from mines. These were being 
worked by thirteen companies in 1904, of which five paid dividends, 



!l8 



.}rySORE STATE 



three produced gold but paid no dividend, and tht- rest were non- 
producers. All but three, which are included in the non-producing 

class, belong to the Kolar Gold Fields. The ore is 
Mines and treated by milling and amalgamation, and the tailings 

by cyanide. Steam power has been replaced since 
June, 1902, by electric power, generated at the Cauvery Falls, 92 miles 
distant. The number of persons employed in the industry in 1903 
was 27,355. Of these, 76 per cent, were Hindus, 18 per cent. Chris- 
tians, and 6 per cent. Muhammadans. The great majority of the 
Hindus were Holeyas, the others being mostly Wokkaligas, Tigalas, 
and Woddas. The Christians consisted of 17 per cent. Europeans, 
22 per cent. Eurasians, anu 61 per cent, natives. The amount paid 
in wages was 70-3 lakhs, which gives an average earning of Rs. 257 
per head per annum. The five dividend-paying companies are the 
Mysore, Champion Reef, Ooregum, Nundydroog, and Balaghat. The 
nominal capital of all the companies was £2,958,500, and the paid-up 
capital £2,683,000. All the gold produced is dispatched to England. 
Minerals as yet unworked in the -State include a small quantity of 
asbestos. Iron is smelted in several places. Some manganese has 
lately been exported from Shimoga District. 

(Quantity and \'ai.ur of Minerals i-kohuckh 



Minerals. 


1891. 




[901. 


904. 


Weiglit. 1 Value. 


Weight. 


Value. Weight. 


Value. 




Rs. 




Rs. 


Rs. 


Gold . oz. 


109,643 55,77,9?.o 


5.^0,142 


1,92.30,810 607,574 


2,32,31,830 


Iron . tons 


573 ] 30,000 


* 129 


26,120 346 


26,530 


Corundum ,, 


II 


666 


.82 


5»352 1 745 




Mica . ,, 






3 


240 




Salt . ,, 


... 




494 


.W517 ! 855 


65,284 


Limestone ,, 






29,062 


1,02,189 25,085 


2,52,921 



* Also iron ore, 743 tons. 

For cotton-weaving the loom is placed over a kind of well or hole, 

large enough to contain the lower portion of the machinery, which 

is worked on the pedal principle with the toes, the 

Arts ana weaver sitting with his legs in a hole. The combs 

manufactures. ® ° . 

are supported by ropes attached to beams in the 

roof, working over pulleys, and stretching down into the well to 
the toes of the weaver. In his right hand is the shuttle, which con- 
tains the thread, and which, passed rapidly through the spaces created 
by the combs, forms the pattern. The principal comb is held in 
the left hand. As the cloth is manufactured, it is wound on the 
beam by slightly easing the rope on the right hand and turning 
round the le\er. In addition to cotton stuffs used for clothing, the 



ARTS AND MANUFACTURES 219 

principal fabrics made are tape for bedsteads, carpets or rugs, tent 
cloth, cordage, &c. Steps have recently been taken to introduce 
the fly-shuttle ; and six weaving-schools for instruction in its use 
have been established at Hole-Narsipur, Dod-Ballapur, Chiknayakan- 
halli, Molakalmuru, and other places, with carpentry and drawing 
classes attached. 

Silk fabrics of stout texture and excellent designs are made, chiefly 
by Patvegars and Khattrls, in Bangalore and Molakalmuru, Women 
of the wealthier classes are often richly attired in silk cloths on cere- 
monial or festival occasions. These, with or without gold and silver or 
gilt lace borders, are largely manufactured at Bangalore ; the silk and 
wire used for the purpose are also produced in the State. Sericulture 
is extensively carried on in the Closepet, Kankanhalli, Magadi, Chik- 
Ballapur, Tirumakudal-Narsipur, and other taluks ; but Bangalore is the 
centre of the silk trade, where raw silk is prepared on a considerable 
scale for the loom and dyed. There has recently been established here, 
by the late Mr. J. N. Tata of Bombay, an experimental silk farm under 
Japanese management for improved systems of silkworm rearing, so as 
to eliminate disease in the worms by microscopic examination of the 
seed, and for better reeling. Near Yelahanka is also an improved farm 
belonging to Mr. Partridge for the scientific rearing of silkworms. 

The carpets of Bangalore are well-known for their durable quality, 
and for having the same pattern on both sides. The old patterns are 
bold in design and colouring. The pile carpets and rugs made in the 
Central jail from Persian and Turkish designs are probably superior to 
any other in India. Sir George Birdwood says^ : — • 

'The stone slab from Koyundjik (palace of Sennacherib), and the 
door-sill from Khorsabad (palace of Sargon), are palpably copied from 
carpets, the first of the style of the carpets of Bangalore, and they 
were probably coloured like carpets. These South Indian carpets, the 
Masulipatam, derived from the Abbasi-Persian, and the Bangalore, 
without any trace of the Saracenic or any other modern influence, are 
both, relatively to their special applications, the noblest designed of any 
denomination of carpets now made, while the Bangalore carpets are 
unapproachable by the commercial carpets of any time and place.' 

Carpets are less used now, and the industry has declined. 

Gold circular or crescent-shaped ornaments worn by women on the 
hair are called rdgate, kyddige, and jede bilk. Ornamental silver pins 
with a bunch of chauri hair for stuffing the chignon or plait are known 
as chauri kuppe. Ear-rings for the upper rim are named bdvali ; those 
for the large hole in the lobe, vole or vale. A pear-shaped drop worn 
on the forehead is called padaka. Necklaces include addike and 

^ In his splendid book, called The Termless Antiquity, Historical Continuity, and 
Integral Identity of the Oriental I\Ianufacture of Sumptuary Carpets, prepared for 
the Austro- Hungarian Government. 

VOL. XVIII. P 



2 20 MYSORE STATE 

gundina sara. Bracelets are termed kankaiii; armlets, vanki, ndga- 
miirige, tolu tdyiti, bandi, and bdjitband. A zone is ddbu. Anklets of 
silver are luli, ruli, and kdlsarpani; little bells for them, worn by 
children, are kalu gejje. Silver toe-rings are called/////. Silver chains 
worn by men round the waist are known as udidhdra. The silver 
shrine containing the lingam worn by Lingayats is karadige. Small 
silver money-boxes attached to the girdle are named tdyiti, while an 
egg-shaped silver chtmdfu box is sunna kdyi. 

Iron is widely diffused, and is obtained both from ore and from black 
iron-sand. The principal places where iron is smelted are in the 
Magadi, Chiknayakanhalli, Malavalli, Heggadadevankote, and Arsikere 
tdhiks, in the southern and central parts of Chitaldroog District, 
and in the eastern parts of Shimoga and Kadur Districts. A steam 
iron foundry has been established at Bangalore under European man- 
agement. There are native iron-works at Goribidnur and Chik-Ballapur. 
Sugar-cane mills are made and repaired at Channarayapatna. The 
local iron is used for making agricultural tools, ploughshares, tires for 
cart-wheels, farriery shoes, and so forth. But local manufacture has 
been driven from the field by the cheaper and better imported articles 
from Europe, turned out on a large scale with the aid of machinery. 
Steel of a very high quality can be made ; but the methods used are 
primitive, and it cannot therefore compete with the highly finished 
European products of the present day, though it is preferred by the 
natives for the edge of cutting tools. Steel is made especially in the 
Heggadadevankote, Malavalli, and Maddagiri taluks. Steel wire is 
drawn at Channapatna for strings of musical instruments, the quality 
of which makes them sought after throughout Southern India. 

The manufacture of brass and copper water and drinking vessels is 
to a great extent in the hands of the Bhogars, who are Jains, some of 
the chief seats of the industry being at Sravana Belgola and Sitakal. 
Brass is also used for making lamp-stands, musical instruments, and 
images of the gods ; and bell-metal for the bells and gongs used in 
temples and in religious services, and by mendicants. Hassan and 
Tumkur Districts produce the largest number of these articles. 

The potter, as a member of the village corporation, is found in all 
parts, with his wheel and his mounds of clay. The principal articles 
made are pots for drawing or holding water, large urns for storing grain, 
pipe tiles, and so forth. For sculpture, potstone or soapstone is the 
common material ; and of this superior cooking vessels are made, 
besides images of the gods, and various ornamental articles. In the 
higher departments of sculpture, such as statuary and monumental and 
decorative carving, Mysore holds a high place. The Jain statue of 
Gomata at Sravana Belgola, 57 feet high, standing on the summit of a 
hill which rises to 400 feet, is one of the most remarkable works of native 



ARTS AND MANUFACTURES 221 

art in India. The decorative sculpture of the Halebid and Belur 
temples Mr. Fergusson considers to be 'the most marvellous exhibitions 
of human labour to be found even in the patient East,' and such as he 
believes never was bestowed on any surface of equal extent in any 
building in the world. The erection of the new palace at Mysore is 
affording an opportunity of reviving the artistic skill of the sculptors. 

Mysore is famous for its ornamental sandal-wood carving. This is done 
by a class called Gudigar, who are settled in Shimoga District, chiefly 
at Sorab. The designs with which they entirely cover the boxes, desks, 
and other articles made are of an extremely involved and elaborate 
pattern, consisting for the most part of intricate interlacing foliage and 
scroll-work, completely enveloping medallions containing the represen- 
tation of some Hindu deity or subject of mythology, and here and 
there relieved by the introduction of animal forms. The details, though 
in themselves often highly incongruous, are grouped and blended with 
a skill that seems to be instinctive in the East, and form an exceedingly 
rich and appropriate ornamentation, decidedly Oriental in style, which 
leaves not the smallest portion of the surface of the wood untouched. 
The material is hard, and the minuteness of the work demands the 
utmost care and patience. Hence the carving of a desk or cabinet 
involves a labour of many months, and the artists are said to lose their 
eyesight at a comparatively early age. A number are being employed 
on work for the new palace at Mysore. Many old Hindu houses contain 
beautiful specimens of ornamental wood-carving in the frames of doors, 
and in pillars and beams. The art of inlaying ebony and rosewood 
with ivory, which seems to have been cultivated by the Muhammadans, 
and of which the doors of the mausoleum at Seringapatam are good 
examples, has lately been revived at Mysore, and many useful and 
ornamental articles, such as tables, desks, album covers, &c., are now 
made there of this work. Similar inlaying is also met with in choice 
musical instruments, especially the vina or lute. 

Coffee-works at Bangalore, owned by a Madras firm, peel, size, and 
sort coffee berries in preparation for the European market. During the 
cleaning season, December to March, about 1,000 hands have been 
employed, and 1,500 tons of coffee, the produce of Mysore, Coorg, the 
Nilgiris, Shevaroys, &c., once passed through the works. The present 
depression in coffee has reduced these figures to about a fourth. The 
factory is also engaged in compounding artificial manures for coffee 
plantations. There are other similar coffee-works at Hunsur, as well as 
saw-mills. A Madras firm has a cotton-ginning factory at Davangere. 
A sugar factory has been established at Goribidnur, and a brick and 
tile factory at Bangalore, for machine-made bricks and tiles, fire-bricks, 
drain pipes, &c. Mention has already been made of the iron foundry 
at Bangalore, and of the silk farm. 

p 2 



222 MYSORE STATE 

The Mysore Spinning and Manufacturing Company at Bangalore was 
established in 1883, and is under the management of a Bombay Pars! 
firm. The nominal capital is Rs. 4^50,000. The mill contains 187 
looms and 15,624 spindles, and employs 600 hands. The Bangalore 
Woollen, Cotton, and Silk Mills Company at Bangalore was established 
in 1888, and has a capital of Rs. 4,00,000. It contains 14,160 spindles 
for cotton, and 26 looms and 780 spindles for woollens. The number 
of hands employed varies from 500 to 600. In 1903-4 the out-turn 
was 173,000 lb. of grey goods; 52,000 dozen of other goods; and 
i)555'°oo lb. of yarn. 

Oil-mills are at work in Bangalore. Oil-pressing from the various 
oilseeds grown in the country is the special calling of the class called 
Ganigas, who are found in all parts of the State. The number of 
private native mills was returned as 2,712 in 1904. Concessions for 
the distillation of the valuable sandal-wood oil are granted by the State. 
Tanneries on a considerable scale are managed by Muhammadans 
in Bangalore, where hides are well cured and prepared for export to 
European markets. 

The only breweries are situated in the Civil and Military Station of 
Bangalore. Three supply the various beer taverns at Bangalore and 
the Kolar Gold Fields with what is called ' country beer.' The fourth 
jnakes a superior beer for the soldiers' canteens in barracks. 

The extension of railways and the opening out of roads have greatly 
increased the facilities for trade. So far as the figures can be relied on, 
the value of exports is about double that of im- 
°d^tr^d^^ ports. The most valuable imports are grain and 
pulse, articles of iron and steel, raw silk, piece-goods, 
tobacco, and cotton thread. The chief exports, next to gold, are grain 
and pulse, betel-leaf, areca-nuts, raw silk, sugar and jaggery, coffee, 
and coco-nuts, chiefly the dried kernels. Among imports, tobacco 
trebled during the ten years ending 1901. Among exports, while 
gold increased nearly 100 per cent., coffee fell 44 per cent. The ex- 
port of sugar and jaggery and of coco-nuts (dry and fresh) doubled, 
while that of betel-leaf quadrupled. 

The principal Hindu trading classes of the country are Banajigas, 
Komatis, and Nagartas ; after whom come the Tamil Mudaliyars and 
Musalmans. The traffic in grain is not entirely in the hands of 
traders, for the ryots themselves are in the habit of clubbing together 
and sending off one or two of their number to deal in grain at any con- 
venient market or fair. Apart from the railway, the common mode of 
carriage and transport is by country carts, the ordinary load of which 
exceeds half a ton, drawn by bullocks which go 18 to 20 miles a day. 
But in remote forest tracts and the hills, droves of pack-bullocks and 
asses are still used, the carriers being generally Lambanis or Korachas. 



COMMUNICA TIONS 



223 



Trade outside the State, excepting for gold and coffee, which are sent 
to England, is chiefly confined to the surrounding British Districts. 
Gold goes via Bombay, coffee generally by way of Mangalore or 
Marmagao, the producers in both cases being, with hardly an excep- 
tion, Europeans. The principal trading centres in the State are noted 
under their respective Districts. A Bangalore Trades Association has 
been formed, chiefly among the European shopkeepers in the Civil and 
Military Station. 

The following table gives statistics, of the total value (in thousands of 
rupees) of imports and exports. The total value of the rail-borne trade 
alone is given as — in 1890-1, imports 2-5 crores, exports 2-8 crores; in 
1900-1, imports 3'8 crores, exports 3-4 crores. Details are not avail- 
able. 





Imports. 


Exports. 


1890-1. 


1900-1. 


1 904-5- 


1890-1. 


1900-1. 


1904-5- 


Areca-nuts 


6,81 


.S,95 


7-4^ 


31,86 


,31,95 


7,95 


Betel-leaf 


2,32 


2,73 


1,33 


9,72 


48,94 


5,21 


Coco-nuts 


12,18 


6,56 


10,43 


6,97 


14^63 


4,74 


Coffee . . . . 


24.4.S 


2,43 


1,22 


43.55 


19,04 


26,83 


Cotton, raw . 


7>87 


1,82 


2,18 


1,95 


1,02 


50 


„ twist and yarn . 


11,85 


10,22 


15.29 


6,83 


1,26 


1,16 


,, piece-goods 


40,45 


21,42 


24,15 


68 


45 


53 


„ other manufac- 














tures 


8,55 


4,65 


9,31 


53 


97 


1,53 


Grain and pulse 


1,07,73 


1,09,92 


1,97,90 


1,64,99 


2,56,35 


2,03,52 


Hides and skins 


4' 


35 


63 


2,00 


1, 28 


4,02 


Metals, gold . 


4,82 


3,01 


15,03 


60,24 


2,89.03 


3,52,01 


„ silver 


4,10 


12,87 


12,46 


90 


2,06 


1,70 


,, iron . 


18,02 


20,29 


13,08 


7,11 


10 


I 


Oils . . . . 


1,75 


2,67 


4>38 


46 


59 


2,25 


Poppy seeds . 


22 


1,64 


1,73 


9 


76 


76 


Silk, raw 


17,39 


29,56 


19-47 


13,91 


23,95 


17,01 


,, manufactured 


2,08 


2,37 


13,52 


3,26 


1,21 


4-89 


Spices . . . . 


5.19 


5,67 


2,54 


7,44 


5,58 


8,26 


Sugar and jaggery . 


6,5y 


6,52 


5,54 


11,52 


22,09 


27,99 


Tobacco 


4,94 


15,62 


7,04 


I, is 


44 


32 


All other articles . 

Total 




1,47,87 


55,20 


... 


1,05,06 


19,6s 


2,87,72 


4,14,14 


4,19,85 


3,75,19 


8,26,76 


6,90,87 



Communications. 



The system of railways radiates from Bangalore, and there is no Dis- 
trict without a railway running through some part of it. The Bangalore 
branch of the Madras Railway, standard gauge, runs 
for 55-| miles in the State, east from Bangalore city 
to Bowringpet, then south-east to the main line at Jalarpet. From 
Bowringpet the Kolar Gold Fields branch, 10 miles in length, on the 
same gauge, runs first east and then south to the end of the Mysore 
Mine-field. The Southern Mahratta Railway, metre gauge, runs south- 
west through Mysore to Nanjangud, and north-west through Harihar 



2 24 MYSORE STATE 

towards Poona, for 312 miles in the State. From Yesvantpur a branch, 
51 miles in the State, runs north through Hindupur to Guntakal on the 
Madras Railway. From Birur a branch, 38 miles long, runs north-west 
to Shimoga. Surveys have been made to extend the line from Nanjan- 
gud south-east to Erode on the Madras Railway, and also for a 2\ feet 
gauge line to the west coast, either from Arsikere to Mangalore, 86 
miles in the State, or from Mysore to Tellicherry, 58 miles in the State. 
The Southern Mahratta Railway Company has proposed a metre-gauge 
line from Marikuppam in Kolar District to Dodbele station in Banga- 
lore District, in order to provide direct communication between the 
Gold Fields and the port of Marmagao ; and the survey for it is being 
made. A light railway on the 2\ feet gauge, from Bangalore north to 
Chik-Ballapur, 36 miles, is projected by a private company. 

The total length of line open in 1891 was 367 miles, of which 55^ 
were standard gauge, and the rest metre gauge. In 1904 the total was 
466-|- miles, the addition being all metre gauge. The Kolar Gold 
Fields branch is worked by the Madras Railway; the remaining 
Mysore State lines by the Southern Mahratta Railway on short-term 
agreements. For the Mysore-Harihar line the Southern Mahratta Rail- 
way Company raised a loan on a guarantee of 4 per cent, interest by 
the Mysore State, which also pays to the company one-fourth of the 
surplus profits. 

The capital outlay on all the lines owned by the Mysore State up 
to 1904 is 2-3 crores, of which i-6 crores was incurred on the Mysore- 
Harihar line. The number of passengers carried in 1903-4 was 
2\ millions. The total expenditure was 7-7 lakhs, and the net earnings 
7 lakhs. The Kolar Gold Fields and the Bangalore-Hindupur lines 
were the only two that showed a surplus, after deducting 4 per cent, for 
interest on the capital outlay. 

The railways were expressly designed to serve as a protection against 
times of scarcity ; and since the great famine of 1876-8, when the only 
railway was the Bangalore branch of the Madras Railway as far as the 
cantonment, the pressure of severe distress has been averted. Prices 
have no doubt tended to become equalized. It is not known that any 
change in the language or customs of the people has arisen from the 
extension of railways. 

Trunk roads run through all the District head-quarters to the 
frontiers of the State, connecting the east coast and adjoining British 
Districts by way of the Mysore table-land with the west coast. In 
1856 there were 1,597 miles of road in the State. Besides the con- 
struction of new roads, improvements in the alignment of old ones, 
provision of bridges across rivers, and other measures to ensure free 
transit have since been continuously carried out. A good system of 
local roads radiates from each District head-quarters to all parts of the 



COMMUNICA TIONS 2 2 5 

District. The previously almost inaccessible Malnad tracts in the west 
were the last to benefit, but these were generally opened up by about 
1870. Much attention has also been paid to improving \he ghat roads 
through the passes in the mountains to the west. As railways have 
extended, feeder roads have been made in those parts where none 
existed. 

The old style of carts had a solid wooden wheel. They are known as 
Wodda carts, and are still employed at quarries for the transport of 
stone. But for general purposes they have long been superseded by 
carts with spoked wheels, but without springs. These take a load of 
over half a ton, and are drawn by a pair of bullocks. In the western 
parts a broad wain, drawn by several pairs of bullocks, is used for 
harvesting purposes. 

In 1 89 1 there were 1,730 miles of Provincial roads and 3,113 miles 
of District or Local fund roads. In 1904 the figures were 1,927 miles 
of Provincial roads, costing for upkeep an average of Rs. 199 per mile ; 
and 3,502 miles of District or Local fund roads, maintained at an 
average cost of Rs. 72^ per mile. 

A steam tramway is proposed for 18 miles from Shimoga for the 
transport of the manganese ores that are being collected there. 

Owing to either rocky or shallow beds, none of the Mysore rivers is 
navigable, nor are there any other waterways for such use. 

The old postal system of Mysore, called the Anche, dates from the 
time of Chikka Deva Raja in the seventeenth century. In 1889 it was 
amalgamated with the British postal service and the entire management 
transferred to that department, on condition of all the ofificial corre- 
spondence of the State being carried within the limits of the State free 
of cost to the Darbar. There is no doubt that the change has been 
on the whole for the benefit of the public. For postal services Mysore 
is now a part of the Madras circle. In 1904 there were 428 post 
offices, and the mails were carried over 2,645 iniles. The number 
of letters delivered was 7 millions, of post-cards 5 millions, of news- 
papers 650,000, of packets 660,000, and parcels 150,000. The value 
of money orders issued was 53 lakhs. In the Post Office savings 
banks 38,586 persons deposited 10-12 lakhs, and 9-18 lakhs was 
drawn out. 

In the Mysore State savings banks there were 20,214 depositors 
in 1903-4. The opening balance of 73! lakhs was raised by deposits 
(34 lakhs) and interest to no lakhs, of which 31 lakhs was paid 
out in the year, leaving a balance of 79 lakhs at credit of the 
depositors. 

The Mysore State Life Insurance scheme was instituted in 1892, and 
made obligatory on officials. Up to 1904 there had been issued 7,423 
policies, assuring 44^ lakhs. Of this number 6,762 remained effective, 



2 26 MYSORE STATE 

assuring 40 lakhs. The second quinquennial valuation of the assets 
and liabilities of the Fund, made by an actuary in Edinburgh in 
1902, confirmed its sound condition and the favourable nature of 
its terms. 

Failure of the rains for three seasons in succession brought about the 

famine of 1876-8, and, in general, failure of the rains in any part is the 

main cause of famine. Those parts which receive 

the least rainfall are therefore the most liable to 

suffer: namely, Chitaldroog District, and the northern parts of Tumkur, 

Bangalore, and Kolar Districts. 

Rdgi is the staple food of all the labouring classes, and if this crop 
fails there is widespread distress. A remedial measure is the raising of 
crops oljola on the dry beds of tanks, but this is only a partial pallia- 
tive. If the rdgi season has passed, horse-gram is more extensively 
sown for human food, but this will not mature without some rain. Ragi 
used formerly to be stored in underground pits, where it would keep 
good for ten years, to be brought out for consumption in times of 
scarcity. But the inducements now presented by high prices elsewhere 
and cheap means of transport have interfered with the replenishment of 
such stores, and consequently there is less resource of that kind to fall 
back upon. Rice, which is the main irrigated crop, is not much eaten 
except by Brahmans, but always commands a ready sale for export. 

The information about famines due to drought previous to that 
mentioned above is very scanty, but dreadful famines followed the 
devastations of the Maratha armies and the wars with Mysore at the 
end of the eighteenth century. During the invasion of Lord Cornwallis, 
when, as Buchanan-Hamilton says, the country was attacked on all 
sides and penetrated in every direction by hostile armies, or by defend- 
ing armies little less destructive, one-half at least of the inhabitants 
perished of absolute want. In the last century periods of scarcity 
occurred in 1824, 1831, and 1833. The ten years following 1851 were 
a time of great trial, when year after year the sparse and ill-timed 
rainfall kept the agricultural classes in constant dread of actual want. 
Two or three seasons ensued which were prosperous, but in 1866 
famine was again present in Chitaldroog and the north-eastern parts 
of the State. 

Bad, however, as these seasons were, and critical as was the con- 
dition of the country, the misfortune which was to come put them 
completely in the shade. The failure of rain in the years 1875-7 
brought about a famine such as was never known before. The begin- 
ning of the calamity was the partial failure of the rains in 1875, the fall 
being from one-third to two-thirds of the average. Much of the food- 
crop was lost ; but owing to the usual large stocks in the State, only 
temporary or occasional distress was caused, for the price of grain did 



ADMINISTRATION 227 

not rise to double the ordinary rates. In 1876 the rainfall was again 
very short, and barely a third of the ordinary harvest was reaped. 
Matters were aggravated by the fact that crops had failed in the 
adjacent Districts of Madras and Bombay ; and by the middle of 
December famine had begun. From then till March matters grew 
worse. The only railway, from Madras to Bangalore, brought in daily 
500 tons of food (enough to support 900,000 people), yet the prices of 
food ranged during those months at four to five times the ordinary 
rates. In April and May, 1877, the usual spring showers fell, and hope 
revived. But as the month of June wore on and July came, it was 
apparent that the early rains were going to fail again, for the third year 
in succession. Panic and mortality spread among the people ; famine 
increased and became sore in the land. In May 100,000 starving 
paupers were being fed in relief kitchens, but by August the numbers 
rose to 227,000, besides 60,000 employed on the railway to Mysore city. 
It became evident that the utmost exertions of the local officers were 
unequal to cope with the growing distress. The Viceroy, Lord Lytton, 
visited Mysore, and appointed Mr. (now Sir) Charles Elliott as Famine 
Commissioner, with a large staff of European assistants. Relief works 
were now concentrated, and gratuitous relief was confined to those 
whose condition was too low to expect any work from them at all. 
Bountiful rains in September and October caused the cloud to lift, and 
the pressure of famine began to abate. During the eight months of 
extreme famine no crops were reaped ; the price of grain ranged from 
three to six times the ordinary rates, and for the common people there 
were no means of earning wages outside the relief works. Even in 
1877-8 the yield of the harvest was less than half the crop of an 
ordinary year. From November, 1877, throughout 1878, prices stood 
at nearly three times the rate of ordinary years. The mortality in this 
famine has been estimated at \\ millions in a population of ^\ millions. 
Taking the ordinary mortality at 24 per 1,000 per annum, this was 
raised to nearly fivefold, while a mean annual birth-rate of 36 per 1,000 
was reduced to one-half. 

The principal protective measures thus far successfully taken have 
been the extension of railways, so as to admit of the import and dis- 
tribution of food-grains to all parts, and the extension of irrigation and 
other facilities for increasing cultivation. Plans for suitable relief works 
are also kept in readiness to be put into operation at the first appear- 
ance of necessity arising from scarcity. 

His Highness the Maharaja is the head of the State, having been 

invested with full powers on attaining his majority in 1902. In his 

name, and subject to his sanction, the administration .... 

. , , , ,^. _ . , • Administration. 

IS carried on by the Diwan or prmie mmister, who is 

assisted by two Councillors. The Chief Court is the highest tribunal 



2 28 MYSORE STATE 

of justice, and is composed of a bench of three Judges, headed by the 
Chief Judge. There is a secretariat staff for the transaction of official 
business, and Commissioners and other departmental officers at the 
head of the various branches of the administration, with a Comptroller 
for finance and treasury affairs. The dynastic capital is at Mysore city, 
but the administrative head-quarters are at Bangalore. The Maharaja 
resides for part of the year at each of these places, but the higher 
ofifices of the State are located at Bangalore. The Representative 
Assembly meets once a year at Mysore at the time of the Dasara 
festival, when the Dlwan delivers his annual statement of the condition 
of the fiinances and the measures of the State, after which suggestions 
by the members are considered. 

The administrative divisions of the State are eight in number, called 
Districts, with an average area of 3,679 square miles, and an average 
population of 692,425. They are Bangalore, Kolar, Tumkur, 
Mysore, Hassan, Kadur, Shimoga, and Chitaldroog. Each of 
these is named after its head-quarters, except Kadur District, the 
head-quarters of which are at Chikmugalur. Mysore is the largest 
District and Hassan the smallest. 

The chief officer in charge of a District is the Deputy-Commissioner, 
who is assisted by a staff of Assistant Commissioners. The sub- 
divisions of a District are taluks^ altogether 69 in number, averaging 
eight or nine to each District \ with an average area of 427 square 
miles. These are formed into convenient groups of two, three, or 
four, which are distributed, under the authority of the Deputy-Com- 
missioner, among the various Assistants and himself in such a way as 
to facilitate the dispatch of business and train the junior officers for 
administrative duties. 

The officer in charge of a taluk is the amalddr, assisted by a sherista- 
ddr, who has charge of the treasury and acts as his deputy in case of 
need. Large taluks have a portion divided off into a swh-tdluk under 
the charge of a deputy-awaZifl/-, but with no separate treasury. A taluk 
is composed of hobalis or hoblis, the average number being six to ten. 
In each of these is a shekddr, or revenue inspector. 

The headman of a village is the pdtel, a gauda or principal farmer, 
who is assisted in revenue collections by the shdnbhog, a Brahman 
accountant. These offices are hereditary, and form part of the village 
corporation of twelve, called ayagdr in Kanarese and bdra baluti in 
Marathi. The other members of this ancient institution are the Kam- 
mar or blacksmith, the Badagi or carpenter, the Agasa or washer- 
man, the Panchangi or Joyisa, an astrologer and calendar maker, the 
Nayinda or barber, the Madiga or cobbler and leather-dresser, the 
Kumbar or potter, the Talari or watchman, and the Nirganti or dis- 
' Kadur has only five, while Mysore has fourteen, and Kolar ten. 



LEGISLATION AND JUSTICE 



229 



tributor of water for irrigation. Tlie dozen is made up in some parts 

by including the Akkasale or goldsmith ; in other parts his place is 

taken by the poet, who is also the schoolmaster. The respective duties 

of these village ofificials are definitely fixed ; and their services are 

remunerated either by the grant of rent-free lands, or by contributions, 

on a certain scale, of grain, straw, &c., at harvest time. 

On the rendition in 1881 a schedule of Acts already in force in 

Mysore was appended to the Instrument of Transfer. A Legislative 

department, under a legislative secretary, was formed 

in 1886. There is no special Legislative Council. Legislation 
^, . ^ , . '^ and justice. 

The various regulations passed into law up to 1901 

have been revised and published in two volumes, forming the Mysore 
Code. The first volume contains the Acts passed before the rendition 
and then taken over from the British Administration ; the second 
volume contains the Regulations passed since. Among the later 
Regulations the following may be mentioned : To amend the Code of 
Criminal Procedure (I of 1888), Measures of Length (III of 1890), to 
amend the Mysore Land Revenue Code (I of 1891), Infant Marriages 
Prevention (X of 1894), Village Sanitation (I of 1898), General Clauses 
(III of 1899), Electricity (IV of 1900), to amend the Mysore Mines 
Act (VI of 1900), Land Improvement Loans (I of 1901), Mysore Civil 
Courts (III of 1901), Code of Civil Procedure (VI of 1901), Indian 
Evidence Act (VIII of 1901), Local Boards (II of 1902), Weights and 
Measures (III of 1902), Registration (I of 1903). 

In 1903 there were 16 Munsifs' courts, 5 Sub-Judges' courts, 3 Dis- 
trict courts, and the Chief Court. Munsifs exercise original jurisdiction 
in cases up to Rs. 2,500 in value; Subordinate Judges have jurisdiction 
in cases from above Rs. 2,500 to Rs. 10,000, and hear appeals from 
decisions of Munsifs if referred to them by the District Judge ; District 
courts have unlimited jurisdiction, and hear appeals from decisions of 
Munsifs, and from those of Subordinate Judges within the limit of 
Rs. 3,000 ; the Chief Court, sitting as a bench of not less than two 
Judges, disposes of all other appeals brought before it. 

Statistics of Civil Justice 





Average for ten 
years ending 


igoo-i. 


igo3-4- 


i8qo. 


1900. 


Suits for money and movable 
property .... 
Title and other suits 
Rent suits .... 

Total 


12,668 

2,402 

656 


19.764 

2,347 

577 


17,931 

1,654 

501 


17,210 
1,019 

580 


15,726 


32,688 


20,086 


18,809 



230 



MYSORE STATE 



In 1903 there were 122 Subordinate Magistrates, 3 Sessions Judges, 
8 District Magistrates, and the Chief Court. The Subordinate Judges 
of Chikmugalur, Chitaldroog, and Hassan were also invested with the 
powers of Assistant Sessions Judges. In 1887 the system of trial by 
jury was introduced in Sessions cases. For appellate jurisdiction in 
criminal cases, the benches of the Chief Court that sit for civil appellate 
work dispose also of criminal appeals. The Chief Court moreover acts 
as a court of reference and a court of revision. 

Statistics of Criminal Justice 





Averafje for ten 








years 


ending 


1900-1. 


1903-4. 




i8go. 


1900. 






Number of persons tried : — 










{a) For offences against per- 










son and property .. 


17.056 


18,867 


18,848 


16,533 


(b) For other offences against 










the Indian Penal Code . 


3,039 


3,959 


3,565 


3,376 


{c) For offences against Spe- 










cial and Local laws 

Total 


2,984 


4,071 


4,626 


2,869 


23,079 


26,897 


27,039 


22,77s 



Finance. 



The Excise Commissioner is also Inspector-General of Registration. 
The number of sub-registry offices in 1904 was 80, of which 59 were 
special, or with paid establishments, the remainder being in charge of 
taluk revenue officers. The number of documents registered from 
1881 to 1890 averaged 21,747; from 1891 to 1900, 46,251; and in 
1904 the number was 57,637. 

In addition to the local audits, the State accounts have been 
examined at various times by auditors deputed by the Government 
of India. The revenue under all heads has risen. 
The increase under land is due to extension of 
cultivation. Since 1885 mining leases and the royalty on gold-produc- 
tion have added a new item to the revenue. The increase under 
excise is due mainly to an improved system of control, but also to 
a larger consumption arising from higher wages and the influx to the 
Gold Fields, and from the employment on railways, public works, and 
coffee plantations of classes with drinking habits. The decrease under 
land customs and assessed taxes is due to these duties having been 
transferred to municipalities wherever they exist. The only customs 
retained by the State are on areca-nuts, the bulk of which are the 
produce of Kadur and Shimoga Districts. An increase under forests 
took place owing to a revival of the market for sandal-wood, and to a 
greater supply of sleepers for railways. Subsequently the war between 
China and Japan temporarily crippled one of the principal sandal- 



FINANCE 



231 



wood markets, and not only did the demand for railway sleepers cease 
with the completion of the lines, but coal began to be substituted for 
wood as fuel for the engines. Since 1902 a substantial return has been 
received from the Cauvery Power installation for supplying electricity 
to the gold-mines. 

Principal Sources of Ordinary Revenue 

(In thousands of rupees) 





Average for ten years 








ending 


1900- 1. 


1904-5. 


1890. 


IQOO. 


Land revenue . 


77,33 


94,16 


98,31 


96,69 


Mining leases 








60* 


8,36 


14,45 


16,91 


Stamps 








4,99 


7,27 


7,94 


7,16 


Excise 








i4,Si 


31,34 


36,17 


37,75 


Provincial rates 








3,81 


3,83 


3,10 


3,64 


Assessed taxes 








2,9s 


2,78 


2,16 


3,01 


Forests 








8,76 


13,3.^ 


12,58 


18,90 


Registration 








z.-^ 


45 


1.25 


1,18 


Other sources . 








7..56 


15,93 


15,78 


29,22 






Total 




1,21,09 


1,77,47 


1,91,74 


2,14,46 



* From 1885-6. 



Expenditure under Principal Heads 

(In thousands of rupees) 





Average for ten 








years 


ending 


1900-1. 


1904-5. 


1890. 


1900. 


Charges in respect of collection (prin- 










cipally land revenue and forests) . 


16,29 


21,09 


22,47 


23,41 


Salaries and expenses of Civil Depart- 










ments : — 










(rt) General administration 


3,02 


6,15 


8,29 


8,iS 


(^) Law and justice . 


6,05 


9,lS 


10,22 


10,41 


{c) Police 


5,18 


8,24 


9.65 


9,80 


{d) Education .... 


1,68 


4,87 


6,65 


7,73 


(^) Medical .... 


1,53 


2,87 


4,29 


5,86 


(/) Other heads 


6,23 


8,19 


10,98 


10,66 


Pensions and miscellaneous civil 










charges 


40,74 


53,33 


68,36 


66,43 


Famine relief ..... 


I 


20 


7 


... 


Irrigation ..... 


5,42 


11,16 


8,04 


14,72 


Public works ..... 


9,19 


34.59 


49,08 


40,72 


Other charges and adjustments . 

Total expenditure 


14,21 


13,85 


14,14 


19,06 


1,09,55 


1,73,72 


2,12,24 


2,16,98 



The land tenures in the State are sarkdr or State, and indm. The 
former are held under the ryotwdri or individual tenure, on payment 



232 MYSORE STATE 

of ka?iddyam or a fixed money assessment, settled for thirty years. 
Kanddyam lands are held direct from the State on annual leases, 
but the assessment is not as a rule altered or raised 
an revenu . ^J^J.JJ-^g ^^ period for which it is fixed. The ordinary 
rates of assessment apply to the whole extent of the ryot's holding, 
and not to the area actually cultivated, as he has rights to a certain 
extent over included waste. Remission of assessment is not given 
in individual cases ; but when there is general loss of crop in a 
locality and consequent distress, remission may be granted as a measure 
of relief. 

In the case of private estates, such as indni and kdya?ngutta villages, 
and large farms of Government lands cultivated by payakaris or under- 
tenants, the land is held on the following tenures : vdram, or equal 
division of produce between landlord and tenant, the former paying 
the assessment on the land to the State ; mukkupj>e, under which two- 
thirds of the produce goes to the cultivator, and one-third to the 
landlord, who pays the assessment ; arakaiiddya or chaturbhdga, under 
which the landlord gets one-fourth and the cultivator three-fourths 
of the produce, each paying half the assessment ; 7iio/akatiddya, in 
which the tenant pays a fixed money-rate to the landlord, which may 
either be equal to or more than the assessment. 

An hereditary right of occupation is attached to all katiddyam lands. 
As long as the ryot pays the State dues he has no fear of displacement, 
and virtually possesses an absolute tenant-right as distinct from that 
of proprietorship. When the State finds it necessary to resume the 
land for public purposes, he always receives compensation, fixed either 
by mutual agreement or under the Land Acquisition Act. No legisla- 
tion has been passed to check the acquisition of land by non-agri- 
cultural classes. 

In the Malnad or hill country towards the Western Ghats the 
holdings of the ryots are called vargs. A varg consists of all the fields 
held by one vargddr or farmer ^ ; and these are seldom located 
together, but are generally found scattered in different villages, and 
sometimes in different tdluks. Attached to each varg are tracts of 
land called hankalu and hddya, for which no separate assessment is 
paid. Hankahi lands are set apart for grazing purposes, but have 
sometimes been used for ' dry ' cultivation. Those attached to ' wet ' 
fields are called tattma hankalu. Hddya are lands covered with low 
brushwood and small trees, which supply firewood or leaves for 
manuring the fields of the varg. Tracts of forest preserved for the 
sake of the wild pepper vines, ^a^«/-palms, and certain gum-trees that 
grow in them, are called kdns, for which a cess is paid. 

' These terms often appear as war^ and waj-gdar in official papers. 



LAND REVENUE 233 

Lands for coffee cultivation have been granted from State jungles, 
chiefly in the Western Ghats region. The plot applied for was sold 
by public auction. If the jungle was to be cleared, notice was given, 
to allow of officials removing or disposing of * reserved ' trees. Besides 
coffee nothing may be grown on the land, except shade trees for the 
coffee. Within five years a minimum of 500 coffee-trees to the acre 
must be planted. On the coffee-trees coming into bearing an excise 
duty, called hdlaf, of 4 annas per maund, was formerly levied on the 
produce, in lieu of land rent. But from 1885 an acreage assessment 
was substituted — either R. i per acre, with a guarantee for thirty years 
on the terms of the survey settlement, or a permanent assessment of 
Rs. i^ per acre, on the terms of the Madras Coffee Land rules. Nearly 
all the large planters have adopted the latter conditions. But the 
great fall in the prices of coffee in recent years, owing to the com- 
petition of Brazil, has reduced this previously flourishing industry to 
a very depressed condition. 

Lands have been offered since 1904 for rubber cultivation, in plots 
of 50 acres, selected with the consent of the Forest department, to be 
held free of assessment for the first five years, and subject to the 
assessment fixed by the survey settlement in the sixth year and after. 
The work of planting must be commenced within one year from the 
date of the grant ; and in stocking the area with rubber plants, trees 
may not be felled without permission. 

Lands for cardamom cultivation are granted from the jungles on 
the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats, where the plant grow's 
wild. Tracts of not less than 5 or more than 200 acres, when 
applied for, are put up to auction, and may be secured on a twenty 
years' lease on terms similar to those for coffee lands. Not less than 
500 cardamom plants per acre must be planted within five years, 
and nothing else may be cultivated on the ground. Trees, except 
of the ' reserved ' kinds, may be felled to promote the growth of the 
cardamoms. 

The tenure called kdyamgutta literally means a 'permanent village 
settlement.' It owes its origin probably to depopulated villages being 
rented out by the State on a fixed but very moderate lease, on the 
understanding that the renter would restore them to a prosperous con- 
dition. But in the early part of last century even flourishing villages 
were granted to court favourites on this tenure, and some of the most 
valuable lands are thus held. Shrdya lands are waste or jungle tracts 
granted at a progressive rent, in order to bring them under cultivation. 
They are free of assessment for the first year, and the demand increases 
afterwards yearly from one-quarter to full rates in the fourth or fifth 
year. For the planting of timber, fruit, and fuel trees, unassessed 
waste land, or assessed ' dry ' land, if unoccupied for ten years con- 



234 MYSORE STATE 

secutively, is granted free of assessment for eight years, then rising 
by a quarter rate to full assessment in the twelfth year. 

The conditions on which i7idm tenures are held vary considerably. 
Some are free of all demands, while in others the usual assessment 
is reduced. The grants differ also in origin, according as they were 
made to Brahmans, for religious and charitable purposes, to village 
servants, for the maintenance or construction of tanks and wells, or 
otherwise. 

Licences for exploring for minerals, on areas approved by Govern- 
ment, are granted on deposit of a fee of Rs. lo, to run for one year. 
No private or occupied lands may be explored without the consent 
of the owner, occupier, or possessor. Prospecting licences for minerals 
may be obtained for one year, on a minimum deposit of Rs. loo, and 
a rent of Rs. 50 per square mile or portion of a square mile. The 
licensee may select, within the year, a block for mining, not exceeding 
one square mile, in the licensed area. 

Mining leases limited to one square mile, of rectangular shape, are 
granted for thirty years, on deposit of Rs. 1,000 as security, and 
furnishing satisfactory evidence that a sum of £10,000 will be raised 
within two years for carrying on mining operations on the block of 
land applied for. The cost of survey and demarcation is paid by the 
applicant, and mining operations must start within one year. An 
annual rent of R. i per acre is payable to the State on the mining 
block, together with all local cesses and taxes ; and in each year in 
which a net profit is made, a royalty of 5 per cent, is levied on the 
gross value of gold and silver produced. If the net profits exceed 
£25,000, an additional royalty is payable of 5 per cent, on the net 
profits above that sum. But in the case of a registered company, the 
royalty may be paid on divisible instead of net profits. 

The land revenue assessment is fixed by the Revenue Survey depart- 
ment on the method already described (p. 214, above). The system 
resembles that followed in Bombay, which was preferred to that of 
Madras. The former was chosen because all the steps in survey, 
classification, and settlement are under the direction of one responsible 
head, and made to fit into one another. 

The present revenue survey was introduced in 1863, and the settle- 
ment was completed in 1901. The settlements made under it are 
current for thirty years. The previous survey, made at the beginning 
of the nineteenth century, was necessarily very imperfect; and after 
the lapse of fifty years the records had become extremely defective, 
advantage having been taken of the insurrection in 1830 to destroy the 
survey papers in many cases. 

In 1700 the Mysore king Chikka Deva Raja acknowledged one- 
sixth to be the lawful share of the crop to be paid to him, but added 



MISCELLANEOUS REVENUE 235 

a number of vexatious petty taxes to enhance the amount indirectly. 
In Bednur (Shimoga District) Sivappa Naik's shist, fixed in 1660, 
was one-third of the gross produce. This continued for thirty-nine 
years, after which various additions were made, chiefly to raise funds 
for buying off the enemy. After the overthrow of Tipu Sultan, during 
the eleven years of Purnaiya's administration (1800-10), the highest 
land revenue was equivalent to 94 lakhs in 1809, and the average 
was 83 lakhs. During the twenty-one years of the Raja's adminis- 
tration which followed (1811-31), the highest was 90 lakhs, and the 
average 79 lakhs. In the first year of British administration (1831-2), 
the land revenue was set down as 48 lakhs, but included in this 
were 83 different cesses, besides 198 taxes unconnected with it. 
The general average assessment was usually one-third of the gross 
produce. In 1881-2 the total revenue was 107 lakhs, of which the 
land yielded 71 lakhs. In 1903-4 the total revenue had risen to 
214 lakhs, and the land revenue to 98 lakhs. 

The two principal sources of excise revenue are toddy and arrack. 
The former, drawn from the date-palm, and also from coco-nut, palmyra, 
and bagni palms, is the immemorial beverage of the 

agricultural classes, a mild and comparatively in- "^"^^^^ aneous 

, . , . ' , , ,. ^ , / • revenue, 

nocuous drmk, its average alcoholic strength being 

2\ per cent. Arrack, which is far stronger and more harmful, is 
chiefly consumed by industrial labourers, and has an average alco- 
holic strength of 39^ per cent. The consumption of toddy is fairly 
stationary, while that of arrack has a decided tendency to increase 
year by year. Formerly the right to sell toddy was farmed out by 
Districts, and was virtually a monopoly in the hands of a few con- 
tractors, between whom and the Darbar was a large class of middlemen. 
Want of proper control not only led to the supply of inferior liquor, 
but threatened the destruction of the date groves themselves. The 
new system broke up each tdliik into convenient farms, which supplied 
a certain number of shops from particular groves. The number of 
toddy shops remained the same, so that the increase of revenue was 
entirely due to the abolition of needless intermediaries. As regards 
arrack, the policy has been to enhance the duty gradually up to 
the highest point consistent with the prevention of illicit distillation 
or contraband importation. In addition to this, the main causes 
which have tended to increase the revenue have been — the abolition 
in 1884 of all outlying distilleries and the concentration of manu- 
facture in one distillery near Bangalore under centralized control ; 
and further, the separation in 1892 of the business of manufacture 
from that of distribution, and the adoption of a system for the sale 
of the privilege of retail vend. These measures led to the manu- 
facture being taken up by European firms with large capital and 

VOL. XVIII. Q 



236 MYSORE STATE 

superior technical resources^, thus reducing the cost. Supplies were 
conveyed under separate contract to bonded depots in the Districts. 
In 1897 the still-head duty was raised to Rs. 4-12, and the retail 
rate to Rs. 6-6, per gallon, for liquor 20° under proof. The sale 
of the right of vend, on the ' separate shop system ' in the cities 
and Gold Fields, and on the * vend rent system ' in taluks or circles 
of villages, has secured to the State what previously formed the 
profits of middlemen. In 1898 a tree tax was introduced, for better 
regulating the consumption of toddy and conserving the date groves, 
the rate being Rs. i-i per tree per annum for date-trees, and cor- 
responding rates for other palms. In 1901 a tree rent of 4 annas 
per tree per annum was levied on trees tapped for toddy. In 1903-4 
there were 12 toddy depots and 3,837 retail shops, 962 of these being 
for the sale of bagni toddy. The number of trees tapped was 422,855, 
and the quantity of toddy consumed was 9,809,640 gallons. Retail 
shops for the sale of arrack numbered 931. The issue of spirits 
from the distillery amounted to 43,482 gallons. The greatest con- 
sumption is, of course, in the cities and the Gold Fields. The other 
sources of excise revenue are country beer, foreign liquors, hemp 
drugs {ganja and mdjum), and opium. In 1899 the proportion of 
alcohol in country beer Avas fixed so as not to exceed 8 per cent, 
by volume. A scale of licence fees for the sale of foreign liquors 
was also prescribed. Country-made foreign spirits of weaker strength 
were introduced in 1904 to meet the requirements of the people, who 
were found in their absence to have recourse to inferior foreign stuff. 
Gdnja is grown by contractors under departmental supervision in 
specified localities. There were 237 retail shops in 1903-4 for the 
sale of gdnja and mdjum, and 15,594 seers were sold. Opium, pre- 
viously imported from Malwa, has since 1903 been obtained from 
the Madras storehouse. There were 126 shops in 1903-4 licensed 
to sell opium, and 1,438 seers were consumed. 

Up to 1 901 there were ten Local fund circles, one for each of the 

eight Districts, and for the French Rocks and the Kolar Gold Fields. 

Two years later a new system was introduced, and 

^^^. .^°, a District board has been constituted for each 
mxinicipal. ..... 

District (in addition to the Kolar Gold Fields 

Sanitary Board), besides a taluk board for each tdluk or suh-idluk. 
In 1904 these boards consisted of 1,188 members, of whom 372 
were appointed ex officio, and 816 were non-ofificial. Tdluk boards 
(since 1905) consist of 15 members : namely, 5 official, 5 elected, 
and 5 appointed by the State. District boards consist of 25 mem- 
bers : namely, one non-official elected for each tdluk of the District 
by the members of the tdluk board from their own body, and 
the rest ex officio or appointed by the State. The members hold 



LOCAL AND MUNICLPAL 



237 



office ordinarily for three years. Their chief functions embrace 
the construction and maintenance of roads and bridges, with assis- 
tance of the Public Works department if required, improving and 
conserving the water-supply, the provision and upkeep of travellers' 
bungalows and imisafirkhdnas (native resthouses), dispen.sanes, .sanita- 
tion of villages, &c. Funds are obtained by a cess of one anna in 
the rupee on land revenue, and on revenue from excise, sayer, and 
forests. 

Income and Expenditure of District Boards 



Particulars. 


Average 

for ten years 

1891-1900. 


1900-1. 


1903-4. 


Income from — 

Land revenue* .... 
Provincial rates. 
Interest ..... 
Miscellaneous .... 
Public works .... 
Pounds ..... 
Ferries 

Total income 

Expenditure on — 

Refunds 

General administration 
Education .... 

Medical 

Miscellaneous .... 
Public works .... 

Total expenditure 


Rs. 

5,02,409 

.36,592 
3,426 

41,200 
8,605 


Rs. 

5,22,591 
10,803 

37,249 

1,924 

31,782 

5,845 


Rs. 

5,22,639 

ti,66,356 

275 

2,905 

10,644 

34,220 

19,388 


5,92,232 


6,10,194 


7,56,427 


692 

22,531 

4,210 

58,904 

20,400 

.«;,' 7,045 


224 
31,407 
.7,023 
74,040 
13,818 
4,58,914 


17,692 

52,408 

47,017 

30,794 

5,22,294 


6,23,782 


5,85,435 


6,70,205 



* This item represents 76 per cent, of local cesses. 

t Includes fi2 lakhs special contributions from Local funds for plague and other 
establishments, and balances transferred from municipalities converted into Unions. 

In 1901 the number of municipalities was 124 (exclusive of the Civil 
and Military Station of Bangalore), of which 117 had a populatioii 
under 10,000, and 7 a population of from 10,000 to 100,000. In 
1904, 36 of the minor municipalities, which were not tdluk head- 
quarters and had a population of less than 3,000, were converted into 
Unions, a panchdyat being appointed for each Union. A panchdyat 
consists of 5 to 12 members, appointed by the State. The 88 munici- 
palities in 1904 had 1,049 members, of whom 285 were officials. All 
of the members are natives, except about 20 Europeans. 

The Kolar Gold Fields Sanitary Board was constituted in Septem- 
ber, 1899, with 3 ex-officio members, and 4 non-official members 
nominated by the Mining Board. Its jurisdiction extends over the 
Kolar Gold Fields Sanitary Circle, embracing the Gold Fields and 
many of the surrounding villages. It deals with disposal of refuse, 

Q 2 



2.^,8 



MYSORE STATE 



water-supply, prevention of overcrowding, drains and latrines, keeping 
and slaughter of live-stock, &c., burial and burning-grounds, prevention 
and treatment of infectious and contagious diseases, and underground 
sanitation of the mines. 

The municipal board of the Civil and Military Station of Banga- 
lore has consisted, since 1904, of a president, a medical officer, and 
24 other members, 6 appointed by the Resident, and 18 elected, 
the former holding office for three years, and the latter for two. The 
Trades Association elect one member, Europeans and Eurasians 6, 
Muhammadans 3, and Hindus and others 8. 

Income and Expenditure of Municipalities 





Average 








for ten years 


1900-1. 


1903-4. 




1891-1900. 








Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Octroi 


1,56,298 


2,48,426 


2,19,038 


Tax on houses and lands 


1,29,997 


1,63,962 


1,83,879 


Other taxes 


2,881 


1,217 


1,32,917 


Rents 


18,832 


24.507 


30,277 


Loans 


36,463 


33,026 


1,03,464 


Other sources 

Total income 
Expenditure on administration and 


3,05,900 


3,08,024 


1,81,033 


6,50,371 


7,79,162 


8,50,608 








collection of taxes 


53,756 


70,292 


65,397 


Public safety* 


3,254 




759 


Water-supply and drainage 


23,o'4 


27,298 


54,747 


Conservancy ..... 


i,34»5io 


1,79,641 


1,80,901 


Hospitals and dispensaries 


4i>3i5 


53,452 


26,027 


Public works ..... 


2,17,463 


1,68,905 


2,56,172 


Education 


38,044 


38,451 


39,146 


Other heads 

Total expenditure 


1,30,941 


2,25,301 


3,34,666 


6,42,297 


7,63,340 


9,57,815 



Public Works. 



* Police not charged to municipalities. 

The Public Works department is controlled by a Chief Engineer, 
a Deputy-Chief Engineer, and two Superintending Engineers, who are 
in charge respectively of the Eastern and Western 
Circles. These are Royal Engineers or European 
officers. Separate branches have been formed for roads and buildings, 
and for irrigation. The executive staff are, with few exceptions, 
natives trained in Indian Engineering Colleges, Local works on 
a large scale, which require professional skill, are carried out by the 
Public Works department on requisition from other departments, by 
which the needed funds are placed at their disposal. 

Of original works carried out by the department only a few can be 
mentioned. The railways include the line from Bangalore to Mysore 



ARMY 239 

and Nanjangud south-westwards, to Gubbi westwards, to Hindupur north- 
wards, and the Kolar Gold Fields and Birur-Shimoga branches. The 
irrigation works include the Sriramadevar anicut and channels, and 
others in Mysore and Hassan Districts, the great Mari Kanave, Bora 
Kanave, Srinivasa Sagara, and many more. The excellent system of 
roads through the formerly impassable mountainous parts of Kadur 
District, and the fine ghat roads through passes to the west coast, 
deserve special mention. With these should be named the great 
bridges over the Tungabhadra at Harihar, over the Hemavati at 
Sakleshpur, and the bridges at Belur, Bale Honnur, Tippur, Tadasa, 
and other places over broad rivers. Of hospitals, the most important 
are the Bowring and Lady Curzon in the Civil and Military Station 
of Bangalore, and the Victoria in the city. Other buildings include the 
public offices at Bangalore, the Palace, the Residency, the Central 
College, and Mayo Hall, the new Palace at Mysore city, with the 
public offices there, the Maharaja's College, &c., and at Seringapatam 
the restoration of the Darya Daulat. 

Municipal and other water-supply schemes are represented by the 
Hesarghatta tank, the source of the Bangalore water-supply; the 
filling up of Purnaiya's Nullah at Mysore and the carrying out of the 
Kukarhalli and other water-works there ; the provision at Betmangala 
for the water-supply of the Kolar Gold Fields, and minor works of that 
nature in various towns. The transmission of electric power from 
the Cauvery Falls to the Kolar Gold Fields having been successfully 
accomplished, electric lighting from the same source has been intro- 
duced into Bangalore and is being carried out at Mysore. Large 
extensions have been laid out and occupied in Bangalore and 
Mysore city, with a new town at the Gold Fields, all on the most 
modern principles. 

The total strength of the British and Native army stationed within 
Mysore on June i, 1903, was as follows : British, 2,093 ; Native, 2,996 ; 
total, 5,089. The Mysore State forms for military 
purposes part of the Ninth (Secunderabad) Division, 
which is for the present directly under the Commander-in-Chief. It 
has a cavalry and an infantry brigade, as well as artillery. The only 
military station is Bangalore, which is also the head-quarters of a volun- 
teer rifle corps. The total volunteer strength within Mysore, including 
detachments of railway volunteers, was 1,512 in 1903. The Coorg 
and Mysore Rifles also have detachments at Chikmugalur and 
Sakleshpur, in the planting districts to the west. 

The Mysore State force had a sanctioned strength of 2,722 in 1904, 
of whom nearly a half were Muhammadans and a fifth Marathas, 
the rest being Hindus and Christians in about equal numbers. The 
force is composed of two regiments of Silladar cavalry, and three 



240 MYSORE STATE 

battalions of Barr infantry. In 1903 the former were 1,072 strong, 
and the latter 1,814. '^he Imperial Service Lancers, raised in April, 
1892, form one cavalry regiment, stationed in Bangalore, and with 
them is kept up a transport corps of 300 ponies. The Local Service 
Cavalry regiment is stationed at Mysore. The Barr battalions have 
their head-quarters at Mysore city, Shimoga, and Bangalore, with 
detachments in out-stations. The State military expenditure was 7-9 
lakhs in 1880-1, 6-i lakhs in 1890-1, and 9-4 lakhs in 1903-4. 

The police are under an Inspector-General. The sanctioned 

strength of the regular force in 1904 was 882 officers and 5,045 

men, or one policeman to every 5-83 square miles and 

?.**^.^ 1)073 inhabitants. The village police were for the 

first time provided with uniform and arms in 190 1-2. 

They help the regular police in the prevention and detection of crime, 

and in reporting the arrival and departure of criminal gangs and 

suspicious-looking strangers. The system of night watch is regularly 

maintained in all the villages of the Maidan tracts. The watching by 

totis and talaris in ookkads and outposts on important roads and jungle 

tracts has worked well. There is a Police Training School, where 

recruits and officers and men are taught drill, codes, and surveying and 

drawing. But the police service is not as a rule popular with the 

educated classes af natives. Finger-prints and anthropometry have 

been used to trace criminals in recent years. 

The special reserve is a body selected for good physique, and is 
better paid, equipped, and drilled than the other police. The members 
go through a course of musketry, and are held ready for emergencies 
in any part of the country, and are employed in putting down organized 
dacoities and serious disturbances of the public peace. There are 
three detachments, stationed respectively at Bangalore, Mysore city, 
and Shimoga. 

The Kolar Gold Fields Police is a special body, with 50 officers and 
279 men, under a separate European Superintendent, and is largely 
composed of Sikhs and Punjabis recruited from the north of India. 
It was formed in April, 1900, and has jurisdiction over the Bovvringpet, 
Maliir, and Mulbagal taluks. 

The troops aid the police in various ways ; detachments of the Local 
Service Cavalry patrol certain roads, while the infantry act as treasury 
guards and escorts. The Railway police, reckoned as in British 
service, are under the Superintendent of Police of the Civil and 
Military Station of Bangalore, subject to the orders of the Resident. 

The following are statistics of cognizable crime, the figures being 
the average for the five years ending 1901 : number of cases reported, 
3,221 ; number decided in criminal courts, 1,828; number ending in 
acquittal or discharge, 584; number ending in conviction, 1,244. 



POLICE AND JAILS 
Police Statistics 



241 





1881. 


189 1. 


1901. 


1904. 


Supei-vising Staff. 










District and Assistant Super- 










intendents 


I 


12 


12 


13 


Inspectors .... 


5 


14 


18 


102 


Subordinate Staff. 










Sub-inspectors . 


.^5^ 


465 


843 


13* 


Head constables 


22 






7.=;.^* 


Constables .... 


3,676 


4,684 


5.034 


6,04.5 


Municipal .... 


978 


449 




526 


Total expenditure . Rs. 


4:5.'i>ooo 


6,61,000 


9,05,000 


9,78,000 



* The designations are chief constables (13), head constables, jaiiiadars, da^addrs, 
and sergeants (753). 

Convicts are employed on cleaning and grinding rdgi ; on prison 
duties, as prison warders, servants, and gardeners ; on the preparation 
of articles for use or consumption in the jails ; on jail buildings, manu- 
factures, and public works. The chief industries are printing, carpet, 
tent, and blanket-making, cloth-weaving, gunny and coir work, car- 
penter's and blacksmith's work in the Central jail at Bangalore ; and 
weaving and spinning, basket and mat-making, and pottery in the 
Mysore District jail. The most numerous admissions into hospital on 
account of sickness are for malarial fevers. The high mortality in 1881 
shown below was due to dysentery or diarrhoea, and anaemia; in 1901 
there were four deaths from cholera. 

Jail Statistics 





i88i. 


1891. 


1901. 


1904. 


Number of Central jails . 


1 


I 


I 


1 


,, District jails . 


8 


2 


2 


I 


,, Subsidiary jails 










(lock-ups) . 


81 


78 


78 


77 


Average daily jail population : 










(a) Males — In Central jails . 


786 


424 


669 


872 


In other jails 


1,104 


459 


493 


131 


(J)) Females— In Central jails 


41 


44 


32 


43 


In other jails . 

Total 

Rate of jail mortality per 1,000 


45 


17 


20 


8 


1,976 


944 


1,214 


1,054 


20-6 


13 


19.74 


17-0^ 


Expenditure on jail main- 










tenance . . . Rs. 


1,59,000 


89,000 


1,12,000 


88,744 


Cost per prisoner . . Rs. 


77-6-2 


94-11-10 


92-5-4 


S4-11-6 


Profits on jail manufactures Rs. 


12,194 


15,900 


18,738 


36,230 


Earnings per prisoner . Rs. 


6-6-5 


19-7-9 


18-8 8 


42-8-0 



242 MYSORE STATE 

Highly as learning was always esteemed, education seems never 
under former native rulers to have been regarded as a duty of the 
State. It was left to the voluntary principle, and 
uca 10"' ^yg^g mostly in the hands of the priests. At the same 
time we find that, in the primitive corporation of the ' village twelve,' 
a poet, who was also a schoolmaster, was sometimes provided instead 
of a goldsmith. Endowments were often given for promoting learning 
as a religious duty. 

Education on modern lines was first introduced by European 
missionaries. In 1826 a Mysore Mission College was proposed for 
Bangalore by the London Mission, conducted by a staff of European 
professors, aided by learned paiidits, and designed to attract students 
from all parts of India. But their home authorities were not prepared 
to carry it out. Between 1840 and 1854 the Wesleyans estabhshed 
schools at some of the District head-quarters with aid from Govern- 
ment, the principal being their institution at Bangalore, founded in 
1 85 1. At Mysore the Maharaja maintained an English free school. 
The State expenditure on education in 1855 was Rs. 16,500 a year. 

The Educational department was formed in 1857, and in 1858 
a high school affiliated to the Madras University was established at 
Bangalore, converted in 1875 into the Central College. The Wesleyan 
schools in the Districts were taken over by Government, and vernacular 
schools gradually established in the taluks. In 1861 a normal school, 
and in 1862 an engineering school, were attached to the high school 
at Bangalore. In 1868 the hobli school system, for extending primary 
education among the masses, was introduced, and greatly added to the 
operations of the department. The schools were to be supported by 
a local cess ; but in 1872 the proportion of 24 per cent, of Local funds 
was allotted as the village school fund, raised in 1903 to t^t^ per cent. 

The famine of 1876-8 had a disastrous effect on all public under- 
takings. Education, which had greatly flourished, both public and 
private, was starved for want of funds. The normal schools were 
closed, the European Inspectors were dispensed with, the Director of 
Public Instruction was placed in charge of the Census and the Police 
in addition to Education, and later on of Archaeology instead of Police, 
all the cost of vernacular schools was thrown on Local funds, and rigid 
economy stood in the way of any expansion. In 1884 a revision was 
made of the higher institutions, but it was not till 1890 that a freer ex- 
penditure enabled progressive measures to be adopted. In 1887 the 
Mysore local examinations were instituted for teachers and pupils of 
vernacular schools, giving a definite aim to the courses of study. At the 
end of 1888 education in the Civil and Military Station of Bangalore 
was transferred to the Madras Educational department. In 1889 the 
cost of the taluk vernacular schools was again made a charge on State 



EDUCATION 



243 



funds, thus relieving the village school fund. In 1891 the number of 
native Deputy-Inspectors was doubled. The department is now con- 
trolled by an Inspector-General of Education, whose head-quarters were 
removed to Mysore in 1894 but again established at Bangalore in 1899. 
The State was divided in 1903 into two portions for control and in- 
spection, between the Inspector-General and his Assistant. The former 
retains the eastern Districts, with head-quarters at Bangalore, and the 
latter has charge of the western Districts, with head-quarters at Mysore 
city. The only Europeans recruited from England are the heads 
of the colleges at Bangalore and Mysore. The inspecting staff was 
further strengthened in 1905. 

Of the colleges affiliated to the Madras University, those of the first 
grade are the Central College at Bangalore and the Maharaja's College 
at Mysore city. The former takes mathematics and physical science as 
the optional subjects for the B.A. degree, and the latter mathematics 
and history. The second-grade colleges are the St. Joseph's College at 
Bangalore, the Maharanl's College at Mysore city, and the Sacred Heart 
College attached to the Convent of the Good Shepherd at Bangalore. 
This last and St. Joseph's are aided from the revenues of the Assigned 
Tract, and the others are supported by the State. The first-grade 
colleges are provided with hostels. There are also Sanskrit colleges of 
a high standard at Mysore, Bangalore, and Melukote, the two latter 
being aided. Bangalore has, moreover, been selected as the site of the 
Indian Institute of Research for post-graduate study, to be founded on 
Mr. Tata's endowment. 



University Results 



Passes in 


1881. 


1891. 


1901. 


1904. 


Matriculation 

First or Intermediate in Arts 

or Science 
Ordinary Bachelor's degree . 
Higher and special degrees . 


7.S 

28 

4 

I 


194 

57 
35* 


156 

59 
96* 


125 

68 

131* 

2 



* These figures show the passes in any one braiiLJi of the three which qualify for the 
full degree. 

Secondary schools include high schools and middle schools. The 
former have the matriculation examination as their goal, while the latter 
prepare for the lower secondary examinations, the course being partly 
English and partly vernacular. In 1904 there were 202 State, 3 muni- 
cipal, 55 aided, and 3 unaided schools, the last being middle schools. 
The amount of aid to private schools is based on their expenditure, 
and their efficiency as tested by the reports of Inspectors and results 
of public examinations. The proportion of the male population of 
school-going age under secondary instruction in 1904 was 2 per cent. 



244 MYSORE STATE 

The primary stages are divided into upper and lower, the latter 
ending with the ability to read from printed books. In 1904 there 
were 1593 State, 285 aided, and 14 unaided primary schools. As 
to the qualifications of the teachers, out of 3,179 in State employ, 
149 held a normal school or teacher's certificate, others had passed 
various examinations, including 154 who had passed the University 
matriculation or higher tests, leaving 1,002 who had not passed any. 
The minimum pay of the village schoolmasters was raised from Rs. 5 
to Rs. 7 a month in 1901, but better prospects are needed for their 
future. With a view to providing funds for this purpose, the levy 
of fees has been introduced in all village schools, except in the lower 
primary classes, and the former rates of fees in other schools have been 
raised all round. For the benefit of children of artisans and agri- 
culturists above 15, night schools have been opened, of which there 
are 67, with 1,500 pupils, most of them in the east, but some in 
all Districts. There are local committees for the control of all hobli 
and village schools. 

The first girls' schools were established by European missionary 
ladies at Bangalore in 1840. Mission girls' schools were opened later 
in some of the large towns. In 186S the Government began with one 
in Bangalore, and as years went on the number increased all over 
the country. The hobli schools established in 1868 received both 
boys and girls together. Owing to the early marriage system, which 
did not admit of girls staying beyond the age of ten, and the entire 
want of female teachers, the girls' schools were really infant schools. 
But the mission schools had an advantage in both respects, being 
able to keep their girls longer, and to provide native Christian women 
as teachers. 

One of the steps that gave an impetus to public female education 
was the establishment at Mysore city of the Maharani's Girls' School 
in 1 88 1. This was confined to high-caste girls, and, with an unstinted 
expenditure, gave a free education. Its influential patronage overcame 
all objections, and it presented an acceptable compromise between 
Western methods and Eastern views as to the appropriate subjects 
of female education. It has for some years had Lady Superintendents 
from Girton or Newnham, and in 1902 was formed into a college, 
affiliated to the Madras University. Two Brahman students took the 
B.A. degree in 1906. Admission is also now allowed of Christians 
and girls of low castes, provided they are of respectable family and 
approved by the management. By liberal scholarships girls have been 
induced to stay longer at school, and female teachers have been trained 
from among young widows, of whom there are at present ten adult 
and fourteen child-widows. The management is in the hands of a 
committee, and local committees have been appointed for girls' schools 



EDUCATION 245 

in other parts of the country. These are, however, reported to take 
little interest in the matter as a rule. 

In 1881, 1891, and 1901 respectively there were 46, 113, and 230 
girls' colleges and schools, the percentage of girls under instruction 
to the female population of school-going age being o-Si, 3-14, and 
4-2 2. In 1904 there were 243 schools, and the proportion was 4 per 
cent. The State funds contributed x\ lakhs (of which Rs. 38,000 was 
for the Maharani's College), and Local and municipal funds Rs. 6,800, 
to female education in 1903-4. The high school classes learn English 
as a first language. In the highest class of the middle school English 
is begun as a second language. Zanana teaching is carried on by 
ladies of the Church of England Zanana Mission in Bangalore, Mysore 
city, and Channapatna, chiefly among Musalman families. 

There are State normal schools at Mysore city, Kolar, and Shimoga, 
for training teachers ; also a training department in the Maharani's 
College. State industrial schools are at work in Mysore and Hassan, 
mission industrial schools at Tumkur and Kolar, with one for girls at 
Hassan, and a private industrial school at Melukote. The industrial 
school at Mysore has recently been reorganized ^ and placed under an 
experienced Superintendent, who also inspects the other industrial 
schools in the State. An engineering school has been established at 
Mysore, for training subordinates for the Public Works department. 
Weaving schools have been opened at Hole-Narsipur, Dod-Ballapur, 
Chiknayakanhalli, and Molakalmura, with carpentry and drawing classes 
attached. There are altogether eighteen industrial schools, of which 
six are weaving schools. A school has been established at Channapatna 
for the revival of the decaying local industries of lacquer- work, and the 
preparation of steel wire for the strings of musical instruments. Com- 
mercial classes are conducted at Bangalore by certain officials, and 
receive aid from Government. Students are attached to the laboratories 
of the Agricultural Chemist, the State Geologist, and the State Bacteri- 
ologist, and also to the silk farm established by Mr. Tata, and to the 
workshops of the Southern Mahratta Railway. Those at the silk farm 
are village schoolmasters, of whom five are trained annually, and then 
appointed as inspectors of sericulture. State scholarships are given to 
students from Mysore learning electricity at New York, forestry at 
Oxford, and in the Teachers', Engineering, Medical, and Veterinary 
colleges of Madras or Bombay, in the Victoria Jubilee Institute and 
schools of Art at those places, and in the Forest School at Dehra Dun. 
One-fifth of the income from the Damodar Das Charity Fund, yielding 
about Rs. 20,000 a year, has been assigned for scholarships to Gujarat! 
students selected by a committee — nine to those studying for the 

' The Prince of Wales, on his recent visit to Mysore, laid the foundation stone 
of new buildings for it, to be called the Chamarajendra Industrial Institute, 



245 MYSORE STATE 

Bombay University examinations, one for a student of engineering or 
agriculture, and one for medicine. The remaining four-fifths are 
intended for post-graduate scholarships. One has been granted to a 
student for the history and economics tripos at Cambridge, and one 
to a student for the M.B. and CM. course at Edinburgh, with a special 
view to practical microscope work. An institution of a special nature 
deserving of notice is the school for deaf-mutes and the blind at 
Mysore city, managed by a committee. 

Most of the institutions for Europeans and Eurasians are in the Civil 
and Military Station of Bangalore, but the returns do not include regi- 
mental schools under the Army department. The number of pupils in 
the public schools was 1,314 in 1904. In the rest of the State there 
were 361, the majority being at the Urigam school on the Kolar Gold 
Fields. St. Joseph's College did well in the First Arts and matricula- 
tion. One European girl has passed the B.A. degree examination in 
English and French, and two the F.A. from the Sacred Heart and the 
Central College. The popular callings for young men are in the railway 
and telegraph departments, and the engineering and medical professions. 
Girls become nurses and governesses. 

The number of Muhammadan pupils in all schools was 4,330 in 
1881, 10,185 in 1891, 14,612 in 1901, and 13,383 (10,454 boys and 
2,929 girls) in 1904. Six passed certain branches of the B.A. examina- 
tion, one the First Arts, and one the matriculation. Only half-fees 
are levied from Muhammadan boys in all schools, and girls are free. 
There are also twenty-six scholarships allotted for Muhammadan stu- 
dents in the Central College, to encourage English education among 
them. Owing to the dearth of qualified teachers, the village Hindu- 
stani schools are in a very poor condition. In 1904 there were 15 
Muhammadans attending colleges, 3,581 in secondary schools, and 
8,848 in primary schools. Some have received scholarships at the 
M.A.O. college at Aligarh, 

An interesting effort has been made to introduce education among 
the Lambanis. In all, 12 schools have been opened for them — 7 in 
Shimoga District, and the others in Tumkur, Chitaldroog, and Hassan 
Districts. They were attended in 1904 by 235 boys and 10 girls. For 
the low castes or Panchamas there are 70 schools, with 1,910 pupils, 
of whom 277 are girls. 

The proportion of the population of school-going age under in- 
struction was II in 1881, 9 in 1891, 14 in 1901, and 13 in 1904. At 
the Census of 1901 the proportion of the population able to read and 
write was 5-06 per cent., being 9-27 per cent, for males, and 0-77 for 
females. The cities and the Gold Fields have the highest percentage ; 
and of the Districts, Kadur stands highest and Mysore lowest. 
Shimoga, next to Kadur, has the highest percentage of literate males, 



EDUCATION 



247 



and Tunikur of literate females. The scale of fees in State colleges 
and schools was raised in 1904 to the following monthly rates : Village 
schools, lower primary, free ; upper, i anna ; middle, 2 annas. Taluk 
schools, lower primary, 2 annas ; upper, 3 annas ; middle, 4 annas. 
English middle schools, 8 annas, 12 annas, R. i, Rs. 1-4, and 
Rs. 1-8, according to class. English high schools, Rs. 2 and 
Rs. 2-8 ; F.A. class, Rs, 4 ; B.A. class, Rs. 5. 



Expenditure on Educational Institutions maintained 
or aided by public funds in i903-4 







District 










Provincial 
funds. 


and 

municipal 

funds. 


Fees. 


Other 
sources. 


Total. 




Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Arts and professional 












colleges . 


i,34>io5 


.'^96 


7,433 


2,244 


1,44,378 


Training and special 












schools 


3 2..'; 36 


28,529 


2,913 


33,334 


97,312 


Secondary boys' schools 


1,86,249 


51,098 


8o,To8 


22,656 


3,40,111 


Primary boys' schools . 


29,281 


1,71,167 


4,680 


10,721 


2,15,849 


Girls' schools 

Total 


i.03>529 


6,808 


858 

' 


38,027 


1,49,222 


4.85.700 


2,58,198 


95,992 


1,06,982 


9,46,872 



Colleges, Schools, and Scholars 



Institutions. 


1880-1. 


1900-1. 


1903-4. 


No. 


Scholars. 


No. 


Scholars. 


No. 


Scholars. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Public. 
Arts colleges . 
Secondary schools — 
Upper (High) 
Lower (Middle) 
Primary schools 
Training schools 
Other special schools 

Private. 
Advanced . 
Elementary 

Total 


3 

16 
129 
869 

9 

I 


129 

533 

2,292 

36,656 

974 


47 
2,485 


8 

14 

223 

1,946 

5 

48 

12 

1,753 


504 

3,160 

21.333 

52,118 

158 

1,380 

224 
20,770 


12 

2,838 

13.375 

5 

98 

24 

459 


8 

14 
249 

1,892 

4 

55 

9 
1.567 


546 

2,651 
19,212 
47,496 

147 
1,670 

188 
17,965 


5 

22 

3,899 

12,015 

II 

120 

16 
313 


1,027 


40,584 


2,532 


4,009 


99,647 


16,821 


3,798 


89.875 


16,401 



Among the oldest newspapers in the vernacular were the Kdshn-t/l- 
Akhbdr in Hindustani, started in 1863, and still published; and the 
Karndtaka Prakdsika in Kanarese, begun in 1865 but discontinued 
at the end of 1898, the editor and proprietor having fallen an early 
victim to plague. 



248 MYSORE STATE 

The number of newspapers and periodicals published in the State 
in 1 90 1 was 11 in English, 7 in the vernaculars, and 3 in both English 
and vernacular. A third of the whole treat of politics. There are five 
English papers with a circulation of from 200 to 500, the principal 
being the Daily Post (Bangalore). All these give general news. Of 
the Kanarese papers, the Wesleyan Vrittanta Patrika (Mysore weekly) 
and Mahildsakhi for women (Mysore monthly) have considerable circu- 
lations. Their Harvest Field (Mysore monthly) in English is also 
popular. The Nadegannadi (Bangalore), SUryodaya (Bangalore), Vrit- 
tanta Chintdmani (Mysore), are Kanarese weeklies, with circulations 
varying from 1,000 to 500, and give general and political news. In 
Hindustani are the Kdsim-ul-Akhbdr (bi-weekly), and the Edward 
Gazette, an old paper under a new name (weekly), both published in 
Bangalore, and treating of general and political news. The Tamil 
paper is the Tdraka (Bangalore bi-weekly), with a circulation of 200. 
Of the Kanarese monthly periodicals, Vidydddyini is a journal of 
education. Karndtaka Grafithamdld publishes new works, and Karnd- 
taka Kdvyakaldnidhi prints old unpublished works. All these are 
issued in Mysore city. 

The number of books registered in 1901 was 30, exclusive of official 
publications, such as the volumes of inscriptions issued by the Archaeo- 
logical department. There were 3 in English, 23 in Kanarese, i in 
Telugu, and 3 in Sanskrit and Kanarese. The subjects chiefly treated 
of come under the heads of religion, fiction, and history. The principal 
original works were four, of which two were based on the Ramayana 
story, one was an allegory on virtue and vice, and the other was a com- 
position by a wife of the Maharaja who died in 1868, on the reputed 
marriage of a Musalman princess of Delhi to Cheluvaraya or Krishna, 
the god at Melukote, said to have taken place in the thirteenth 
century. 

The Victoria (opened 1900) in Bangalore city, the Bowring in the 
Civil and Military Station, and the General Hospitals at Mysore and 
Shimoga, are first-class hospitals. Before the Victoria 
was opened, St. Martha's Hospital, founded by the 
Lady Superior of the Convent of the Good Shepherd, took the place 
of a civil hospital for Bangalore city. Second-class hospitals exist at 
the District head-quarters, and Local fund dispensaries at all taluk 
head-quarters and large towns. A Medical School was established in 
1882 for training subordinates, but was given up in 1886 in favour 
of paying students to attend the large and well-equipped Medical 
Colleges at Madras and Bombay. A local medical service was 
organized in 1884 and improved in 1897. 

For women and children there are the Maharani's Hospital at 
Mysore, the Maternity at Bangalore, the Lady Curzon in connexion 



MEDICAL 



249 



with the Bowring, and the Gosha Hospital of the Zanana Mission. 
Native midwives are suppHed to all the taluks, who have been trained 
in the Lying-in Hospital at Madras, or in classes at the hospitals in 
Bangalore and Mysore city. 

Medical Statistics 





1881. 


1891. 


1901. 


1904. 


Hospitals, Ifc. 










Number of civil hospitals and dis- 










pensaries ..... 


24 


99 


134 


135 


Average daily number of — 










{a) In-patients .... 


199.87 


177.T4 


422.39 


690.05 


[b^ Out-patients .... 


1,463.92 


3,740-41 


6,412.17 


5,985-75 


Income from — 










(rt) Government payments . Rs. 


62,257 


87,625 


2,74,389 


3,57,507 


{b) Local and municipal pay- 










ments . . . Rs. 


5,556 


40,642 


52,568 


55,862 


(c) Fees, endowments, and other 










sources .... Rs. 


... 




148 


662 


Expenditure on — 










(a) Establishment . . Rs. 


4f,74i 


86,415 


2,18,122 


2,47,842 


{b) Medicines, diet, buildings, 










&c Rs. 


27,072 


41,852 


1,08,983 


1,66,199 


Lunatic Asylums. 










Number of asylums .... 


I 


I 


I 


I 


Average daily number of — 










{a) Criminal lunatics 


8-93 


24.19 


40-43 


40.15 


[b) Other lunatics .... 


131.07 


160.S1 


217-57 


237.80 


Income from — 










[a) Government payments . Rs. 


... 






25,590 


{b) Fees and other sources . Rs. 




24 


134 


317 


Expenditure on — 










{a) Establishment . . . Rs. 


15,831 


4,986 


6,074 


4,786 


\b) Diet, buildings, &c. . . Rs. 




11,795 


21,148 


21,121 


Vaccination. 










Number of successful operations 


79,375 


90,075 


66,183 


60,731 


Total expenditure on vaccination Rs. 


10,998 


24.381 


20,822 


21,109 


Cost per successful case . . Rs. 


0-1-9 


0-4-8 


0-5-1 


0-7-8 



Note. — The figures do not include the Civil and Military Station of Bangalore. The drop 
in vaccination in 1901 is the effect of plague. 

There is a Lunatic Asylum at Bangalore, in which at the end of 
1903 there were 228 male and 86 female patients. During the year 
24 were discharged as cured, and ri as improved, while 23 died. The 
lunatics are employed in weaving cloth and ka7nblis, spinning, and 
gardening. In the Leper Asylum there were ir male and 6 female 
lepers. 

For vaccination there are 96 taluk and 9 municipal vaccinators, 
besides the medical subordinates, and supervision is exercised by 



250 MYSORE STATE 

9 inspectors. Vaccination is compulsory among State servants and 
school children \ Owing to the difficulties in the way of procuring 
good infant lymph for vaccination, a Vaccine Institute was established 
at Bangalore in 1892 for preparing lymph from the calf, in lanoline. 

In 1896 an Eye Infirmary was established, and in 1899 a well- 
equipped Bacteriological Institute. Quinine was sold in 1904 in 3,426 
packets, containing 102 powders of five grains each, at 418 post offices. 
The dose was raised in 1905 to seven grains, and it is proposed to sell 
through the village officials as well. 

Sanitation has received special attention in the towns ; but in 
villages only the improvement and conservancy of the water-supply 
have been looked to, and the removal of manure pits from the 
immediate proximity of the dwellings insisted upon. The peremptory 
evacuation of villages on the occurrence of plague has inclined the 
people in some parts to build and permanently remain on the spots in 
their fields where they have been camped. 

The topographical survey of the State was completed in 1886. The 
revenue survey was commenced in 1863 and the settlement brought 
to an end in 1901. The system followed is that of 
Bombay, as already explained (pp. 214, 234). The 
area surveyed includes the whole of the State, or 29,433 square miles. 
The maintenance of the survey records is also the duty of the Survey 
department. 

[B. Lewis Rice : Mysore (revised edition, 1897). — Lewin B. Bowring : 
Haidar All afid Tipu Sulfdfi (Rulers of India series, 1893); Eastern 
Experiences (1871). — Dr. Francis Buchanan : A Journey from Madras 
through the Countries of Mysore^ Canara, and Malabar (1807 ; Madras 
reprint, 1870). — Major Mark Wilks : Historical Sketches of the South of 
India, iii an Attempt to trace the History of Mysoor (3 vols., 1810-17 ; 
Madras reprint, 1869),] 

Mysore District. — District in the south of the State of Mysore, 
lying between 11° 36" and 13° 3' N. and 75° 55^ and 77° 20' E., with 
an area of 5,496 square miles. It is bounded on the north by Hassan 
and Tumkur Districts ; on the east by Bangalore and the Coimbatore 
District of Madras ; on the south by the Nilgiri and Malabar Districts 
of Madras ; and on the west by Coorg. 

The river Cauvery, besides forming the boundary for some distance 

both on the west and east, traverses the District from north-west to 

east, receiving as tributaries the Hemavati, Loka- 

sD^cts pavani, and Shimsha on the north, and the Lakshman- 

tirtha, Kabbanij and Honnu-hole or Suvarnavati on 

the south. Lofty mountain ranges covered with vast forests, the home 

^ A Regulation passed in 1906 makes vaccination compulsory throughout 'notified 
areas.' 



Af YSORE DIS TRICT 



251 



of the elephant, shut in the western, southern, and some parts of the 
eastern frontier. The only break in this mighty barrier is in the south- 
east, where the Cauvery takes its course towards the lowlands and 
hurls itself down the Cauvery Falls, called Gagana Chukki and Bhar 
Chukki, at the island of Sivasamudram. The principal range of hills 
within the District is the Biugiri-Rangan in the south-east, rising to 
5,091 feet above the level of the .sea. Next to these, the isolated hills 
of Gopalswami in the south (4,770 feet), and of Bettadpur in the 
north-west (4,389 feet), are the most prominent heights, with the 
Chamundi hill (3,489 feet) to the south-east of Mysore city. The 
French Rocks (2,882 feet), north of Seringapatam, are conspicuous 
points of a line culminating in the sacred peak of Melukote (3,579 
feet). Short ranges of low hills appear along the south, especially in 
the south-west. On the east are encountered the hills which separate 
the valleys of the Shimsha and Arkavati, among which Kabbaldurga 
(3,507 feet) has gained an unenviable notoriety for unhealthiness, 

Mysore District may be described as an undulating table-land, 
fertile and well watered by perennial rivers, whose waters, dammed by 
noble and ancient anicuts, enrich their banks by means of canals. 
Here and there granite rocks rise from the plain, which is otherwise 
unbroken and well wooded. The extreme south forms a tarai of dense 
and valuable but unhealthy forest, occupying the depression which 
runs along the foot of the Nilgiri mountains. The lowest part of this 
is the remarkable long, steep, trench-like ravine, sometimes called the 
Mysore Ditch, which forms the boundary on this side, and in which 
flows the Moyar. The irrigated fields, supplied by the numerous 
channels drawn from the Cauvery and its tributaries, cover many 
parts with rich verdure. Within this District alone there are twenty- 
seven dams, the channels drawn from which have a total length of 
807 miles, yielding a revenue of 5^ lakhs. 

The geological formation is principally of granite, gneiss, quartz, and 
hornblende. In many places these strata are overlaid with laterite. 
Stone for masonry, principally common granite, is abundant throughout 
the District. Black hornblende of inferior quality and potstone are 
also found. Quartz is plentiful, and is chiefly used for road-metalling. 
Dikes of felsites and porphyries occur abundantly in the neighbourhood 
of Seringapatam, and a few elsewhere. They vary from fine-grained 
hornstones to porphyries containing numerous phenocrysts of white to 
pink felspar, in a matrix which may be pale green, pink, red, brown, 
or almost black. The majority of the porphyries form handsome 
building stones, and some have been made use of in the new palace at 
Mysore. Corundum occurs in the Hunsur taluk. In Singaramaran- 
halli the corundum beds were found to be associated with an intrusion 
of olivine-bearing rocks, similar to those of the Chalk Hills near Salem, 

VOL. XVIII. R 



252 MYSORE DISTRICT 

and large masses of a rock composed of a highly ferriferous enstatitc, 
with magnetite and iron-alumina spinel or hercynite. 

The trees in the extensive forest tract along the southern and 
western boundary are not only rich in species, but attain a large size. 
Of teak {Teciona grandis) there are several large plantations. Other 
trees include Shorca Talura, Fterocarpus Marsupiian, Termina/ia 
lome/ifosn, Lagersfroemia lanceolata, and Anogeisstis iafifolia, which are 
conspicuous and very abundant in the MuddamuUai forest. In 
February most of these trees are bare of leaf, and represent the 
deciduous belt. In open glades skirting the forests and descending 
the Bhandipur ghat are plants of a varied description. Bambusa 
arundinncea occurs in beautiful clumps at frequent intervals. There 
are also Helicteres Isoj-a, Hibiscus Abeimoschus, and many others. 
Capparis grandiflora is most attractive in the Bhandipur forest, and 
there is also a species without thorns. Clusters of parasites, such as 
Viscnm orientale, hang from many trees. On the Karabi-kanave range 
farther north the grasses Andropogon pertiisus and Anthistiria ciliata 
attain an abnormal size, and are often difficult to penetrate. Ferns, 
mosses, and lichens are abundant in the rain)' season. There are also 
a few orchids. The heaviest forest jungle is about Kakankote in the 
south-west. The Biligiri-R.\i\gan range in the south-east possesses 
an interesting flora with special features. The growth includes sandal- 
wood, satin-wood [Chloroxylon Swieienia), Polyalthia cerasoides, and 
others. The babfd [Acacia arabica) attracts attention by the road-side 
and in cultivated fields. Hedgerows of Euphorbia Tirucaili, Jairopha 
Curcas, and Vikx Negmido are not uncommon. In the poorest scrub 
tracts Phoenix farinifera is often gregarious. The growth in the parks 
at Mysore city is not so luxuriant as at Bangalore, where the soil is 
richer; but in the matter of species it is much the same. The flora 
of Chamundi, which is a stony hill, is limited in species and poor in 
growth. Clinging to the rivers and canals are found such plants as 
Crinutn zeylatjica, Sa/ix tetrasperma, and Pandanus odoratissimus. 

The mean temperature and diurnal range at Mysore city in January 
are 73° and 25°; in May, 81° and i-^"" ; in July, 75° and r6°; in 
November, 73° and 18°. The climate is generally healthy, but inter- 
mittent fevers prevail during the cold months. The annual rainfall 
averages 2)2> inches. The wettest month is October, with a fall of 
8 inches ; then May, with 6 ; and next September, with 5 inches. 

The earliest traditional knowledge we have relating to this District 

goes back to the time of the Maurya emperor, Chandra Gupta, in the 

fourth century B.C. At that time a State named 

Punnata occupied the south-west. After the death 

of Bhadrabahu at Sravana Belgola, the Jain emigrants whom he had 

led from Ujjain in the north, Chandra Gupta being his chief disciple, 



HISTORY 253 

passed on to this tract. It is mentioned by I'toleni)', and its capital 
Kitthipura has been identified with Kittur on the Kabbani, in the 
Heggadadevankote taluk. The next mention concerns Asoka, who is 
said to have sent Buddhist missionaries in 245 B.C. to Vanavasi on 
the north-west of the State, and to Mahisa-mandala, which undoubtedly 
means the Mysore country. After the rise of the Ganga power, their 
capital was established in the third century a. d. at Talakad on the 
Cauvery. They are said to have had an earlier capital, at Skandapura, 
supposed to be Gazalhatti, on the Moyar, near its junction with the 
Bhavani ; but this is doubtful. In the fifth century the Ganga king 
married the Punnata king's daughter, and Punnata was soon after 
absorbed into the Ganga kingdom. In the eighth century the Rashtra- 
kutas overcame and imprisoned the Ganga king, appointing their own 
viceroys over his territories. But he was eventually restored, and 
intermarriages took place between the two families. In the tenth 
century the Ganga king assisted the Rashtrakutas in their war with 
the Cholas. In 1004 the Cholas invaded Mysore under Rajendra 
Chola, and, capturing Talakad, brought the Ganga power to an end. 
They subdued all the country up to the Cauvery, from Coorg in the 
west to Seringapatam in the east, and gave to this District the name 
Mudikondacholamandalam. 

Meanwhile the Hoysalas had risen to power in the Western Ghats, 
and made Dorasamudra (Halebid in Hassan District) their capital. 
About 1 1 16 the Hoysala king, Vishnuvardhana, took Talakad and 
expelled the Cholas from all parts of Mysore. He had been converted 
from the Jain faith by the Vaishnava reformer Ramanuja, and bestowed 
upon him the Ashtagrama or ' eight townships,' with all the lands 
north and south of the Cauvery near Seringapatam. The Hoysalas 
remained the dominant power till the fourteenth century. The 
Muhammadans from the north then captured and destroyed Dora- 
samudra, and the king retired at first to Tondanur (TonnOr, north of 
Seringapatam). But in 1336 was established the Vijayanagar empire, 
which speedily became paramount throughout the South. One of the 
Saluva family, from whom the short-lived second dynasty arose, is said 
to have built the great temple at Seringapatam. But Narasinga, the 
founder of the Narasinga or third dynasty, seized Seringapatam about 
1495 by damming the Cauvery and crossing over it when in full flood. 
Later on, Ganga Raja, the Ummattur chief, rebelled at Sivasamudram 
and was put down by Krishna Raya, in 151 1. Eventually the Mysore 
country was administered for Vijayanagar by a viceroy called the Sri 
Ranga Rayal, the seat of whose government was at Seringapatam. 
Among the feudal estates under his control in this part were Mysore, 
Kalale, and Ummattur in the south, and the Changalva kingdom in 
the west. After the overthrow of Vijayanagar by the Muhammadans 

R 2 



2 54 MYSORE DISTRICT 

in 1565, the viceroy's authority declined, and the feudatories began 
to assume independence. At length in 1610 he retired, broken down 
in health, to die at Talakad, and Raja Wodeyar of Mysore gained 
possession of Seringapatam. This now became the Mysore capital, 
and the lesser estates to the south were absorbed into the Mysore 
kingdom. Seringapatam was several times besieged by various enemies, 
but without success. From 1761 to 1799 the Mysore throne was held 
by the Muhammadan usurpers, Haidar All and Tipu Sultan. During 
this period several wars took place with the British, in the course of 
which Haidar All died and finally Tipu Sultan was killed. The 
Mysore family was then restored to power by the British, and Mysore 
again became the capital in place of Seringapatam. Owing to con- 
tinuous misrule, resulting in a rebellion of the people, the Mysore 
Raja was deposed in 1831 and the country administered by a British 
Commission. This continued till 1881, when Mysore was again 
entrusted, under suitable guarantees, to the ancient Hindu dynasty. 

Of architectural monuments the principal one is the Somnathpur 
temple, the best existing complete example of the Chalukyan style. 
It was built in 1269, under the Hoysalas. It is a triple temple, and 
Fergusson considered the sculpture to be more perfect than at Belur 
and Halebid. Other notable examples of the same style are the 
temples at Basaralu, built in 1235, and one at Kikkeri, built in 1171. 
The tall pillars of the temple in Agrahara Bachahalli are of interest. 
They are of the thirteenth century, and on the capital of each stands 
the figure of an elej^hant, with Garuda as the inahaut, and three or 
four people riding on it. As good examples of the Dravidian style 
may be mentioned the temples at Seringapatam, Nanjangud, and on 
the Chamundi hill. Of Muhammadan buildings the most noteworthy 
are the Gumbaz or mausoleum of Haidar and Tipu at Oanjam, and 
the Darya Daulat summer palace at Seringapatam. Of the latter, 
Mr. Rees, who has travelled much in Persia and India, says : — 

' The lavish decorations, which cover every inch of wall from first to 
last, from top to bottom, recall the palaces of Ispahan, and resemble 
nothing that I know in India.' 

Attention may also be directed to the bridges of purely Hindu style 

and construction at Seringapatam and Sivasamudram. The numerous 

inscriptions of the District have been translated and published. 

The population at each Census in the last thirty years was : 

(1871) 1,104,808, (1881) 1,032,658, (1891) 1,181,814, and (1901) 

^ , . 1,205,172. The decrease in 1881 was due to the 

Population. r • f o ^ o Tj T • .u 

famnie of 1876-8. By religion, in 1901 there were 

1,232,958 Hindus, 49,484 Musalmans, 6,987 Animists, 3,707 Christians, 

2,006 Jains, and 30 Parsis. The density of population was 235 i)ersons 

I)er square mile, that for the State being 185. The number of towns 



POPULA TION 



255 



is 27, and of villages 3,212. Mysore, the chief town (population, 
68,111), is the only place with more than 20,000 inhabitants. 

The following table gives the principal statistics of population in 
1901 : — • 





2 

3 

S"3 


Number of 


c 






age of 
on in 
ion be- 
1891 
901. 


ler of 
able to 
and 
te. 






1 .26 


Taluk. 




a 




o" "3 2 


cent 
riati 
ulat 
/een 
nd I 


a V 




< 
306 


s2 


> 


i2 


1" 


t2|5^ 


2; £ " 


Mysore . 


I 


163 


133,840 


438 


- 0.6 


14,858 


Hiinsur . 


660 


2 


412 


115,928 


176 


+ 2.3 


3,280 


Yedatore . 


236 


3 


177 


82,330 349 


+ 10.9 


2,915 


Kiifhnarajpet . 


425 


2 


373 


102,816 1 242 


+ 12.4 


3, '41 


Nagamangala . 


401 


I 


366 


76,581 


191 


+ 10-6 


2.449 


Mandya . 


450 


2 


300 


ii5,.';74 


257 


+ 15-8 


3,204 


Seringapatam . 


274 


4 


210 


88,691 


323 


+ 4-0 


4,580 


Malavalli, 


391 


I 


231 


101,779 


260 


+ 18-5 


2,531 


Tiriimakudal- 
















Narsipur 


225 


4 


125 


87,680 


389 


+ 90 


2,627 


Nanjangud 


384 


2 


206 


108,173 


281 


+ 12.5 


3,034 


Yelanduryrt^/r. 


102 


I 


27 


35,271 


345 


+ ii-i 


1,145 


Chamrajnagar . 


487 


I 


190 


1 10,196 


226 


+ 14-9 


3,582 


Gundalpet 


535 


I 


^^5 


74,897 


'37 


+ 19.7 


2,199 


Heggadadevan- 
















kote 
District total 


620 
5,496 


2 

27 


276 


61,416 


99 


+ 0.3 


1,726 


3,2" 


1,295,172 


235 


+ 9-6 


51,271 



The Wokkaligas or cultivators are the strongest caste in numbers, 
their total being 320,000. Next come the outcaste Holeyas and 
Madigas, of whom there are 194,000 and 25,000; the Lingayats, 
numbering 173,000; Kurubas or shepherds, 127,000; Besta or fisher- 
men, 10,200. The total of Brahmans is 43,000. Among Musalmans, 
the Sharifs form nearly seven-tenths, being 29,000. The nomad 
Korama number 2,500; wild Kuruba, 2,300; and Iruliga, 1,600. 
About 74 per cent, of the total are engaged in agriculture and pasture ; 
8 per cent, each in unskilled labour not agricultural, and in the 
preparation and supply of material substances; 2-5 per cent, in the 
State service, and 2-4 per cent, in personal services; 1-9 per cent, in 
commerce, transport, and storage; and i-8 per cent, in professions. 

The Christians in the District number 3,700, of whom 2,200 are 
in Mysore city. The total includes 3,300 natives. Early in the 
eighteenth century a Roman Catholic chapel was built at Heggada- 
devankote, but the priest was beaten to death by the people. A chapel 
at Seringapatam, which was courageously defended by the Christian 
troops, escaped the destruction of all Christian churches ordered by 
Tipu Sultan. After the downfall of the latter in 1799, the well-known 
Abbe Dubois took charge, and founded the mission at Mysore, where 
large churches, schools, and convents are in existence. The London 



256 



AfVSO/?E DISTRICT 



and Wesleyan Missions began work at Mysore in 1839, but the former 
retired in 1850. The Wesleyans have churches, a college, schools for 
boys and girls, and a printing press, and are building a large hospital 
for women and children. 

Red soil prevails throughout the District, while one of the most 
valuable tracts of the more fertile black soil in the 
gncu ure. ^Quntry runs through the south-east in the Chamraj- 
nagar tdhik and the Yelandur yVT^Jr. 

The following table gives statistics of cultivation in 1903-4 : — 



Thlitk. 


Area, 


n square miles, shown in 


the revenue accounts. 














Total. 
260 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Forests. 

I 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Mysore 


153 


5 


12 


Hnnsur 


620 


213 


15 


76 


32 


Yedatore . 


200 


145 


2S 


I 


3 


Kiishnaiajpet 


372 


182 


23 


6 


13 


Nagamangala . 


372 


157 


9 


12 


10 


Mandya 


412 


225 


21 


... 


1 1 


Seringapatam 


246 


139 


34 


1 1 


lO 


Malavalli . 


329 


175 


7 


50 


I 


Tirumakudal-Narsipiir 


167 


125 


21 




1 


Nanjangud . 


314 


190 


18 


'5 


5 


Chamrajnagar . 


398 


]6i 


20 


99 


3 


Gundalpet . 


544 


167 


2 


177 


3 


Heggadadevankote 

Total 


592 


118 
2,150 


6 


199 


13 


4,826 


209 


647 


"7 



The crops, both 'wet' and 'dry,' are classed under two heads, 
according to the season in which they are grown, hain and kdr. The 
season for sowing both ' wet ' and ' dry ' hain crops opens in July, that 
for sowing kdr ' wet crops ' in September, and for kdr ' dry crops ' in 
April. It is only near a few rain-fed tanks in the east that both ham 
and kdr crops are now obtained from the same ' wet ' lands in the year. 
On ' dry ' lands it is usual to grow two crops in the year, the second 
being a minor grain, if the land is fertile enough to bear it. But of 
grains which form the staple food, such as rdgi and jola, the land will 
only produce one crop as a rule, and consequently the ryots are obliged 
to choose between a hain or kdr crop. In the north the former is 
preferred, because the growth is there more influenced by the monsoon. 
But in the south a kdr crop is found more suitable, because the springs 
and frequent rain afford a tolerable supply of water all the year round, 
whereas the south-west monsoon, which falls with greater force on the 
forest land, would render i)loughing in June laborious. Rdgi in 
1903-4 occupied 873 square miles ; gram, 521 ; other food-grains, 560 ; 
rice, 184; oilseeds, 159; garden produce, 27; sugar-cane, 10. 

Coffee cultivation has been tried, the most successful being in the 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 257 

Biligirl-Rangan region. Much attention has been paid to mulberry 
cultivation in the east, in connexion with the rearing of silkworms. 
During the twelve years ending 1904 Rs. 29,000 was advanced as 
agricultural loans for land improvement, and Rs. 16,500 for field 
embankments. 

The area irrigated from canals is 122 square miles, from tanks and 
wells 72, and from other sources 15. The length of channels drawn 
from rivers is 807 miles, and the number of tanks 1,834, of which 157 
are classed as ' major.' 

The south and west are occupied by continuous heavy forest, 
described in the paragraph on Botany. The State forests in 1904 
covered an area of 521 square miles, 'reserved' lands 81, and planta- 
tions 8. Teak, sandal-wood, and bamboos, with other kinds of timber, 
are the chief sources of forest revenue. The forest receipts in 1903-4 
amounted to nearly 5 lakhs. 

Gold-mining, experimentally begun at the Amble and Wolagere 
blocks near Nanjangiid, has been abandoned. Prospecting for gold 
has also been tried near Bannur. Iron abounds in the rocky hills 
throughout the District, but is worked only in the Heggadadevankote 
and Malavalli taluks. The iron of Malavalli is considered the best in 
the State. Stones containing magnetic iron are occasionally turned 
up by the ploughshare near Devanur in the Nanjangud taluk. Talc 
is found in several places, and is used for putting a gloss on baubles 
employed in ceremonies. It occupies the rents and small veins in 
decomposing quartz, but its laminae are not large enough to serve for 
other purposes. Asbestos is found in abundance in the Chamrajnagar 
taluk. Nodules of flint called chakmukki are found in the east, and 
were formerly used for gun-flints. 

Cotton cloth, blankets, brass utensils, earthenware, and jaggery 
(unrefined sugar) from both cane and date, are the principal manu- 
factures. There is also some silk-weaving. The best 
cloth is made at Mysore and Ganjam. At Hunsur eommun'icTtfons. 
factories were formerly maintained in connexion with 
the Commissariat, consisting of a blanket factory, a tannery and leather 
factory, and a wood-yard where carts and wagons were built. Although 
these have been abolished, their influence in local manufactures re- 
mains. Nearly all the country carts of the District are made here.- 
There are also extensive coffee-works and saw-mills, under European 
management. The number of looms or small works reported for the 
District are: silk, 50; cotton, 4,267; wool, 2,400; other fibres, 862; 
wood, 200 ; iron, 360 ; oil-mills, 857 ; sugar and jaggery mills, 360. 

A great demand exists for grain required on the west coast and in 
Coimbatore, and the Nilgiri market derives a portion of its supplies 
from this District. There is also considerable trade with Bangalore 



25^ 



MYSORE DISTRICT 



and Madras. Many of the traders are Musalmans, and on the Nllgiri 
road Lambanis are largely employed in trade. The large merchants, 
who live chiefly in Mysore city, are for the most part of the Kunchigar 
caste. They employ agents throughout the District to buy up the 
grain, in many cases giving half the price in advance before the harvest 
is reaped. A few men with capital are thus able to some extent to 
regulate the market. Much of the trade of the country is carried on 
by means of weekly fairs, which are largely resorted to ; and at 
Chunchankatte in the Yedatore taluk there is an annual fair which 
lasts for a month. Upon these the rural population are mainly 
dependent for supplies. The most valuable exports are grain, oilseeds, 
sugar, and jaggery ; and the most valuable imports are silk cloths, rice, 
salt, piece-goods, gh'i, cotton and cotton thread, and areca-nuts. 

The Mysore State Railway from Bangalore to Nanjangud runs for 
6 1 miles through the District from the north-east to the centre. The 
length of Provincial roads is 330 miles, and of District fund roads 
539 miles. 

The District is virtually secured against famine by the extensive 
system of irrigation canals drawn from the Cauvery 
and its tributaries. In 1900 some test works for 
relief were opened for a short time in the Mandya taluk. 

The District is divided into fourteen taluks : Chamrajnagar, Gun- 

DALPET, Heggadadevankote, Hunsur, Krishnarajpet, Malavalli, 

Mandya, Mysore, Nagamangala, Nanjangud, 

Adminis ra ion. gj.j^j]^(.^p^^^;^i^ Tirumakudal-Narsipur, Yeda- 
tore, and the YEi-ANDURyVT^Jr. It is under a Deputy-Commissioner, 
and subject to his control the taluks have been formed into the follow- 
ino- groups in charge of Assistant Commissioners : Mysore, Seringa- 
patam, Mandya, and Malavalli, with head-quarters at French Rocks ; 
Nao'amangala and Krishnarajpet, with head-quarters at Krishnarajpet ; 
Chamrajnagar, Nanjangud, Gundalpet, and Tirumakudal-Narsipur, 
with head-quarters at Nanjangud; Heggadadevankote, Hunsur, and 
Yedatore, with head-quarters at Mysore city. 

There are District and Subordinate Judge's courts at Mysore city, 
whose jurisdiction extends over Hassan District, besides two Munsifs' 
courts ; in addition, there are Munsifs at Seringapatam and Nanjangud. 
Dacoity is not infrequent. 

The land revenue and total revenue are shown below, in thousands 
of rupees : — 



Famine. 



1880-1. 


1890-1. 


igoa-i. 


1903-4. 


Land revenue . 10,03 
Tolal revenue . 15,00 


29,06 


19,01 
33,40 


19,20 
34.75 



MYSORE TALUK 259 

The revenue survey and settlement were introduced in the west 
in 1884, in the north and east between 1886 and 1890, in the south 
between 1891 and 1896. The incidence of land revenue per acre 
of cultivated area in 1903-4 was Rs. 1-4-6. The average assessment 
per acre on 'dry' land is R. 0-12-1 (maximum scale Rs. 2-4, 
minimum scale R. 01); on 'wet' land, Rs. 5-3-11 (maximum scale 
Rs. II, minimum scale R. 0-4); on garden land, Rs. 3-15-6 
(maximum scale Rs. 15, minimum scale Rs. 1-8). 

In 1903-4, besides the Mysore city municipal board, there were 
seventeen municipalities — Hunsur, Chamrajnagar, Yedatore, Heggada- 
devankote, Gundalpet, Nanjangud, Tirumakudal-Narsipur, Piriyapatna, 
Bannur, Talakad, Seringapatam, Mandya, Krishnarajpet, Ivlalavalli, 
Nagamangala, Melukote, and French Rocks — with a total income of 
Rs. 47,C)oo, and an expenditure of Rs. 42,000 ; and also 8 village 
Unions, converted in 1904 from previously existing minor munici- 
palities — Sargur, Sosale, Saligrama, Mirle, Kalale, Maddiir, Palhalli, 
and Kikkeri — with a total income and expenditure of Rs. 10,000 and 
Rs. 18,000. Outside the municipal areas, local affairs are managed by 
the District and taluk boards, which had an income of 1-5 lakhs in 
1903-4 and spent i-i lakhs, including Rs. 86,000 on roads and buildings. 

The police force in 1903-4 included 2 superior officers, 181 sub- 
ordinate officers, and 1,210 constables. Of these, 46 officers and 
275 constables formed the city police ; and 3 officers and 49 constables 
the special reserve. The Mysore District jail has accommodation for 
447 prisoners. The daily average in 1904 was 200. In the 14 lock-ups 
the average daily number of prisoners was 1 7. 

The percentage of literate persons in 1901 was 20-1 for the city and 
3-1 for the District (7-3 males and o-6 females). The number of 
schools increased from 675 with 22,346 pupils in 1890-1 to 778 with 
23,126 pupils in 1900-1. In 1903-4 there were 766 schools (458 
public and 308 private), with 22,853 pupils, of whom 3,379 were 
girls. 

Besides the general hospital at Mysore city, there are 23 dispensaries 
in the District, at which 250,000 patients were treated in 1904, of 
whom 2,300 were in-patients, the number of beds available being 69 
for men and 60 for women. The total expenditure was Rs. 82,000. 

The number of persons vaccinated in 1904 was 13,896, or 11 per 
1,000 of the population. 

Mysore Taluk. — Central taluk of Mysore District, Mysore State, 
lying between 12° 7' and 12° 27' N. and 76° 28' and 76° 50' E., with 
an area of 306 square miles. The population in 1901 was 133,840, 
compared with 134,684 in 1891, the decrease being chiefly due to 
plague. The taluk contains Mysore City (population, 68,111), the 
head-quarters; and 163 villages. The land revenue demand in 1903-4 



26o MYSORE TALUK 

was Rs. 1,40,000. The north-west angle is bounded by the Cauvery 
and Lakshmantlrtha, but the main drainage flows south to the Kabbani, 
The country is undulating, and the principal height is the Chamundi 
hill (3,489 feet). Channels from the Cauvery and Lakshmantlrtha 
irrigate some villages in the east and north-west. There are many 
tanks. The ' wet ' lands have generally very good soil. The ' dry ' 
lands vary, but are mostly shallow and stony. Coco-nut, areca-nut, 
betel-vines, plantains, and vegetables are largely grown round the city. 

Mysore City. — The dynastic capital of the Mysore State, and 
residence of the Maharaja ; also head-quarters of the District and taluk 
of the same name. It is situated in 12° 18' N. and 76° 40' E., at the 
north-west base of the Chamundi hill, on the Mysore State Railwa)'. 
The population fell from 74,048 in 1891 to 68,111 in 1901, the 
decrease being due to plague. The city covers an area of 7^ square 
miles, and is divided into seven muhallas : namely, the Fort, Lashkar, 
Devaraj, Krishnaraj, Mandi, Chamaraj, and Nazarabad. The original 
city was built in a valley formed by two ridges running north and south. 
In recent years it has been completely transformed by extensions to 
the north and west, and by the erection of many fine public buildings ; 
but the old parts were very crowded and insanitary. A special Board 
of Trustees for improvements was formed in 1903, and Mysore 
promises to become a very handsome city in course of time. It is 
administered by a municipality, which in 1903-4 had an income of 
2-2 lakhs, of which i-2 lakhs was derived from taxes and Rs. 65,000 
from octroi. The expenditure was 2-2 lakhs, including Rs. 39,000 on 
public works, Rs. 31,000 on conservancy, and Rs. 10,000 on education 
and charitable grants. Even in the past important sanitary measures 
have been carried out. In 1886 a complete system of drainage was 
provided for the fort, and the precincts of the palace were opened out 
and improved. One of the most beneficial undertakings was the filling 
in of the portentous great drain known as Purnaiya's Nullah, origin- 
ally excavated in the time of that minister with the object of bringing 
the water of the sacred Cauvery into Mysore. It did not fulfil this 
purpose, and simply remained a very deep and large noisome sewer. 
Its place has now been taken by a fine wide road, called (after the 
Gaikwar of Baroda) the Sayaji Rao Road, flanked on either side by 
ranges of two-storeyed shops of picturesque design, called the Lans- 
downe Ba/ars. At the same time a pure water-supply was provided 
by the formation of the Kukarhalli reservoir towards the high ground 
on the west, from which water was laid on to all parts of the city in 
iron mains. This has since been supplemented by a high-level 
reservoir, the water in which is drawn from the Cauvery river near 
Anandur, and forced up with the aid of turbines erected there. The 
new quarter, called (after the late Maharaja) Chamarajapura, more than 



NABADWir 261 

doubled the area of the city. Conspicuous on the high ground to the 
west are the public offices, surmounted by a dome, standing in the 
wooded grounds of Gordon Park. Other prominent buildings in 
the vicinity are the Victoria Jubilee Institute, the Maharaja's College, 
and the Law Courts. In 1897 the old palace in the fort was partially 
destroyed by fire ; and this has given occasion for the erection of a new 
palace on the same spot of more modern design, constructed of durable 
and less combustible materials. The opportunity has been taken to 
introduce some of the handsome porphyries and other ornamental 
stones found in Mysore, and stone-carvings on the lines of the famous 
ancient sculptured temples of the State are being used. Altogether, 
the new palace now approaching completion bids fair to be notable for 
its architecture and decorative features. The fort, which is the original 
nucleus of the city, is quadrangular, three of the sides being about 
450 yards in length, and the remaining ,or south side somewhat 
longer. The palace in the interior was crowded round with houses, 
principally occupied by retainers. But open spaces have now been 
formed, and further improvements will follow the completion of the 
new building. 

Mysore itself (properly Mahisur, ' buffldo town") is no doubt a place 
of great antiquity, as it gave its name to the country as Mahisa- 
mandala in the time of Asoka in the third century B.C., and appears as 
Mahishmati in the Mahabharata. Maisurnad is mentioned in inscrip- 
tions of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. The original fort is said 
to have been built in 1524. But the modern city, even before the 
extensive rebuilding of recent years, could not boast of any great age. 
Though ^Mysore was the ancestral capital of the State, it was super- 
seded by Seringapatam, which was the seat of the court from 16 10 till 
the downfall of Tipu Sultan in 1799. The latter ruler had demolished 
the fort, and conveyed the stones to a neighbouring site called 
Nazarabad, where he intended to erect a new fort. On the restoration 
of the Hindu Raj in 1799, the stones were taken back and the fort 
rebuilt. At the same time the recently destroyed palace was erected, 
and the court removed to Mysore. Thus few standing remains can 
claim to be older than about a hundred years. Interesting buildings 
are the house occupied by Colonel Wellesley (the future Duke of 
Wellington), and the Residency (now called Government House), 
erected in 1805 in the time of Sir John Malcolm by Major De Havilland. 
I'his has lately been much altered and extended. 

Nabadwip (or Nadia). — Ancient capital of Nadia District, Bengal, 
situated in 23° 24' N. and 88° 23' E., in the head-quarters subdivision, 
on the west bank of the Bhaglrathi. Population (1901), 10,880, 
including 10,416 Hindus, 457 Muhammadans, and 7 Christians. This 
great preponderance of Hindus in a District where 59 per cent, of the 



262 NABADWIP 

population are Musalmans is significant. Nabadwip is reputed to have 
been founded in the twelfth century by Lakshman Sen, son of Ballal 
Sen, king of Bengal. It was captured by Muhammad-i-Bakhtyar Khilji 
in 1203. It has long been famous for its sanctity and learning, and its 
pandits are still referred to on questions of Hindu religion and pre- 
cedent. Here towards the end of the fifteenth century was born the 
great Vaishnava reformer, Chaitanya, in whose honour a festival, 
attended by some 8,000 or 10,000 pilgrims, is held annually in 
January-February. The/amous tols or Sanskrit schools are referred 
to in the article on Nadia District. The town was constituted a 
municipality under the name of Nadia in 1869. The income during 
the decade ending 190 1-2 averaged Rs. 7,000, and the expenditure 
Rs. 6,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 9,100, mainly from a 
tax on persons (or property tax) ; and the expenditure was Rs. 8,400. 
The lodging-houses in the town are regulated under Bengal Act IV of 
187 1. Brass utensils are manufactured. 

Nabha State. — One of the Phulkian States, Punjab, Its total area 
is 966 ' square miles ; and it consists of two distinct parts, of which the 
larger lies between 30° 8' and 30° 42' N. and 74° 50' and 76° 24' E., 
while the second, which forms the nizCimat of Bawal, lies in the 
extreme south-east of the Punjab and is distinct in all respects from 
the rest of the State. The main portion comprises twelve separate 
pieces of territory, scattered among the other two Phulkian States of 
Patiala and jTnd, and contiguous with the British Districts of Feroze- 
pore and Ludhiana and the State of Maler Kotla on the north, and 
the District of Faridkot on the west. This portion is 
aspects divided into two administrative districts or nizdmais, 

which correspond with its natural divisions, the 
Amloh nizdmat lying in the fertile tract called the Pawadh, and 
the Phul nizdmat in the vast arid tract called the Jangal or waste. 
Bawal is geographically a part of the Rajputana desert. The State 
contains no important streams ; and the level plain over which its 
territories are scattered is broken, within the limits of the State, only 
by the shifting sandhills of Phul and the low rocky eminences, outliers 
of the Aravalli system, which stud the south of Bawal. 

The flora of Phul and Amloh is that of the Central Punjab, 
approaching in the south-west that of the desert. In Bawal it is the 
same as in the neighbouring States of Rajputana. The fauna is the 
same as in the Patiala plains and in Jind. Statistics are not avail- 
able, but the rainfall is heaviest in Amloh and lightest in Bawal. The 
climate of Bawal and PhOl is dry, hot, and healthy, Amloh, with its 

^ These figiues do not agree willi the area given in Table III of the article on the 
PUNJAU and in the population table on p. 265 of this article, which is the area returned 
in 1901, the year of the latest Census. They are taken from more recent returns. 



NAB HA STATE 263 

soil of rich loam and high si)ring-level, is the least salubrious part of 
the State. 

The earlier history of Nabha is that of the Phulkian States, till it 
became a separate State in 1763. After the capture of the town of 
Sirhind by the confederate Sikhs in that year, the 
greater part of the old imperial province of the same 
name was divided among the Phulkian houses ; and the country round 
Amloh fell to Hamir Singh, then chief of Nabha, who thus became its 
Raja. In 1774, however, Gajpat Singh, Raja of Jind, wrested Sangriir 
from his hands, and also took Amloh and Bhadson. The two last 
places were restored to the Raja of Nabha on the intervention of 
Patiala, but Sangrur has ever since remained a part of the Jind State. 
In 1776 the Phulkian Rajas combined to resist the attack of the 
Muhammadan governor of Hansi, who had been sent by the Delhi 
government to attack Jind ; and after his defeat Rori fell to Hamir 
Singh as his share of the conquests. In i7<33 Hamir Singh was suc- 
ceeded by his minor son Jaswant Singh, the Rani Desu, one of his 
widows, acting as regent till 1790. She recovered most of the territory 
which had been seized by Jind ; and after the death of Gajpat Singh in 
1789 the feud between the two powers was forgotten, while in 1798 
a common danger compelled them to unite with the other Sikh chiefs 
and prepare to resist the invasion of Zaman Shah Durrani. While so 
engaged at Lahore, intelligence reached the Phulkian Rajas that the 
adventurer George Thomas was besieging Jind, and they hurried back 
to its relief. In the fighting that ensued the Sikhs were utterly de- 
feated, and accused the Nabha chief of lukewarmness in the common 
cause ; and it is certain that he took no part in the struggle. In 1801, 
however, Nabha was included in the treaty with General Perron, by 
which, in return for the expulsion of Thomas from their territories, the 
Cis-Sutlej chiefs agreed to submit to the Marathas. In 1804 Jaswant 
Singh entered into friendly relations with Lord Lake ; and when 
Holkar halted at Nabha in 1805, on his way to Lahore, the Raja 
held to his engagement with the British and refused him assistance. 
War, however, soon after broke out between the Rani of Patiala on the 
one hand and the Rajas of Nabha and Jind on the other. Jaswant 
Singh was defeated and joined the Raja of Jind in invoking the aid 
of Ranjit Singh, who in 1806 crossed the Sutlej and halted at Nabha. 
Here he did little to reconcile the contending powers, but proceeded 
to dismember the Muhammadan State of Maler Kotla, assigning to 
Jaswant Singh portions of the Kot Basia, Talwandi, and Jagraon 
dependencies of that State, with part of Ghumgrana. In 1807-8 
Ranjit Singh again made expeditions into the Cis-Sutlej States, and 
in 1808 Jaswant Singh received from him the principality of Khanna. 

But in spite of the grants thus made, the policy of Ranjit Singh 



2 64 NAB HA STATE 

excited the deep distrust of the chiefs, who in 1S09 threw themselves 
upon the protection of the British Government, and RanjTt Singh 
desisted from all further attempts to extend his dominions south of 
the Sutlej. Jaswant Singh's ability had raised the State at this period 
to a high pitch of prosperity. It was well cultivated and the total 
revenue amounted to 1-5 lakhs. He was, however, involved in con- 
stant disputes with Patiala concerning the boundaries of the two States, 
and his last years were embittered by the rebellions of his son, who 
predeceased him. On his death in 1840 he was succeeded by his 
only surviving son, Deoindar Singh, a timid and vacillating man, who 
during the first Sikh War in 1845 sympathized with the Sikh invaders, 
his conduct in regard to carriage and supplies required from him in 
accordance with treaty being dilatory and suspicious in the extreme. 
After the battles of Mudki and Ferozeshah, however, supplies were 
sent in abundance, and when the final victory of Sobraon was gained 
the whole resources of the State were placed at the disposal of the 
British Government. An official investigation was made into the 
conduct of the chief, with the result that he was deposed, but received 
a pension of Rs. 50,000 a year. Nearly a fourth of the territory was 
also confiscated, a j)art of it being bestowed upon the Patiala and 
Faridkot States in reward for their loyalty. His eldest son, Bharpur 
Singh, was placed in power in 1847. At the time of the Mutiny in 
1857 this chief showed distinguished loyalty, and was rewarded by 
a grant of the territory which forms the present Bawal nizdinat, then 
worth Rs. 1,06,000 per annum, on the usual condition of political and 
military service at any time of general danger. In addition, the sanad 
of i860 conferred on the Nabha Raja privileges similar to those con- 
ferred at the same time on the chiefs of Patiala and Jind. Bharpur 
Singh died in 1863, and was succeeded by his brother, Bhagwan Singh, 
who died without issue in 187 1. By the sanad granted in i860, it was 
provided that, in a case of failure of male heirs to any one of the three 
Phulkian houses, a successor should be chosen from among the de- 
scendants of Phul by the two chiefs and the representative of the 
British Government ; and Hira Singh, the present Raja, was accord- 
ingly selected. He was born about 1843. The Raja is entitled to 
a salute of 15 guns, including 4 personal to the present chief. 

The State contains 4 towns and 488 villages. Its population at 
the last three enumerations was: (1881) 261,824, (1891) 282,756, and 

^ , . (1901) 207,040. It is divided into three nizdmats: 

Population. \ ^ ' ^ , 7,- ■,.,-, •, . . .u 

Amloh and Bawal, with then- head-quarters at the 

town from which each is named ; and Phul, with its head-quarters at 

Dhanaula. Nabha is the capital of the State. 

The following table shows the chief statistics of population in 

1901 : — 



AGRICULTURE 



265 



Nizamal. 



Amloh 
riull . 
Baw a) . 



Slate tolal 



<u 


Number of 






CTm 






K JJ 




w 


.5=5 


c 


tu 


rt ■" 


^ 











291 


H 


> 


I 


228 


394 


2 


96 


281 


I 


104 


928 


4 488 



d 

.2 

c 


U 

= 

ii 

5 


Percentage of 
\ariation in 

population be- 
tween 1S91 
and 1901. 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 


115,078 

111,441 

7'>43o 


395-2 
282-9 

2,54-2 
321 


-*- 1-5 
-t- 10-7 

+ 4-7 


5)358 
5,476 
1.576 


297,949 


+ 5-4 


12,410 



Note. — The figures for the areas of ni^ainats are taken from revenue returns. The 
total State area is that given in the Census Report. 

More than 54 per cent, of the population are Hindu.s, only 26 per 
cent, being Sikhs, though Nabha ranks as one of the principal Sikh 
States of the Punjab. The Sikhs are mainly Jats by tribe, and are 
found mostly in the Phul fiizdmaf, a tract Avhich came under the 
influence of the great Sikh Gurus. Amloh contains a number of 
Sikhs of the Sultani sect, but the Jats of Bawal are for the most part 
orthodox Hindus, that tract lying closer to the great centres of Hin- 
duism. The speech of the great mass of the people is Punjabi, which 
is returned by three-fourths of them, but Hindustani is spoken in the 
Bawal nizdmat and by the educated classes generall}'. 

The Jats or Jats of all religions exceed 31 per cent, of the popu- 
lation, the Sidhu tribe, to which the ruling family belongs, being 
especially important. The Rajputs and Ahirs also form considerable 
elements, but the latter are almost entirely confmed t(j the Eawal 
nizdmat. About 58 per cent, of the total population are supported 
by agriculture. In 1901 only one native Christian was enumerated in 
the State, which contains no mission. 

The Bawal nizdmat differs as much from the rest of the State in 
agricultural conditions as it does in climate and other characteristics, 
and Amloh and Phul also differ from one another, 
but less widely. Amloh, owing to its damp climate, 
is naturally very fertile and well wooded. The soil is a rich loam, 
generally free from sand, and the spring-level is near the surface. 
The introduction of canal-irrigation has intensified the natural ten- 
dency of this tract to become waterlogged in seasons of heavy rainfall. 
Phul is, with the exception of one small tract, in somewhat marked 
contrast. The soil is sandy and the spring-level far below the surface. 
Consequently water was scarce until the introduction of canal-irrigation 
rendered a great extension of cultivation possible. Though sandy, the 
soil is fertile, and its power of absorbing moisture prevents water- 
logging. Naturally less well wooded than Amloh, the Phul nizdmat 
was formerly covered with scrub, which is now being cleared as cultiva- 
tion extends ; and indeed the whole tract is undergoing an agricultural 



Agriculture. 



266 



NAB HA STATE 



revolution as the canals are developed. The Bawal /lizd/naf, with 
its dry hot climate, is singularly destitute of streams, tanks, and trees, 
and depends for its cultivation on a scanty and precarious rainfall. 

The main agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are given below, in 
square miles : — 



Ni=ainat. 


Total. 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Amloh . 
Phul . 
Bawal . 

Total 


291 

.^94 
281 


186 
360 

247 


76 
23 


70 
16 
21 


966 


793 


184 


107 



Gram (190 square miles), wheat (97), pulses (94), bajra (74), and 
barley (62) were the principal food-crops in 1903-4. The area under 
sugar-cane and cotton was 5 and 12 square miles respectively. The 
State anticipated the Government of the Punjab in imposing restric- 
tions on the alienation of agricultural land to non-agricultural classes. 

Cattle are not raised in large numbers, though there is some cattle- 
breeding in the Jangal. The fairs at Phul and Jaito are important 
centres for the .sale of cattle raised in the Southern Punjab. The 
latter is held in March and is attended by about 25,000 people, and 
the former by 5,000. Fairs are also held at Amloh and Nabha ; and 
at Mahasar in the Bawal nizaniat a large fair takes place twice a year, 
at which animals worth Rs. 1,50,000 change hands. Few horses are 
now raised in the State, though the Jangal used to be famous for 
a powerful breed. Goats are more prized than sheep, as they supply 
milk ; they are mostly reared in Bawal. Camels are kept by the people 
for ploughing and the transport of grain in both Phul and Bawal, owing 
to the character of the country. 

The State owns 3-168 per cent, of the Sirhind Canal; and the 
Abohar and Bhatinda branches irrigate a large part of the Phul 
nizdnmt, while the Kotla branch supplies the rest of that nizdmai, 
and another irrigates a part of Amloh. The area irrigated varies 
inversely with the rainfall, the highest figures ever reached being 
17,052 acres in Phul and 7,110 acres in Amloh. In Amloh the 
spring-level is high and well-irrigation is common, 26 per cent, of 
the cultivated area being irrigated in this way. In Phul, on the 
other hand, the spring-level is very low, and only 2 per cent, of the 
cultivated area is irrigated from wells. In Bawal, where there are no 
canals, 7 per cent, of the cultivated area is irrigated from wells. In 
1903 the total number of wells in the State was 4,723, of which 
3)385 were in Amloh. About 73 per cent, of the wells in Amloh are 
worked by means of the Persian wheel, which is unknown in the other 
nizd7>iais. 



ADMINISTRA TION 2 6 7 

Stone is quarried in the Kanti and Behall hills in the Bawal nizdiiiat. 
Kankar is found in several places throughout the State, and saltpetre 
in a few scattered villages in the nizdmats of Phul and Amloh. 

The chief industries are the manufacture of silver and gold orna- 
ments, and brass utensils for local needs. Earthen vessels and clay 
toys are exported to the neighbouring tracts. Lace or 
gota is manufactured at Nabha town and exported. communiStions. 
Amloh has some reputation for its fabrics known as 
gabrun and susl, and of late the manufacture of iron goods has been 
carried on with success. Dans, or cotton carpets, are woven at Amloh 
and Nabha. The latter town possesses a cotton-ginning factory and a 
steam cotton-press, and Jaito a steam oil-mill, which employ 115, 40, 
and 22 persons respectively. 

The State exports grain in large quantities. To facilitate this export 
markets have been established at a number of places, that at Jaito 
being the largest. Cotton is also exported, chiefly to Ambala. 

Railway communications are good. The State is traversed by the 
main line and by the Rajpura-Bhatinda, Ludhiana-Dhuri-Jakhal, and 
Ferozepore-Bhatinda branches of the North-Western Railway, while 
the Rajputana-Malwa Railway crosses the Bawal nizamat. The State 
contains 88 miles of metalled and 35 miles of unmetalled roads. Of 
the former, the principal connects Nabha town with Patiala (18 miles), 
with Kotla (18 miles), and with Khanna (24 miles). 

The postal arrangements of the State are governed by the convention 
of 1885, which established a mutual exchange of all postal articles 
between the British Post Office and the State post. The ordinary 
British stamps, surcharged ' Nabha State ' and ' Nabha State service,' 
are supplied to the State at cost price. The Postal department is con- 
trolled by a postmaster-general. 

The inhabitants of the State must have suffered from the famines 
which affected the adjoining tracts of Patiala and Jind, but the records 
afford no information except in regard to the scarcity 
of 1 899-1 900. Even in regard to that, few statistics 
are available. The distress, except in parts of Bawal, was not very 
severe, and it was largely to meet the needs of famine-stricken refugees 
from Bikaner and Hissar that measures of relief were undertaken. 
The maximum number of persons employed on works was about 3,000, 
and of persons in receipt of charitable relief about 2,000. 

There is one Political Agent for the Phulkian States and Bahawal- 

pur, with head-quarters at Patiala. The Raja himself controls the 

administration. He is assisted by a council of three . , 

, .,,..-._.. , • , , , ^ Administration. 

members, the Ijlas-i-aha, which also acts as a court 

of appeal from the orders of the heads of departments as well as from 

the courts of justice. The principal departmental officers arc the 

VOL. XVIII. s 



268 



NAB HA STATE 



Mir jSIunshi, or foreign minister, who, in addition to the duties indi- 
cated by his title, controls the postal, canal, and education departments ; 
the Bakhshi, or commander-in-chief, who is responsible for the admin- 
istration of the army and police departments ; the Hakim-i-adalat-i- 
sadr, or head of the judicial department, who also possesses important 
powers as a court of appeal in civil and criminal cases ; and the 
Diwan-i-mal sadr, whose special charge is revenue and finance, and 
who controls the ndzims in their capacity as revenue officers. Each 
of the three 7iizdmats is subdivided into ihdnas or police circles, 
which correspond generally to the old parganas. The nizdmats are 
also tahsi/s, each being administered by a ndzim^ under whom is 
a tahs'ilddr. 

The principal court of original criminal jurisdiction in each fiizdmat 
is that of the ndzim, who can award sentences of imprisonment up to 
three years. Subordinate to the ndzim are the naib-ndzims and the 
tahsilddrs, whose jurisdiction is limited to cases of trespass. Appeals 
from the orders of the ndzims lie to the Add/at sadr, which in its 
original jurisdiction can inflict sentences of imprisonment up to five 
years, and from the Addlat sadr to the Ijlds-i-dlia of three judges. 
The highest court is the Ijlds-i-Khds, in which the Raja presides, and 
which alone can inflict the severest penalties of the law. No regular 
appeal lies to this court, but the Raja exercises full powers of revision 
over the proceedings of the lower courts. Civil suits of a value not 
exceeding Rs. i,ooo are disposed of by a Munsif in each nizdtnaf, from 
whose decisions an appeal lies to the ndzim. The ndzim himself 
disposes of all suits of a value exceeding Rs. i,ooo. The Addlat sadr 
hears appeals from his orders, and the Ijlds-i-dlia from those of the 
Addlat sadr. In revenue cases, appeals from the orders of the tahsil- 
ddrs lie to the tidzim, and further appeals in revenue executive cases to 
the Diwan, and in other cases to the Addlat sadr. A third appeal is 
allowed to the Ijlds-i-dlia from decisions of the Addlat sadr. A city 
magistrate, with the powers of a ndzi/n, disposes of civil and criminal 
work in the capital. The Indian Penal Code and Procedure Codes 
are in force, with certain modifications. 

The land revenue alone and the total revenue of the State are shown 
below, in thousands of rupees : — 





1880-1. 


1900-1. 


1903-4- 


Land revenue . . . 6,50 
Total revenue . . • ^ ' >69 


7,60 
12,36 


8,82 
i4>7i 



Apart from land revenue, the principal items in 1903-4 were cesses 
(Rs. 61,000), irrigation (1-3 lakhs), and excise (Rs. 51,000). The 
expenditure included public works (3-8 lakhs), army (1-9 lakhs), police 



A DMINTSTRA TION 269 

(Rs. 86,000), and education (Rs, 10,000). The mint, which dates 
from a period prior to tlie establishment of British rule in the Punjab, 
is still used, but only on very special occasions, such as the accession 
of a Raja. The Nabha rupee is worth 1 5 annas. 

It is doubtful whether Akbar's land revenue assessments were ever 
applied to the country which is now comprised in the main portion 
of the State. Bawal, however, was a pargafia of the sarkdr of Rewari. 
The ancient system of levying the revenue in kind was in force in 
Nabha State up to i860, when a cash assessment was introduced in all 
the parganas except that of Lohat Baddi, in which it was not intro- 
duced till 1875. I'he first assessments were summary in character, 
but in 1873 the present Raja directed a regular settlement of the 
Amloh nizdmat to be carried out. This work was completed in 1878, 
the settlement operations being conducted according to the British 
Revenue Law of 1848 and the rules thereunder, and the assessment 
was fixed for a period of twenty years. In 1888 the settlement of the 
Bawal nizdmat was taken in hand and completed in 1892, that of the 
Phul nizdmat being commenced in 1891 and reaching its conclusion 
in 1 90 1. These two latter settlements were conducted on the lines of 
the Punjab Revenue Law of 1887, the land being measured and the 
record-of-rights prepared as in a British District. The land revenue 
demand under the new settlements amounted in 1905-6 to 8-8 lakhs. 
The revenue rates for unirrigated land vary from a minimum of 
R. 0-8-5 i'"' Ph"-'!! to a maximum of Rs. 2-10 for the best land in the 
same nizdmat. For irrigated land, they vary from Rs. 2-2 in Bawal 
to Rs. 6-13-6 in Phul. 

Rent is paid either in cash or in kind. The share of the produce 
varies from one-quarter to one-half, and this system is common in 
Phul and Amloh. Cash rents are the rule in Bawal, ranging from 12 
annas to nearly Rs. 7 per acre on unirrigated land, and from Rs. 5 to 
Rs. 17-8 on irrigated land. 

The lease of the State distillery at Nabha is sold by auction, and the 
contractor arranges for the retail sale through his agents, who are not 
allowed to charge more than a certain price for each kind of liquor. 
The poppy is not grown in Nabha, but raw opium is imported from 
Malwa and the Hill States, and prepared for the market after impor- 
tation. The Phul preparations are well-known and command a large 
sale. Hemp drugs are imported from Hoshiarpur, but their export 
is prohibited. The licences for the retail vend of both are auctioned. 
The State receives an allotment of 35 chests of Malwa opium per 
annum, each chest containing 1-25 cwt. The State pays a special 
duty of Rs. 280 per chest for this opium, instead of the ordinary duty 
of Rs. 275 ; but it is credited back to the State by Government, with 
a view to secure the cordial co-operation of the State officials in the 

S 2 



2 70 NAB HA STATE 

suppression of smuggling. The import of opium into British territory 
from the Bawal nizdmat is forbidden. 

Nabha is the only town in the State that is administered as a muni- 
cipality, but octroi is levied in the markets established at Jaito, Phul, 
and Bahadur Singhwala. 

The Public Works department is in charge of the Afsar-i-Tamlrat, 
subject to the general control of the Diwan. The principal public 
buildings are mentioned in the article on Nabha Town. 

The army consists of a battalion of Imperial .Service infantry, and 
a local force of 150 cavalry, 70 infantry, and 40 artillerymen with 
10 serviceable guns. 

The total strength of the police force is 838 officers and men, and 
the executive head of the force is styled Colonel of Police. The 
department is under the control (jf the Bakhshl. There are, in 
addition, 533 village watchmen. The principal jail is at Nabha town. 
It is managed by a ddroga under the supervision of the city magis- 
trate, and has accommodation for 500 prisoners. The jail industries 
include carpet-weaving and paper-making. The jail at Bawal has 
accommodation for 100 prisoners. 

The State contains thirteen public schools, all managed by a com- 
mittee of officials. The system dates from 1880, when the school at 
Nabha was raised to the middle standard. In 1885 its students first 
appeared in the Punjab University examination ; in 1888 it was raised 
to the status of a high school; and in 1893 to that of a college, to be 
reduced again five years later to that of a high school owing to lack 
of funds. Bawal has a middle school, and at Chotian an Anglo- 
vernacular school is maintained, to which none but sons of Sikhs are 
admitted without the Raja's permission. The total expenditure on 
education in 1903-4 was Rs. 10,000. In 1901 the percentage of the 
population able to read and write was 4'2 (7-4 males and o-i females), 
being higher than in any other State in the Province. The total 
number of persons under instruction rose from 396 in 1891 to 635 
in 1903-4. 

There are 8 dispensaries in the State, in addition to the hospital 
at the capital, which contains accommodation for 5 in-patients. In 
1903-4 the number of cases treated was 68,673, o^ whom 1,914 were 
in-patients, and 1,791 operations were performed. In the same year, 
525 persons were successfully vaccinated, or 1-76 per 1,000 of the 
population. The vaccination staff consists of a superintendent and 
three vaccinators, one for each nizdmat, first appointed in 1882. 
Vaccination is nowhere compulsory. The total expenditure on 
medical relief in 1903-4 was Rs. 9,600. 

The first trigonometrical survey was made between 1847 and 1849, 
and maps were published on the i-inch and 2-inch scales. A 4-inch 



NADAUN estate 271 

map of the Cis-Sutlej States was published in 1863, and a revised 
edition in 1897. The i-inch maps prepared in 1847-9 ^^ere revised in 
1886-92. There are no revenue survey maps. 

[H. A. Rose, Fhu/kiafi States Gazetteer (in the press) ; L. H. Griffin, 
The Rdjas of the Punjab (second edition, 1873).] 

Nabha Town.— Capital of the Nabha State, Punjab, situated in 
30° 23' N. and 76° 10' E., on the Rajpura-Bhatinda branch of the 
North-Western Railway. Population (1901), 18,468. Founded on 
the site of two older villages in 1755 by Hamir Singh, chief and 
afterwards Raja of Nabha, it has since been the capital of the State. 
It is surrounded by a mud wall containing six gates. In the heart 
of the town is a fort, with a masonry rampart and four towers. 
One part of the fort is kept private, while the rest is used for state 
offices. The marble monuments of former Rajas are situated in the 
Sham Bagh inside the town. The palaces of the Raja and the heir 
apparent are in the Pukhta Garden outside the town, while Elgin 
House, a spacious building, reserved for the accommodation of dis- 
tinguished visitors, stands in the Mubarak Garden close by. The 
cantonment and the jail, which has accommodation for 500 prisoners, 
lie outside the town. The principal exports are grain, oilseeds, and 
raw and ginned cotton ; the principal imports are sugar and cloth. 
The town is administered as a municipality; the income in 1903-4 
was Rs. 19,000, chiefly derived from octroi, and the expenditure was 
Rs. 22,200. It contains a high school and a hospital, called the 
Lansdowne Hospital. 

Nadanghat. — Village in the Kalna subdivision of Burdwan District, 
Bengal, situated in 23° 22' N. and 88° 15' E., on the Khari river. 
Population (1901), 916. Nadanghat is the principal rice mart in the 
interior of the District, whence large quantities of grain are carried by 
country boats to the Bhaglrathi. 

Nadaun Estate. — Estate in the Hamirpur tahsll of Kangra Dis- 
trict, Punjab, with an area of 87 square miles. Its holder is a grandson 
of Raja Sansar Chand, and is thus, like the holder of Lambagraon, 
a representative of the ancient Katoch dynasty of Kangra. Jodhbir 
Chand, Sansar Chand's illegitimate son, gave his two sisters in marriage 
to Ranjft Singh, and was created a Raja, Nadaun, the northern portion 
of the Katoch dominions, being conferred upon him. Raja Jodhbir 
Chand remained loyal during the Katoch insurrection of 1848, and 
as a reward his jagir (then worth Rs. 26,270 a year) was confirmed 
to him by the British Government on annexation. His son Pirthi 
Singh earned the Order of Merit for his services during the Mutiny. 
In 1868 the Raja was made a K.C.S.I. and received a salute of 
7 guns. The estate in 1890 devolved by primogeniture on Narindar 
Chand, the present Raja. His jdglr consists of 14 villages and 



2 7 2 JVABA UN ESTA TE 

brings in about Rs. 35,000 a year. He is an honorary magistrate 
and Munsif. 

Nadaun Town. — Petty town in the Hamlrpur tahsil of Kangra 
District, Punjab, situated in 31'^ 46' N. and 79° 19' E., on the left bank 
of the Beas, 20 miles south-east of Kangra town, and head-quarters 
of the jagir of the Raja of Nadaun, son of the late Raja Sir Jodhblr 
Chand. Population (1901), 1,426. It was once a favourite residence 
of Raja Sansar Chand, who built himself a palace at Amtar, on the 
river bank, one mile from the town, where he held his court during 
the summer. 

Nadia District. — District in the Presidency Division, Bengal, 
lying between 22° 53' and 24° 11' N. and 88° 9' and 89° 22' E., with 
an area of 2,793 square miles. It is bounded on the west by the 
Bhagirathi, or Hooghly river ; on the south by the Twenty-four 
Parganas ; on the north the Jalangl river separates it from Murshid- 
abad, and the Pad ma or main channel of the Ganges from Rajshahi 
and Pabna ; Farldpur and Jessore Districts form the eastern boundary. 

Nadia is situated at the head of the Gangetic delta, and its alluvial 

surface, though still liable in parts to inundation, has been raised 

by ancient deposits of silt above the normal flood- 

soects level ; its soil is agriculturally classed as high land, 

and bears cold-season crops as well as rice. The 

rivers have now ceased their work of land-making and are beginning 

to silt up. The general aspect is that of a vast level alluvial plain, 

dotted with villages and clusters of trees, and intersected by numerous 

rivers, backwaters, minor streams, and swamps. In the west of the 

District is the Kalantar, a low-lying tract of black clay soil which 

stretches from the adjoining part of Murshidabad through the Kallganj 

and Tehata thdnas. 

Along the northern boundary flows the wide stream of the P.^DiMA, 
This is now the main channel of the Ganges, which has taken this 
course in comparatively recent times ; it originally flowed down the 
Bhagirathi, still the sacred river in the estimation of Hindus, and 
it afterwards probably followed in turn the course of the Jalangi 
and the Matabhanga before it eventually took its present direction, 
flowing almost due east to meet the Brahmaputra near Goalundo. 
The rivers which intersect the District are thus either old beds of the 
Ganges or earlier streams, like the Bhairab, which carried the drainage 
of the Darjeeling Himalayas direct to the sea before the Padma broke 
eastwards and cut them in halves. 'l"he whole District is a network 
of moribund rivers and streams ; but the Bhagirathi, the Jalangi, 
and the Matabhanga are the three which are called distinctively the 
' Nadia Rivers.' The Jalangi flows past the head-quarters station 
of Krishnagar, and falls into the Bhagirathi op[)osite the old town 



NAD I A DISTRTCT 273 

of Nadia. Its chief distributary is the Bhairab. The Matabhanga, 
after throwing off the Pangasi, Kumar, and Kabadak, bifurcates near 
Krishnaganj into the ChurnI and IchamatT, and thereafter loses its 
own name. Marshes abound. 

The surface consists of sandy clay and sand along the ccjurse of 
the rivers, and fine silt consolidating into clay in the flatter parts 
of the plain. 

The swamps afford a foothold for numerous marsh species, while 
the ponds and ditches are filled with submerged and floating water- 
plants. The edges of sluggish creeks are lined with large sedges 
and bulrushes, and the banks of rivers have a hedge-like shrub jungle. 
Deserted or uncultivated homestead lands are densely covered with 
shrubberies of semi-spontaneous species, interspersed with clumps 
of planted bamboos and groves of Areca, Moringa, Mangifera, and 
Anona; and the slopes of embankments are often well wooded. 

Wild hog are plentiful, and snipe abound in the swamps. There 
are still a few leopards, and wild duck are found in the J/il/s near 
the Padma. Snakes are common and account for some 400 deaths 
annually ; about 90 more are caused by wild animals. 

The mean temperature for the year is 79°, ranging between 69° 
and 88°. The mean minimum varies from 52° in January to 79° 
in June, and the mean maximum frona 77° in December to 97° in 
May. The average humidity is 79 per cent, of saturation, varying 
from 71 per cent, in March to 87 per cent, in August. The annual 
rainfall averages 57 inches, of which 6-5 inches fall in May, 9-7 in June, 
10-5 in July, 1 1 '3 in August, 8-i in September, and 4-1 in October. 

Floods occur frequently and cause much damage ; the area especially 
liable to injury is a low-lying strip of land, about 10 miles wide, 
running in a south-easterly direction across the centre of the Dis- 
trict. It is said that this is swept by the floods of the Bhagirathi 
whenever the great Lalitakuri embankment in Murshidabad District 
gives way, but it is on record that the breaking of this embank- 
ment has not always been followed by a rise of the flood-level in 
Nadia. 

The town of Nadia or Nabadwip (meaning 'new island), from which 
the District takes its name, has a very ancient history, and about 
the time of William the Conqueror the capital of the 
Sen kings of Bengal was transferred thither from 
Gaur. In 1203 Lakshman Sen, the last of the dynasty, was over- 
thrown by the Muhammadan freebooter Muhammad-i-Bakhtyar KhiljT, 
who took the capital by surprise and subsequently conquered the 
greater part of Bengal proper. No reliable information is on record 
about the District until 1582, when the greater part of it was included 
at Todar Mai's settlement in sarkar Satgaon, so called from the old 



2 74 NAD I A DISTRICT 

trade emporium of that name near the modern town of Hooghly. 
At that time it was thinly inhabited, but its pandits were conspicuous 
for tlieir learning. The present Maharaja of Nadia is a Brahman 
and has no connexion with Lakshman Sen's dynasty ; his family, 
however, claims to be of great antiquity, tracing its descent in 
a direct line from Bhattanarayan, the chief of the five Brahmans 
who were imported from Kanauj, in the ninth century, by Adisur, 
king of Bengal. At the end of the sixteenth century a Raja of this 
family assisted the Mughal general, Man Singh, in his expedition 
against Pratapaditya, the rebellious Raja of Jessore, and subsequently 
obtained a grant of fourteen parganas from Jahanglr as a reward 
for his services. The family appears to have reached the zenith 
of its power and influence in the middle of the eighteenth century, 
when Maharaja Krishna Chandra took the side of the English in the 
Plassey campaign, and received from Clive the title of Rajendra 
Bahadur and a present of 12 guns used at Plassey, some of which 
are still to be seen in the Maharaja's palace. 

Nadia District was the principal scene of the indigo riots of i860, 
which occasioned so much excitement throughout Bengal proper. 
The native landowners had always been jealous of the influence 
of the European planters, but the real cause of the outbreak was 
the fact that the cultivators realized that at the prices then ruling 
it would pay them better to grow oilseeds and cereals than indigo. 
Their discontent was fanned by interested agitators, and at last they 
refused to grow indigo. The endeavours made by the planters to 
compel them to do so led to serious rioting, which was not suppressed 
until the troops were called out. A commission was appointed to 
inquire into the relations between the planters and the cultivators, 
and matters gradually settled down ; but a fatal blow had been dealt 
to indigo cultivation in the District, from which it never altogether 
recovered. Several factories survived the agitation, and some still 
continue to work ; but the competition of synthetic indigo has reduced 
the price of the natural dye to such an extent that the proprietors 
are finding it more profitable to give up indigo and to manage their 
estates as ordinary zamlnddins. 

The population of the present area increased from 1,500,397 in 1872 
to 1,662,795 ''"> i88i- Since that date it has been almost stationary, 
. having fallen to 1,644,108 in 1891, and risen again 

to 1,667,491 in 1901. From 1857 to 1864 the 
District was scourged by the 'Nadia fever,' which caused a fearful 
mortality, especially in the old jungle-surrounded and tank-infested 
villages of the Ranaghat subdivision. There are no statistics to show 
the actual loss of life, but it is known that in some parts whole villages 
were depopulated. There was a recrudescence of the disease in 



POPULATION 



275 



1881-6, which catised the loss of population recorded ul llie Census 
of i8yi. Nadia is still one of the most unhealthy parts of Jiengal, 
and in 1902 the deaths ascribed to fevers amounted to no less than 
41 per 1,000 of the population. In iSSr a special commission 
ascribed the repeated outbreaks of malaria to the silting up of the 
rivers, which had become 'chains of stagnant pools and hotbeds 
of pestilence in the dry season.' Fevers accounted for no less than 
82 per cent, of the deaths in 1901, as compared with the Provincial 
average of 70 per cent. Cholera comes next, and is responsible for 
4 per cent, of the mortality. 

The principal statistics of the Census of 1901 are shown below: — 



Subdivision. 




a 

< 


Number of 


c 


H. 
■I 


'Z a 


Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1901. 


Number of ■ 
persons able to 
read and 
write. 


1 


a 
> 

740 

568 

1,011 

607 

485 


Krishiiagar 
Ranaghat 

Knshlia . 
Meherjjur 
Chuadanga 

District total 


701 
427 

596 
632 

437 


2 

4 

2 

1 


3(>i,333 

217,077 
486,368 
348,124 

254.589 


515 
508 
816 
551 

583 


+ 3-5 

- 5-6 
+ 0.7 

+ 3-4 
+ 3-7 


29,784 
16,706 

22,743 
13,875 
10,267 


2,793 


9 


3.411 


1,667,491 


597 


+ 1-4 


93,375 



The principal towns are Krishnagar, the head-quarters, Santipur, 
Nabadwip or Nadia, Kushtia, Ranaghat, and Meherpur. The 
Kushtia subdivision is by far the most populous portion of the District. 
The low density elsewhere is due to the silting up of the rivers, which 
has obstructed the drainage and caused long-contmued unhealthiness. 
The soil also has lost much of its fertility, now that it is no longer 
enriched by annual deposits of silt. The material condition of the 
District is less satisfactory than that of its neighbours, and since 1891 
it has lost 65,000 persons by migration, chiefly to the adjoining 
Districts and to Calcutta. Owing to this cause, it contains 1,015 
females to every 1,000 males. The prevalent language is Bengali, 
which is spoken with remarkable purity by the educated classes. 
Muhammadans number 982,987, or 59 per cent, of the population, 
and Hindus 676,391, or 40-6 per cent.; the preponderance of the 
former is most marked in the eastern part of the District, and espe- 
cially in the Kushtia subdivision. It is a curious circumstance that 
whereas Muhammadans form the majority of the whole population, 
they are in a very considerable minority in the towns, where they 
only form 26-3 per cent, of the total. Of the Muhammadans, large 
numbers belong to the puritanic sect of Farazis or Wahabis ; and the 
fanatic leader, Titu Mian, an account of whose rebellion in 1831 will 



2 76 NADIA DISTRICT 

be found in the article on the Twenty-four Parganas, recruited 
many of his followers in Nadia. "- -____^ 

The Kaibarttas (111,000), the great race caste of Midnapore, are 
by far the most numerous caste in the District, and they are fol- 
lowed by the Goalas (cowherds), who number 71,000. The Brah- 
mans (47,000) are to a great extent the descendants of settlers in 
the time of the Sen kings. Next in numerical importance come the 
low-caste Bagdis, Muchis, and Chandals. Kayasths number 31,000, 
and there are 26,000 Malos or boatmen. Of every 100 persons in 
the District, 56 are engaged in agriculture, 16 in industry, one in 
commerce, 2 in one or other of the professions, and 17 in general 
labour. This District was the birthplace, in 1485, of the great re- 
ligious reformer Chaitanya, who founded the modern Vaishnava sect 
of Bengal. He was opposed to caste distinctions, and inveighed 
against animal sacrifices and the use of animal food and stimulants, 
and taught that the true road to salvation lay in hhakti or devotion 
to God. A favourite form of worship with this sect is the sanklrtan, 
or hymn-singing procession, which has gained greatly in popularity of 
late years. The town of Santipur, in the Ranaghat subdivision, is 
held sacred as the residence of the descendants of Adwaita, one 
of the two first disciples of Chaitanya. Most of his followers, while 
accepting his religious views, maintain their original caste distinctions, 
but a small minority abandoned them and agreed to admit to their 
community recruits from all castes and religions. These persons 
are known as Baishnabs or Bairagis. At the present day most of 
their new adherents join them because they have been turned out 
of their own castes, or on account of love intrigues or other sordid 
motives ; and they hold a very low position in popular estimation. 
A large proportion of the men live by begging, and many of the 
women by prostitution. 

Among the latter-day offshoots of Chaitanya's teaching, one of 
the most interesting is the sect of Kartabhajas, the worshippers of the 
Karta or ' headman.' The founder of the sect was a Sadgop by caste, 
named Ram Saram Pal, generally known as Karta Baba, who was 
born about two centuries ago near Chakdaha in this District, and 
died at Ghoshpara. This sect accepts recruits from all castes and 
religions, and its votaries assemble periodically at Ghoshpara to pay 
homage to their spiritual head. 

Christians number 8,091, of whom 7,912 are natives. The Church 
of England possesses 5,836 adherents, and the Roman Catholic 
Church 2,172. The Church Missionary Society commenced work 
in 1 83 1, and has 13 centres presided over by native clergy or cate- 
chists, and superintended by 6 or 7 Europeans. The Roman Catholic 
Mission was established in 1855, and Krishnagar is now the head- 



AGRICULTURE 277 

quarters of the diocese of Central Bengal. In 1877 there was a schism 
among the adherents of the Church Missionary Society, and a number 
of them went over to the Church of Rome. The Church of England 
Zanana Mission works at Krishnagar and at Ratanpur, and a Medical 
mission at Ranaghat. 

We have already seen that Nadia is not a fertile District. In most 
parts the soil is sandy, and will not retain the water necessary for 
the cultivation of winter rice, which is grown only , 

in the Kalantar and parts of the Kushtia subdivi- 
sion, occupying but one-ninth of the gross cropped area. The land 
has often to be left fallow to enable it to recover some degree of 
fertility. A very large number of the cultivators are mere tenants- 
at-will and have little inducement to improve their lands, and the 
repeated outbreaks of malaria have deprived them of vitality and 
energy. The dead level of the surface affords little opportunity for 
irrigation, which is rarely attempted. The total area under cultiva- 
tion in 1903-4 was 901 square miles, the land classed as cultivable 
waste amounting to 544 square miles. Separate statistics for the 
subdivisions are not available. 

The staple crop is rice, grown on 775 square miles, or 86 per 
cent, of the net cropped area. The autumn crop is the most im- 
portant ; it occupies about 607 square miles and is usually reaped 
in August and September, but there is a late variety which is har- 
vested about two months later. The winter crop is reaped in December, 
and the spring rice in March or April. The winter and spring crops 
are transplanted, but the autumn rice is generally sown broadcast. 
After rice, the most important crops are gram and other pulses, 
linseed, rape and mustard, jute, wheat, indigo, and sugar-cane. The 
cultivation of indigo is contracting, and only 6,300 acres were sown 
in 1903-4. After the autumn rice is harvested, cold-season crops of 
pulses, oilseeds, and wheat are grown on the same fields, and 79 per 
cent, of the cultivated area grows two crops. The rice grown in 
the District is insufficient to satisfy the local demand. In some 
parts, especially in the subdivision of Chuadanga, the cultivation of 
chillies [Capsicum frutescens) and turmeric forms an important feature 
in the rural industry, upon which the peasant relies to pay his rent. 

Cultivation is extending, but no improvement has taken place in 
agricultural methods. The manuring practised is insufficient to restore 
to the soil what the crops take from it, and it is steadily deteriorating. 
Very little advantage has been taken of the Land Improvement and 
Agriculturists' Loans Acts. 

The local cattle are very inferior ; the pasturage is bad, and no 
care is taken to improve the breeds by selection or otherwise. 

Santipur was once famous for its weavers, and in the beginning 



2 78 NAD I A DISTRICT 

of the nineteenth century the agent of the East India Company 

used to purchase musHns to the annual value of £150,000. The 

industry, however, has almost died out. Very little 

Trade and niuslin is now exported, and even the weaving of 
communications. ,. , , • , , ,■ ,. i- ■ 

ordinary cotton cloth is on the decline. Sugar-renning 

by European methods has proved unsuccessful, but there are several 

date-sugar refineries in native hands at Santipur, Munshiganj, and 

Alamdanga. Brass-ware is manufactured, particularly at Nabadwip 

and Meherpur, and clay figures are moulded at Krishnagar ; the latter 

find a ready sale outside the District and have met with recognition 

at exhibitions abroad. There is a factory at Kushtia under European 

management for the manufacture of sugar-cane mills. 

Owing to its numerous waterways, the District is very favourably 
situated for trade. Moreover, the Eastern Bengal State Railway runs 
through it for a distance of nearly 100 miles. Gram, pulses, jute, 
linseed, and chillies are exported to Calcutta, and sugar to Eastern 
Bengal. Coal is imported from Burdwan and Manbhum ; salt, oil, 
and piece-goods from Calcutta ; and rice and paddy from Burdwan, 
Dinajpur, Bogra, and Jessore. 

The chief railway trade centres are Chuadanga, Bagula, Ranaghat, 
Damukdia, and Poradaha ; and those for river traffic are Nabadwip 
on the Bhaglrathi, Santipur and Chakdaha on the Hooghly, Karlmpur, 
Andulia, Krishnagar, and Swarupganj on the Jalangi, Hanskhali on the 
ChurnT, Boalia and Krishnaganj on the Matabhanga, Nonaganj on 
the Ichamati, Alamdanga on the Pangasi, and Kushtia, Kumarkhali, 
and Khoksa on the Garai. About thirty-eight fairs are held yearly. 
Most of them, however, are religious gatherings ; the best attended 
are the fairs held at Nabadwip in February and November, at Santipur 
in November, at Kulia in January, and at Ghoshpara in March. 

The Eastern Bengal State Railway (broad gauge) passes through 
the District from Kanchrapara on the southern, to Damukdia on the 
northern boundary ; and a branch runs east from Poradaha, through 
Kushtia, to Goalundo in Parldpur District. The central section of 
the same railway runs from Ranaghat eastwards to Jessore, and a light 
railway (2 feet 6 inches gauge) from Ranaghat to Krishnagar via 
Santipur. A new line has recently been constructed from Ranaghat 
to Murshidabad. 

The District board maintains 803 miles of roads, in addition to 
526 miles of village tracks. Of the roads, 107 miles are metalled, 
including the roads from Krishnagar to Bagula and Ranaghat, from 
Meherpur to Chuadanga, and several others which serve as feeders 
to the railway. Of the unmetalled roads the most important is the 
road from J^arasat in the Twenty-four Parganas, through Ranaghat 
and Krishnagar, to Plassev in the north-west corner of the District. 



A DMINISTRA TION 2 7 9 

All the rivers are navigable during the rainy season by boats of 
large burden, but in the dry season they dwindle to shallow streams 
and are obstructed by sandbanks and bars. Before the era of rail- 
ways the Nadia Rivers afforded the regular means of communica- 
tion between the upper valley of the Ganges and the sea-board, and 
elaborate measures are still adopted to keep their channels open. 
Steamers ply daily between Calcutta and Kalna via Santipur, and on 
alternate days, during the rains, between Kalna and Murshidabad 
via NabadwTp. Numerous steamers pass up and down the Padma, and 
a steam ferry crosses that river from Kushtia to Pabna. 

Nadia suffered severely in the great famine of 1770. The worst 
famines of recent times were those of 1866 and 1896. On the former 

occasion relief from Government and private funds 

r , ., /-x 1 V Famine, 

was necessary from April to October ; 601,000 per- 
sons were gratuitously relieved, and 337,000 were employed on relief 
works. The famine of 1896 affected about two-fifths of the District 
including the Kalantar, the Meherpur subdivision, and the western 
portions of the Kushtia and Chuadanga subdivisions. The grant 
of reHef continued from November, 1896, until September, 1897, 
the total expenditure from public funds being 61 lakhs. The daily 
average number of persons employed on relief works was 8,913. In 
July, 1897, the average rose to 25,500 persons, and gratuitous relief 
was afforded daily to an average of 33,000 persons. 

For administrative purposes Nadia is divided into five subdivisions, 
with head-quarters at Krishnagar, Kushtia, Ranaghat, Meherpur, 

and Chuadanga. The District Magistrate is assisted 

11 1 rr r c- ^^ at • . Admiiiistration. 

at head-quarters by a staff of five Deputy-Magistrate- 

Collectors, one of whom is solely employed on land acquisition work. 
The Meherpur subdivision is in charge of an Assistant Magistrate- 
Collector, while the other subdivisional officers are Deputy-Magistrate- 
Collectors. 

For the disposal of civil work, the judicial staff subordinate to the 
District and Sessions Judge consists of a Sub-Judge and two Munsifs 
at Krishnagar, two Munsifs at Kushtia, and one each at Meherpur, 
Chuadanga, and Ranaghat. The criminal courts are those of the 
District and vSessions Judge, the District Magistrate, four Deputy- 
Magistrates at Krishnagar, and the subdivisional officers in the other 
subdivisions. No class of crime is now specially prevalent, but at the 
beginning of the nineteenth century the District was notorious for 
dacoity and rioting. 

The current land revenue demand for 1903-4 was 9-1 lakhs, due from 
2,492 estates. Of these, 2,216 with a revenue of 8-14 lakhs are per- 
manently settled, 246 estates paying Rs. 73,000 are temporarily settled, 
and 30 estates paying Rs. 22,000 are managed direct by the Collector. 



2 So 



NAD I A DISTRICT 



In addition, there are 299 revenue-free estates and 9,169 rent-free lands, 
which pay road and public works cesses. The gross rental of the 
District has been returned by the proprietors and tenure-holders at 
34 lakhs, and of this sum the Government revenue demand represents 
26-7 per cent. The incidence of the land revenue is R. 0-15-3 per 
acre on the cultivated area. 

The utbandi tenure is not peculiar to Nadia, but is especially common 
in this District, where about 65 per cent, of the cultivated land is held 
under it. The tenant pays rent only for the land he cultivates each 
year ; and he cannot acquire occupancy rights unless he tills the same 
land for twelve years consecutively, which in fact he rarely does. Mean- 
while the landlord can raise the rent at his pleasure, and if the tenant 
refuses to pay, he can be ejected. This tenure deprives the tenant of 
any incentive to improve his lands, and at the same time encourages 
rack-renting. It appears, however, to be gradually giving way to the 
ordinary system. Where the tenants have occupancy rights, the rent of 
rice land ranges from Rs. 1-4 to Rs. 4-8 an acre; garden land is rented 
at about Rs. 11 an acre, and land under special crops, such as chillies 
and sugar-cane, at Rs. 7-8 or even more. Lands leased under the 
utbandi system pay higher rents, as much as Rs. 12 to Rs. 23 being 
paid per acre, as compared with R. i to Rs. 2-9 for similar lands held 
on long leases. 

The following table shows the collections of land revenue and of 
total revenue (principal heads only), in thousands of rupees : — 





i88o-i.* 


iSgo-i. 


1900-1. 


1903-4. 


Land revenue . . 10,98 
Total revenue . . 16,68 


9.30 
'4>93 


9,10 
16,58 


9,04 
17,10 



* In 1880-1 tlie District included the subdivision of Bangaon, which was 
subsequently transferred to Jessorc. 

Outside the nine towns which enjoy municipal governmeui, local 
affairs are managed by a District board with five subdivisional local 
boards. The income of the District board in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,89,000, 
of which Rs. 90,000 was derived from rates ; and the expenditure 
was Rs. 1,42,000, including Rs. 74,000 spent on public works and 
Rs. 42,000 on education. 

The District contains 21 police stations and 13 outposts. In 1903 
the force at the disposal of the District Superintendent consisted of 
5 inspectors, 48 sub-inspectors, 47 head constables, and 627 constables, 
maintained at a cost of Rs. 1,38,000. There is one policeman to every 
5-4 sfjuare miles and to 3,231 persons, a much larger proportion than 
the Provincial average. Besides, there are 3,990 village chaitkldars 
under 347 daffaddrs. 

The District jail at Krishnagar has accommodation for 216 prisoners. 



NAD/ A RIVERS 281 

and subsidiary jails at each of the other subdivisional head-quarters for 
a total of 61. 

Nadia District, in spite of its proximity to Calcutta, is not especially 
remarkable for the diffusion of the rudiments of learning. In 1901 
the proportion of literate persons was 5>6 per cent. (10-4 males and 0-9 
females). The total number of pupils under instruction increased from 
about 20,000 in 1883 to 29,364 in 1892-3 and 31,102 in 1900-1, while 
31,573 boys and 3,442 girls were at school in 1903-4, being respectively 
25-4 and 2-7 per cent, of the number of school-going age. The number 
of educational institutions, public and private, in 1903-4 was 1,026, 
including an Arts college, 90 secondary, 887 primary, and 48 special 
schools. The expenditure on education was 3-26 lakhs, of which 
Rs. 62,000 was met from Provincial funds, Rs. 40,000 from District 
funds, Rs. 3,000 from municipal funds, and 1-37 lakhs from fees. 
Nadia has always been famous as a home of Sanskrit learning, and its 
tols, or indigenous Sanskrit schools, deserve special mention. In these 
Smriti (Hindu social and religious law) and Nyaya (logic) are taught, 
many of the pupils being attracted from considerable distances by the 
fame of these ancient institutions. A valuable report on these tols^ by 
the late Professor E. B. Cowell (Calcutta, 1867), contains a full account 
of the schools, the manner of life of the pupils, and the works studied. 
Most of the tols are in the town of NabadwTp, but there are a few also 
in the surrounding villages. 

In 1903 the District contained 13 dispensaries, of which 7 had 
accommodation for 52 in-patients. The cases of 66,000 out-patients 
and 646 in-patients were treated during the year, and 2,700 opera- 
tions were performed. The expenditure was Rs. 21,000, of which Rs. 
5,000 was met by Government contributions, Rs. 3,000 from Local 
and Rs. 10,000 from municipal funds, and Rs. 1,935 from subscriptions. 
In addition, the Zanana Mission maintains a hospital and three dis- 
pensaries, and large numbers of patients are treated by the doctors of 
the Ranaghat Medical Mission. 

Vaccination is compulsory only within municipal areas. In 1903-4 
the number of persons successfully vaccinated was 50,000, or -^-^ per 
1,000 of the whole population. 

[Sir W. W. Hunter's Statistical Account of Bengal, vol. ii (1875); 
Fever Commission's Report {CalQwiVa., 1881).] 

Nadia Town. — Town in Nadia District, Bengal. See Nabadwip. 

Nadia Rivers. — A group of offshoots of the Ganges which fiow 
through the Nadia and Murshidabad Districts of Bengal and unite to 
form the Hooghly. The Nadia rivers include the Bhacirathi, the 
Jalangi with the Bhairab, and the Matabhanga with the Churnl. 
These rivers represent old spill channels of the Ganges, and during the 
rains still carry down to the sea a portion of the flood-water from that 



282 NAD I A RIVERS 

river. Their condition as waterways and as the channels which feed 
the Hooghly from the Ganges is a matter of much importance to the 
trade of Calcutta, and during the hot season a weekly register of their 
depth is published as a guide to native merchants and boatmen. Since 
the end of the eighteenth century, however, increasing difficulty has been 
experienced in keeping them open for navigation throughout the year, 
as if left to themselves they silt up during the dry season. These 
channels, with an aggregate length of 470 miles, are controlled by 
Government ; and, though no permanent works have been constructed, 
such measures as are practicable are taken every year to confine the 
water, by means of bamboo spurs, to a limited channel, so as to force 
the current to scour the bars and to obtain a depth sufficient for naviga- 
tion by boats of small draught. For the services rendered tolls are 
levied at Jangipur, Hanskhali, and Swarupganj on vessels using the 
rivers. In 1902-3 the estimated value of the cargo carried was 183 
lakhs; and in 1903-4 the gross revenue amounted to Rs. 1,04,000, but 
there was a loss of Rs. 16,000 on the year's working. 

Nadiad Taluka. — Central tdluka of Kaira District, Bombay, lying 
between 22° 35' and 22° 53' N. and 72° 46' and 73° 5' E., with an area 
of 224 square miles. It contains two towns, Nadjad (population, 
31,435), the head-quarters, and Mahudha (8,544) ; and 91 villages, 
including Chaklasi (7,340). The population in 1901 was 148,452, 
compared with 171,084 in 1891. The density, 663 persons to the 
square mile, is much above the District average. The land revenue 
and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to more than 4-3 lakhs. Well-grown 
groves of fruit and timber trees, highly tilled fields girt with hedges, 
and large substantially built villages, prove the taluka to be one of 
the richest parts of Gujarat. 

Nadiad Town.— Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name 
in Kaira District, Bombay, situated in 22° 42' N. and 72° 52' E., on 
the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway, 29 miles south-east 
of Ahmadabad. Population (1901), 31,435, Hindus numbering 26,239, 
Muhammadans 4,468, and others 728. At the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century Nadiad was a large town with cotton and indigo manu- 
factures, and in 1775 was described as one of the prettiest cities of 
Gujarat, flanked by nine strong gates and a dry moat. In that year 
Raghunath Rao Peshwa levied upon it a fine of Rs. 60,000 for its 
adhesion to the cause of Fateh Singh Gaikwar. In 1838 it was said 
to be a thriving place, carrying on a considerable trade with Malwa. 
Nadiad has been a municipality since 1866, with an average income 
of Rs. 51,000 during the decade ending 1901. In 1903-4 the income 
was Rs. 44,000, derived chiefly from octroi (Rs. 19,000) and house and 
land tax (Rs. 11,000). The town is the centre of an extensive trade 
in tobacco and ght^ and contains a cotton mill, a brass foundry, and a 



NADUVATTAM 283 

sugar factory. There is also a model experimental farm. Nacliad has 
a high school with 287 pupils, and 2 middle schools with 142 pupils. 
It also contains 10 vernacular schools, 8 for boys, including one con- 
ducted by the Methodist Episcopal Mission, and 2 for girls, attended by 
1,676 and 311 pupils respectively. An industrial class is attached to 
the Methodist school. A Sub-Judge's court and a dispensary are 
located here. The town also contains a handsome public hall and 
library, known as the Dahi Lakshmi Library. 

Nadigaon. — Head-quarters of "a. pargana of the same name in Datia 
State, Central India, situated in 26° 7' N. and 79° 2' E., on the east 
bank of the Pahuj river, a tributary of the Sind. Population (1901), 
4,443. It is a town of old foundation, which has declined in importance 
of late years owing to isolation from roads and railways. The Nadigaon 
pargana is held from Sindhia, a yearly payment of Rs. 9,500 being 
made to that chief through the British Government. A school and a 
State post ofifice are situated in the town. The nearest railway station 
is Kunch on the Cawnpore branch of the Great Indian Peninsula 
Railway, 10 miles distant by country track. 

Nadiya. — District and town in Bengal. See Nadia and Nabadwip. 

Nadol. — Village in the Desuri district of the State of Jodhpur, 
Rajputana, situated in 25° 22' N. and 73° 27' E., about 8 miles from 
Jawali station on the Rajputana-Malwa Railway. Population (1901), 
3,050. The place is of historical interest as the former seat of a power- 
ful branch of the Chauhan Rajputs. Towards the end of the tenth 
century, Lakhan or Lachhman Raj, a younger son of Wakpati Raj, the 
Chauhan Rao of Sambhar, settled here, and his descendants ruled at 
Nadol for about 200 years till defeated and driven out by Kutb ud-din. 
Subsequently the place was held by the Ranas of Udaipur till about the 
end of the eighteenth century, when, along with the district of Godwar, 
it passed into the possession of the chiefs of Jodhpur. To the west of 
the village is a dilapidated old fort with square towers of primitive 
design, standing on the declivity of a ridge. Inside the fort is an 
extremely handsome Jain temple of Mahavira, built of light-coloured 
limestone and richly carved. Of the other numerous and interesting 
remains found in the vicinity of the village, the pillared temple called 
Khetla-ka-sthan deserves mention as being probably the oldest, but only 
eight massive columns now remain. To the east are the ruins of the 
ancient Nadol, on an extensive mound thickly covered with fragmentary 
pottery and burnt bricks ; here are the remains of four temples and an 
exquisitely carved stone toran or gateway. 

[J. Tod, RajastJian^ vol. i, pp. 696-8 ; A. Cunningham, Archaeological 
Survey of Northern India, \()1. xxiii, pp. 91-8.] 

Naduvattam. — Village in the Ootacamund taluk of the Nllgiri 
District, Madras, situated in ri° 29^ N. and 76° t^t^' E., on the edge of 

VOL. XVIII. T 



2 84 NADUVATTAM 

the north-western corner of the Nilgiri jilateau, and commanding 
magnificent views across the Gadah'ir tdhik below it and the Malabar 
Wynaad beyond. Population (1901), 2,500. Naduvattam stands on 
the main road leading from Ootacamund to Gudalur, and thence to 
the coast of Malabar. It is the centre of important cinchona and tea 
estates, and contains the Government cinchona plantations and factory, 
at which is manufactured the quinine sold to the public at all post 
ofifices in 7-grain packets costing three pies each. It has a healthy 
climate, and consequently forms the temporary head-quarters of the 
Gudalur tdliik office during the time when fever is worst in Gudalur. 
The village has a well-furnished travellers' bungalow, a resthousc for 
natives, and a police station. 

Naenwa. — Town in the north of the State of Bundi, Rajputana, 
situated in 25° 46" N, and 75° 51' E., about 27 miles north-east of Bundi 
town. Population (1901), 4,501. The town is surrounded by a wall 
and ditch, both in fair preservation, and is flanked on the north-east 
and south-west by three tanks, from which the fosse can be flooded at 
pleasure. The largest of these tanks, the Nawal Sagar, is said to have 
been built by a Solanki Rajput, Nawal Singh, in 1460. The town 
contains a handsome little palace and a vernacular school attended by 
40 boys. 

Naga Hills. -A District in Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying 
between 24° 42' and 26° 48' N. and 93° 7' and 94° 50 'Y.., with an 
area of 3,070 square miles. It is bounded on the north by Nowgong 
and Sibsagar ; on the west by the North Cachfir hills ; on the south 
by the State of Manipur ; and on the east by a line which follows for 
the most part the course of the Dikho and Tizu rivers, beyond which 
lie hills inhabited by independent tribes. The District consists of 
a long narrow strip of hilly country. The Barail range enters it from 
the west, and the Japvo peak a little to the south of 
ysica Kohima attains a height of nearly 10,000 feet. Here 

it is met by the meridional axis of elevation pro- 
longed from the Arakan Yoma, and from this point the main range 
runs in a north-north-easterly direction. The general effect is that of a 
gigantic L in the reverse position, the junction of the two arms forming 
an obtuse instead of a right angle, with minor ridges branching off on 
either side towards the east and west. The hills generally take the 
form of serrated ridges, clothed for the most part with dense forest and 
scrub and grass jungle, and separated from one another by deep 
valleys, through which a stream or river makes its way to the plains. 
The largest river in the District is the Doiang, but it is only navigable 
for a few miles within the hills. The channel is blocked by rocks at 
Nabha, or boats could proceed as far as the Mokokchung-Wokha road. 
The DiKHO is also navigable for a short distance within the hills, 



NAC/1 irTr.r.s 285 

though the head-hunting proclivities of the Iribes inhabiting the right 
bank might render the voyage dangerous ; but the same cannot be said 
of the Jhanzi and Disai, which flow tlirough the plains of Sibsagar into 
the Brahmaputra. East of the watershed is the Tizu with its tributary 
the Lanier, which falls into the Chindwin. 

The hills have never been properly explored, but they are believed 
to be composed of Pre-Tertiary rocks, overlaid by strata of the Tertiary 
age. 

The flora of the Naga Hills resembles that of vSikkim up to the same 
altitude. In their natural state, the hills are covered with dense ever- 
green forest ; and where this forest has been cleared for cultivation, 
high grass reeds and scrub jungle spring up in great profusion. 

The usual wild animals common to iXssam are found, the list includ- 
ing elephants, bison {Bos gaums), tigers, leopards, bears, serow, sCvnbar, 
and barking-deer, and the flying lemur {Nycticelus fardigradus). A 
horned pheasant [Tragopaii blythi) has also been shot in the hills. 

The climate generally is cool, and at KohTma the thermometer 
seldom rises above 80°. l"he higher hills are healthy, but during 
the rains the valleys and the lower ranges are decidedly malarious. 
The rainfall, as in the rest of Assam, is fairly heavy. At Kohima 
it is 76 inches in the year, but farther north, at Wokha and Tamlu, 
it exceeds 100 inches. The earthquake of June 12, 1897, was dis- 
tinctly felt, but not much damage was done, and there is no record 
of any serious convulsion of nature having ever occurred in the 
District. 

Of the early history of the Nagas, as of other savage tribes, very little 
is known. It is interesting, however, to note that Tavernier in the 
latter half of the seventeenth century refers to people 
in Assam, evidently Nagas, who wore pigs' tusks on ^ ^^' 

their caps, and very few clothes, and had great holes for ear-rings 
through the lobes of their ears, fashions that survive to the present day. 
In the time of the Ahom Rajas they occasionally raided the plains, but 
the more powerful princes succeeded in keeping them in check, and 
even compelled them to serve in their military expeditions. The first 
Europeans to enter the hills were Captains Jenkins and Pemberton, 
who marched across them in 1832. The story of the early British 
relations with these tribes is one of perpetual conflict. Between 1839 
and 1 85 1 ten military expeditions were led into the hills, the majority 
of which were dispatched to punish raids. After the last of these, in 
which the village of Kekrima, which had challenged the British troops 
to a hand-to-hand fight, lost 100 men, the Government of India 
decided upon a complete withdrawal, and an abstention from all inter- 
ference with the hillmen. The troops were recalled in March, 1851 ; 
and before the end of that year 22 Naga raids had taken place, in 

T 2 



286 A'AGJ hills 

which 55 persons were killed, lo wounded, and 113 taken captive. 
The policy of non-interference was still adhered to, but the results were 
far from satisfactory; and between 1853 and 1865, 19 raids were com- 
mitted, in which 233 British subjects were killed, wounded, or captured. 
The Government accordingly agreed to the formation of a new Dis- 
trict in 1866, with head-quarters at Samaguting. Captain Butler, who 
was appointed to this charge in 1869, did much to consolidate British 
power in the hills, and exploration and survey work were diligently 
pushed forward. These advances were, however, resented by the 
tribesmen ; and in February, 1875, Lieutenant Holcombe, who was in 
charge of one of the survey parties, was killed, with 80 of his followers. 
Butler himself was three times attacked, and was mortally wounded the 
f(jllowing Christmas Day by the Lhota Nagas of Pangti. Two years 
later his successor, Mr. Carnegy was accidentally shot by a sentry, when 
occupying the village of Mozema, which had refused to give up the 
persons guilty of a raid into North Cachar. In 1878 it was decided to 
transfer the head-quarters of the District to Kohima, in the heart of 
the Angaml country. During the rains of 1879 indications of trouble 
began to present themselves ; and before starting on his cold-season 
tour the Political Officer, Mr. Damant, determined to visit the powerful 
villages of Jotsoma, Khonoma, and Mozema. On reaching Khonoma, 
he found the gate of the village closed, and as he stood before it, he 
was shot dead. The Nagas then poured a volley into his escort, who 
turned and fled with a loss of 35 killed and 19 wounded. The whole 
country-side then rose and proceeded to besiege the stockade at 
Kohima, and the garrison were reduced to great straits before they 
were relieved by a force from Manipur. A campaign against the 
Nagas ensued, which lasted till March, 1880. The most notable event 
in this campaign was a daring raid made by a party of Khonoma men, 
at the very time when their village was in the occupation of British 
troops, upon the Baladhan garden in Cachar, where they killed the 
manager and sixteen coolies and burnt down everything in the place. 
Within the short space of five years four European officers while en- 
gaged in civil duties had come to a violent end ; but the Nagas had 
begun to learn their lesson, and under the able administration of 
Mr. McCabe the District was reduced to a condition of peace and 
order. In 1875 a subdivision was opened at VVokha to exercise con- 
trol over the Lhota Nagas, who on several occasions had attacked 
survey parties sent into the hills. Fourteen years later it was found 
possible to withdraw the European officer stationed there, and a sub- 
division was opened at MokokchOng in the Ao country. In 1898 the 
Mlklr and Rengma Hills, with the valley of the Dhansiri, which 
formed the most northerly part of the District as originally constituted, 
were transferred to Nowgong and Sibsagar. as, on the completion of 



POPULATION 



287 



the Assam-Bengal Railway, it was found more convenient to administer 
this tract of country from the plains than from Kohlma. Lastly, in 
1904, the tract formerly known as the 'area of political control' was 
formally incorporated in the District, and the boundary was pushed 
forward to the Tizu river, and even across it on the south so as to 
include four small Angami villages on the farther bank. 

A census of the hills was first taken in 1891, when the popu- 
lation was 96,637 ; in 1901 the number had risen to 102,402. 
The tract recently incorporated within the District 
contains about 30,000 persons. There are two sub- 
divisions, KoHiMA and jMokokchung, with head-quarters at places of 
the same names; and in 1901 the District contained one town, KohIma 
(population, 3,093), and 292 villages. The following table gives for 
each subdivision particulars of area, population, &c. The large increase 
which occurred in Mokokchung between 1891 and 1901 is due to 
immigration and to the addition of new territory. 



Subdivision. 


Area in square 
miles. 


Number of 


c 


(2 


11 


Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1901. 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 




Villages. 


Kohima . 
Mokokchung . 

District totnl 


2,337 
733 

3,070 


I 
I 


224 
68 


68,619 

33,783 


29 
46 


- 2.3 
+ 27.9 


j 1,380 


2Q2 


102,402 


33 


+ 5-9 


i,3Sc 



Nearly 96 per cent, of the population in 1901 were still faithful to 
their various forms of tribal religion. The American Baptist Mission 
has branches at Kohima and at Impur in the Mokokchung sub- 
division, and practically the whole of the native Christians (579) were 
members of this sect. The Nagas do not at present seem to be 
attracted to either Hinduism or Christianity. Both of these religions 
would, in fact, impose restraints upon their ordinary life, and would 
debar them from many pleasures, such as the consumption of beef 
and liquor, and a certain latitude in their sexual relations to which 
they have grown accustomed. 

The various languages of the Naga group, though classified under 
one generic head, differ very widely from one another, and in some 
cases the language spoken in one village would not be understood by 
people living only a short distance away. Angami, Chungll, and 
Lhota are in most general use. The principal tribes are the Angamis 
(27,500), the Aos (26,800), the Lhotas (19,300), and the Semas, who 
form the greater part of the population in the newly added territory. 

The term Naga is applied by the Assamese to a number of different 
tribes, the majority having as yet made little progress on the path of 



288 .VJGA hills 

civilization, who occup)- the hills between the Brahmaputra valley and 
Burma on the north and south, the Jaintia Hills on the west, and the 
country inhabited by the Khamtis and Singphos on the east. The 
Nagas, like the rest of the tribes of Assam, belong to the great Tibeto- 
Burman family, but they are differentiated from most of the other 
sections of the horde by their warlike and independent spirit and by 
their indifference to the sanctity of human life. Among the Nagas, 
society is seen resolved into almost its ultimate unit ; and, though they 
are divided into several different tribes, it must not be supposed that 
the tribe is the basis upon which their society has been organized. The 
most warlike and important tribe are the Angamis, who occupy the 
country round Kohlma. North of them come the Rengmas, then the 
Lhotas, while north and east of the Lhotas are the Aos, whose villages 
stretch up to the Dikho river. On the farther side of this river are 
a number of tribes with which we are at present but imperfectly 
acquainted, but the Semas live east of the Rengmas and the Aos. 

The Nagas, as a whole, are short and sturdy, with features of a 
markedly Mongolian type. The Lhotas are exceptionally ugly, and 
among all the tribes the average of female beauty is extremely low. 
The people, as a rule, are cheerful and friendly in times of peace, and 
are musically inclined. As they march along the roads they keep time 
to a chant, which is varied to suit the gradient and the length of step ; 
and they sing as they reap their rice, their sickles all coming forward in 
time to the music. East of the Dikho there are chiefs who enjoy 
certain privileges and exercise authority over their villages, and chiefs 
are also found among the Sema tribe. These chiefs hold their position 
by right of inheritance, and, as among the Lushais, the sons, as they 
grow up, move away and found separate villages. The ordinary Naga 
village is, however, a very democratic communit}-, and the leaders of 
the people exercise comparatively little influence. They are noted for 
their skill in war or in diplomacy, or for their wealth ; but their orders 
are obeyed only so far as they are in accord with the inclinations of the 
community at large, and even then the wishes of the majority are not 
considered binding on the weaker party. Among the Angamis, in fact, 
the social unit is not the village, but the khel (a term borrowed from 
the Afghan border), an exogamous subdivision of which there are 
several in each village. There is great rivalry between the khels, which, 
prior to British occupation, led to bitter blood-feuds. The following 
extract from the report of the Political Officer in 1876 shows the utter 
want of unity in an AngamI Naga village : — 

' In the middle of July a party of forty men from Mozema went over 
to KohTma and were admitted by one of the kheh friendly to them, 
living next to the Puchatsuma quarter, into which they passed and 
killed all they could find, viz. one man and twenty-five women and 



POPULATION '289 

children. The people of the other khels made no effort to interfere, 
but stood looking on. One of the onlookers told me that he had never 
seen such fine sport as the killing of the children, for it was just like 
killing fowls.' 

This extraordinary separation oi khel {xoxi\. khel is the more remarkable, 
in that they must all be intimately connected by marriage, as a man is 
compelled to take his wife from some khei other than his own. 

The villages are, as a rule, built on the tops of hills, and, except 
among the Semas, are of considerable size, Kohima containing about 
Soo houses. They are strongly fortified and well guarded against 
attack. The houses are built closely together, in spite of the frequency 
of destructive fires. The posts and rafters are of solid beams, and the 
roof at the sides reaches nearly to the ground. Those of the Lhotas 
and Aos are laid out in regular streets, but there is a complete lack of 
symmetry in the AngamI and Sema villages. 

Among the naked Nagas the men are often completely destitute of 
clothing, and it is said that the women when working in the fields 
sometimes lay aside the narrow strip of cloth which is their solitary 
garment. At the opposite end of the scale come the Angamis, whose 
dress is effective and picturesque. Their spears and daos are orna- 
mented with red goats' hair, and they wear gaiters and helmets of dyed 
cane, and brightly coloured sporrans. The Aos, too, have a nice taste 
in dress. But the Lhotas are an untidy dirty tribe ; and the working 
dress for a man consists of a small cloth passed between the legs and 
fastened round the waist, which barely serves the purpose for which it 
is intended, while a woman contents herself with a cloth, about the size 
of an ordinary hand towel, round her waist. Both sexes are fond of 
ornaments, and used jjigs' tusks, sections of an elephant's tusk, agates, 
carnelians, necklaces of beads, shells, and brass ear-rings. The weapons 
used by all the tribes arc spears, shields, and daos, or billhooks. Their 
staple food is rice, but few things come amiss to a Naga, and they 
eat pigs, bison, dogs, ^7// (big lizards), and pythons, and any kind of 
game, however putrid. Like other hill tribes, they are great drinkers 
of fermented beer. 

Oaths are generally confirmed by invoking the wrath of Heaven 
on the swearer if he tells a lie. An AngamI who has sworn by the 
lives of his khel will never tell a lie. He bares one shoulder, and 
places his foot in a noose in which a piece of cow-dung has been placed 
before taking the oath. The most careful supervision is, however, 
necessary to ensure that the correct formula is employed, as by some 
verbal quibble he may exempt himself from all liability. The van- 
quished, too, occasionally eat dirt in a literal sense as testimony to the 
sincerity of their vows. 

Adult marriage only is in vogue, and prior to the performance of 



2 96 NAG A HILLS 

that ceremony the girls are allowed great latitude. Those of the Aos 
slee[) in separate houses two or three together, and are visited nightly 
by their lovers. These lovers are, as a rule, members of the girl's 
own khel, whom she is debarred by custom from marrying : and, as 
illegitimate children are rare, it is to be presumed that abortion and 
infanticide are not unknown. The former practice is in vogue among 
the Aos, while of the Angamis it was said to have been the rule for 
the girl to retire alone into the jungle when she felt her time approach- 
ing, and strangle the baby, when it was born, with her own hands. 
The other tribes are not quite so frankly promiscuous as the Aos, but 
a Naga bride who is entitled to wear the orange blossom of virginity 
on the occasion of her marriage is said to be extremely rare. The 
following is a description of the marriage ceremony of the Angamis : 
The young man, having fixed his choice upon a certain girl, tells his 
father, who sends a friend to ascertain the wishes of her parents. 
If they express conditional approval, the bridegroom's father puts the 
matter further to the test by strangling a fowl and watching the way in 
which it crosses its legs when dying. If the legs are placed in an 
inauspicious attitude, the match is immediately broken off; but if this 
catastrophe is averted, the girl is informed of the fiivourable progress 
of the negotiations. At this stage, she can exercise a power of veto, 
as, if she dreams an inauspicious dream within the next three days, 
her suitor must seek a bride elsewhere; but if all goes favourably, the 
wedding day is fixed. Proceedings open with a feast at the bride's 
house, and in the evening she proceeds to her husband's home ; but, 
though she sleeps there, he modestly retires to the bachelors' club. 
The next day brings more feasting, but night separates the young 
couple as before. On the third day they visit their fields together, but 
not till eight or nine days have elapsed is the village priest called in, 
and the happy pair allowed to consummate their wishes. The 
Angamis and the Aos do not, as a rule, pay money for their wives, but 
among the Lhotas and the Semas the father of the girl generally receives 
from 80 to 100 rupees. Divorces are not uncommon, especially in the 
case of the Angamis, who do not take more than one wife at a time. 
Widows are allowed to remarry, but those of the Angami tribe are 
expected to refrain from doing so if they have children. 

The dead are, as a rule, buried in shallow graves in close vicinity to 
their homes. The funeral is an occasion for much eating and drinking, 
and among the Angamis the whole of a man's property is sometimes 
dissipated on his funeral baked meats. The friends of the deceased 
lament vociferously round the grave till the coffin has been lowered. 
The conclusion of the ceremony is thus described by the late Mr. 
McCabe, the officer who had most to do with the pacification of the 
hills :— 



AGRICULTURE 291 

' At this stage of the proceedings, the friends of the deceased 
suddenly stopped sobbing, dried their eyes, and marched off in a 
most businesshke manner. A civiHzed Naga, who had been as 
demonstrative with his umbrella as his warrior friends had been with 
their spears, solemnly closed it and retired. A large basketful of 
dhdn (rice), millet, ddl (pulse), and Job's-tears was now thrown into 
the grave, and over this the earth was rapidly filled in.' 

The Aos, however, do not bury their dead, Init place them in 
bamboo coffins and smoke them for a few weeks in the outer room of 
the liouse. The corpse is then removed to the village cemetery, and 
placed on a bamboo platform. This cemetery invariably occupies one 
side of the main road leading to the village gate. 

During the father's lifetime his sons receive shares of his landed 
property as they marry, with the result that the youngest son usually 
inherits his father's house. The religion of the Nagas does not differ 
materially from that of the other hill tribes in Assam. They have 
a vague belief in a future life, and attribute their misfortunes to the 
machinations of demons, whom they propitiate with offerings. 

The custom which has attracted most attention, and which differen- 
tiates the Nagas from other Tibeto-Burman tribes, such as the Bodos, 
Mrkirs, Dallas, and sub- Himalayan people, is their strange craving for 
iiuman heads. Any head was x-alued, whether of man, woman, or 
child ; and victims were usually murdered, not in fair fight, but by 
treachery. Sometimes expeditions on a large scale were undertaken, 
and several villages combined to make a raid. Even then they 
would usually retire if they saw reason to anticipate resistance. Most 
Angamis over fifty have more than one head to their credit, and the 
chief interpreter in the Kohima court is said to have taken eighteen in 
his unregenerate days. Head-hunting is still vigorously prosecuted by 
Nagas living beyond the frontier, and human sacrifices are offered to 
ensure a good rice harvest. A curious custom is the genua, which 
may affect the village, the khel, or a single house. Persons under 'a 
genua remain at home and do no work ; nothing can be taken into or 
brought out of their village, and strangers cannot be admitted. Among 
other quaint beliefs, the Nagas think that certain men possess the power 
of turning themselves into tigers, while the legend of the Amazons is 
represented by a village in the north-east, peopled entirely by women, 
who are visited by traders from the surrounding tribes, and thus 
enabled to keep up their numbers. 

The ordinary system of cultivation is that known as jJium. The 
jungle growing on the hill-side is cut down, and tlie undergrowth is 
burned, the larger trees being left to rot where . 

they lie. The ground is then lightly hoed over, 
and seeds of rice, maize, millet, Job's-tears (Coix Lacryma), chillies, 



292 JVAGA HTLLS 

and various kinds of vegetables dibbled in. The same plot of 
land is cropped only for two years in succession, and is then 
allowed to lie fallow for eight or nine years. Further cropping would 
be liable to destroy the roots of ikra and bamboo, whose ashes 
serve as manure when the land is next cleared for cultivation, while 
after the second harvest weeds spring up with such rapidity as to be 
a serious impediment to cultivation. Cotton is grown, more especially 
on the northern ridges inhabited by the Lhotas and Aos, who bring 
down considerable quantities for sale to the ISIarwaris of Golaghat. A 
more scientific form of cultivation is found among the Angami Nagas, 
whose villages are surrounded by admirably constructed terraced rice- 
fields, built up with stone retaining-walls at different levels, and 
irrigated by means of skilfully constructed channels, which distribute 
the water over each step in the series. This system of cultivation is 
believed to have extended northwards from Manipur, and to have been 
adopted by the AngamTs, partly from their desire for better kinds of 
grain than Job's-tears and millet, as jhuin rice does not thrive well at 
elevations much exceeding 4,000 feet, and partly from a scarcity of 
jhum land. It has the further advantage of enabling the villagers to 
grow their crops in the immediate neighbourhood of their homes, 
a consideration of much importance before the introduction of British 
rule compelled the tribes to live at peace with one another. Efforts 
are now being made to introduce this system of cultivation among 
the Aos and the Semas. 'I'he Xagas do not use the plough, and the 
agricultural implements usually employed are light hoes, daos, rakes, 
and sickles. No statistics are available to show the cultivated area, or 
the area under different crops. Little attempt has been made to intro- 
duce new staples. Potatoes when first tried did not flourish, but a 
subsequent experiment has been more successful. 

Cattle are used only for food, and are in consequence sturdier and 
fatter animals than those found in the plains of Assam. The 
domesticated viithan iyBos frontalis) is also eaten ; but the Nagas, like 
other hill tribes in Assam, do not milk their cows. 

The whole of the hills must once have been covered with dense 
evergreen forest: but \hejhf{fn system of cultivation, which necessitates 
the periodical clearance of an area nearly five or six times as large as 
that under cultivation in any given year, is very unfavourable to tree 
growth. A ' reserved ' forest, covering an area of 63 square miles, has 
recently been constituted in the north-east corner of the District. 
Elsewhere, the tribes are allowed to use or destroy the forest produce 
as they please. In the higher ridges oaks and pines are found, while 
lower down the most valuable trees are goi/iari {Gmch'na arborca\ 
poma {Cednla Toona), sum {Artocarpus C/ia//as/ia), and iiriatn {/>is- 
chojia javanica). 



AD MINIS TKA TION 2 93 

The District has never been properly explored, but the hills over- 
looking the Sibsagar plain contain three coal-fields — the Nazira, the 
Jhanzi, and the Disai. The Nazira field is estimated to contain about 
35,000,000 tons of coal, but little has been done to work it. The coal 
measures contain iron ore in the shape of clay ironstone and impure 
limonite, and petroleum is found in the Nazira and Disai fields. 

The manufacturing industries of the Naga Hills are confined to the 

production of the few rude articles required for domestic use. 'J'he 

most important is the weaving of coarse thick cloth 

of various patterns, the prevailing colours being dark iraaeand 
, , . ^ ' \ ^ '^ , , , f , communications. 

blue — m some cases so dark as to be almost black — 

with red and yellow stripes, white, and brown. Many of these cloths 

are tastefully ornamented with goat's hair dyed red and cowries. Iron 

spear-heads, daos, hoes, and rough pottery are also made. The 

Angami Nagas display a good deal of taste in matters of dress, and 

a warrior in full uniform is an impressive sight ; but the majority of 

the tribes wear little clothing, and only enough is woven to satisfy the 

wants of the household. 

^^'holesale trade is entirely in the hands of the Marwari merchants 
known as Kayahs. The principal imports are salt, thread, kerosene 
oil, and iron ; and Kohima is the largest business centre. The Nagas 
trade in cotton, chillies, and boats, which they exchange for cattle 
and other commodities from the plains. The most important trading 
villages are Khonoma, Mozema, and Lozema, and the tribes who are 
keenest at a bargain are the Semas and Angamis. Members of the 
latter tribe sometimes go as far afield as Rangoon, Calcutta, and 
Bombay, but the Semas never venture beyond the boundaries of their 
own Pro^•ince. 

In 1903-4, 73 miles of cart-roads and 470 miles of bridle-paths 
were maintained in the District. The cart-road from Dimapur to Mani- 
pur runs across the hills, connecting Kohima with the Assam-Bengal 
Railway. (Generally speaking, the means of communication in the 
District are sufficient for the requirements of its inhabitants. 

For administrative purposes, the District is divided into two sub- 
divisions, Kohima and Mokokchung. The Deputy-Commissioner is 

stationed at Kohima, and has one Assistant, who is ... . 

,,,,,„ ... ^ Administration. 

usually a European. Mokokchung is in charge ot 

a European police officer, and an engineer and a civil surgeon are 

posted to the District. 

The High Court at Calcutta has no jurisdiction in the District, 

except in criminal cases in w'hich European British subjects are 

concerned ; the Codes of Criminal and Civil Procedure are not in 

force, and the Deputy-Commissioner exercises powers of life and death, 

subject to confirmation by the Chief Commissioner. Many disputes, 



294 



,VAGA HILLS 



both of a ci\il and criminal nature, are decided in the village without 
reference to the courts. Theft is punished by the Nagas with the 
utmost severity. If a man takes a little grain from his neighbour's 
field, he forfeits not only his own crop, but the land on which it has 
been grown, while theft from a granary entails expulsion from the 
village and the confiscation of the offender's property. Generally 
speaking, the policy of Government is to interfere as little as possible 
with the customs of the people, and to discourage the growth of any 
taste for litigation. Considering the short time that has elapsed since 
the Nagas were redeemed from barbarous savagery, the amount of 
serious crime that takes place within the boundaries of the District is 
comparatively small. 

Land revenue is not assessed, except on a small estate held by the 
American Baptist Mission. A tax at the rate of Rs. 3 per house is 
realized from the Angami Nagas. For other Nagas the rate is Rs. 2 
and for foreigners Rs. 5. 

The table below shows the revenue from house tax and the total 
revenue, in thousands of rupees: — 





1880-1. 


1890-1. 


1900-1. 


1903-4- 


Revenue from house tax 
Total revenue 


12 

24* 


45 
78 


^9 
83 


58 
1,05 



* Exclusive of forest receipts. 

The civil police consist of 29 head constables and men under a sub- 
inspector, but their sphere of action does not extend beyond Kohima 
town and the Manipur cart-road. The force which is really responsible 
for the maintenance of order in the District is the military police 
battalion, which has a strength of 72 officers and 598 men. Prisoners 
are confined in a small jail at Kohima, which has accommodation 
for 32 persons. 

Education has not made much progress in the hills since they first 
came under British rule. The number of pupils under instruction in 
1890-1, 1900-r, and 1903-4 was 297, 319, and 647 respectively. At 
the Census of 1901 only 1-3 per cent, of the population (2-5 males 
and o-i females) were returned as literate. There were i secondary, 
22 primary, and 2 special schools in the District in 1903-4, and 76 
female scholars. More than two-thirds of the pupils at school were in 
primary classes. Of the male population of school-going age, 5 per 
cent, were in the primary stage of instruction. The total expenditure 
on education in 1903-4 was Rs. 6,000, of which Rs. 256 was derived 
from fees. About 32 per cent, of the direct expenditure was devoted 
to primary schools. 

The District possesses 3 hospitals, with accommodation for 24 in- 



NAGAR TALUK 295 

patients. In 1904 the number of cases treated was 21,000, of whom 
500 were in-patients, and 200 operati(jns were performed. The 
expenditure was Rs. 5,000, the whole of which was met from 
Provincial revenues. 

The advantages of vaccination are fully appreciated by the people, 
and, though in 1903-4 only 39 per 1,000 of the population were pro- 
tected, this was largely below the average for the five preceding years. 

[B. C. Allen, District Gazetteer of the Ndgd Hills (1905). A 
monograph on the Naga tribes is under preparation.] 

Nagamangala. — Northern idluk of Mysore District, Mysore State, 
lying between 12° 40' and 13° 3' N. and 76° 35' and 76° 56' E., with 
an area of 401 square miles. The population in 1901 was 76,581, 
compared with 69,265 in 1891. The idluk contains one tcnvn, Naga- 
mangala (population, 3,516), the head-quarters ; and 366 villages. 'I'hc 
land revenue demand in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,23,000. The Shimsha 
river forms part of the eastern boundary, while the Lokapa-\ani has its 
source in the south-west. Rocky hills in the north and west are partly 
covered with scrub jungle. West of Nagamangala is a hill of talcose 
argillite, like potstone, used for pencils. There are about 130 tanks, 
30 of them being large. The soil is generally poor and rdgi is the 
staple crop. Rice is almost the only ' wet crop.' The areca gardens 
were destroyed in the famine of 1878, but some coco-nut trees survived. 
Sheep are abundant. Fine draught bullocks are bred, Karadihalli 
being the centre for the breed of Hallikar cattle. 

Nagapatnam. — Subdivision, tdhik, and town in Tanjore District, 
Madras. See Negapatam. 

Nagar. — Chiefship in Kashmir. See Hunza-Nagar. 

Nagar Taluka. — Tdluka of Thar and Parkar District, Sind, Bom- 
bay, lying between 24^^ 14' and 25° 2' N. and 70° 31'' E., bordering 
on the Rann of Cutch, with an area of 1,618 square miles. The 
population fell from 41,178 in 1891 to 25,355 in 1901. The tdluka 
contains 31 villages, of which Nagar Parkar is the head-quarters. The 
density, 16 persons per square mile, is below the District average. 
The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 28,000. 
The tdluka, which grows chiefly bdjra, depends for cultivation upon 
the rainfall and a few wells, and is therefore subject to famine. 

Nagar Taluk. — Western tdli/k of Shimoga District, Mysore, lying 
between 13° 36' and 14° 6' N. and 74° 5 2'' and 75° 23' E., with an area 
of 528 square miles. The population in 1901 was 40,455, compared 
with 42,841 in 1 89 1. The tdluk contains two towns, Kalurkatte (popu- 
lation, 918), the head-quarters, and Nagar (715); and 205 villages. 
The land revenue demand in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,16,000. I'Lxcept in 
the north the tdluk is surrounded by mountains and hills, the 
streams from which flow north-west, uniting in the Sharavati. Those 



2 or, NAGAR TALUK 

in ihe south-west run directly ddwn the (ihats westward, and reach the 
sea at Coondapoor. In the north-west is the isolated Honnar /io/>Ii 
belonging to South Kanara, part of the endowments of a temple at 
Kollur below the Ghats. The principal mountain within the taluk 
is Kodachadri (4,411 feet), in the north-west. North of this is the 
Kollur ghdi road to the low country, and in the south-west the Haidar- 
garh or Hosangadi ghat road. The ta/uk is purely Malnad or 
' highland,' the whole densely wooded. The south is composed of 
a cluster of hills, in a basin formed by which is situated Nagar town, 
formerly called Bednur. The most open part is the valley of the 
Sharavati. West of this the country becomes wilder and wilder as 
the Ghats are approached. East and north of the Sharavati the 
country is generally more level. The forests here are dense and contain 
more timber-trees than the west, where the soil is shallower, with much 
laterite. Areca-nuts, pepper, cardamoms, and rice are the products 
of this region. There are no 'dry crops.' The areca-nuts are of the 
first quality, but the gardens largely belong to Brahmans, who are 
dependent for their cultivation on imported labour. Rice is exported 
to the coast, and areca-nuts by way of Birur to Bellary and Walajapet. 
All other articles of consumption and clothing are brought from the 
plain country, partly by merchants who come to buy areca-nuts, but 
chiefly by ryots from Tirthahalli, Avinhalli, and Kollur, either on 
bullocks or by porters. 

Nagar Town. — Town in the Nagar tdhik of Shimoga District, 
Mysore, situated in 13° 49' N. and 75° 2' E., 55 miles west of 
Shimoga town. Population (1901), 715, less than half what it was 
before the removal of the ia/uk head-quarters in 1893. The place 
was originally called Bidaruhalli, 'bamboo village'; about 1640 it 
became the capital of the Keladi kings under the name of Bidarur 
or Bidanur (Bednur). It grew so rapidly that it is said to have con- 
tained nearly 100,000 houses, and was called Nagara ('the city'). 
The walls were 8 miles in circumference, and had ten gates. The city 
was taken in 1763 by Haidar All, who gave it the name Haidarnagar, 
established there his principal arsenal and mint, and encouraged 
merchants to settle in the place. It suffered much during the wars 
with Tipu Sultan, and in 1783 was captured by the British, but was 
retaken. Tipu desired to restore its prosperity, but his fanatical 
religious and other measures ruined the place. Nagar, as it was called 
from 1789, was a centre of the insurrection of 1830. The munici- 
pality, formed in 1881, became a Union in 1904. The receipts and 
expenditure during the ten years ending 1901 averaged Rs. 600. In 
1903-4 they were Rs. 600 and Rs. 980. 

Nagar Village (r). — Ancient capital of Bu-bhum District, Bengal. 
See Rajnagar. 



ALICIA' h'.IRyUL 



29: 



Nagar Village (j). -X'illage in Tunjore District, Madras. St'c 
Nfx^ai'atam. 

Nagar Village (3). — Village in the Kulu subdivision and ia/istl of 
Kangra District, Punjab, situated in 32° 7' N. and 77° 14' E., on the 
left bank of the Beas river, 14 miles north of Sultanpur, the tahsll 
head-quarters. Population (1901), 591. Nagar was the capital of 
the Kulu Rajas, whose ancient palace crowns an eminence looking 
down upon the river from a height of about 1,000 feet, and is now 
used as the residence of the Assistant Commissioner, Kulu. It was 
greatly damaged by the earthquake of April 4, 1905. It commands 
a magnificent view, and itself forms a striking feature of the village. 
Nagar is also the head-quarters of the Kulu Forest division and of 
the Assistant Engineer, Kulu, and contains a post and telegraph office. 

Nagarakhanda. — An ancient province corresponding generally 
with the Shikarpur idliik of Shimoga District in Mysore. It was 
a ' seventy ' province, and its capital was at Bandanikke, or Bandalikke, 
also called Bandhavapura, now deserted and in ruins. According to 
an old inscription, Nagarakhanda was at one time ruled by 'the wise 
Chandra Gupta.' 

Nagaram Island. — Island in Godavari District, Madras, lying 
between 16° 20' and 16° 35' N. and 81° 44' and 81° 57' E. It is 
surrounded by the western mouth of the Godavari (Vasishta), a large 
branch of this called the Vainateyam, and the Bay of Bengal. The 
island has an area of 137 square miles, and is one of the most fertile 
parts of the fertile Godavari District. The Gannavaram aqueduct 
across the Vainateyam connects it with the navigation and irrigation 
system of the Central Godavari Delta. This work, the largest of its 
kind in the delta, consists of 49 arches of 40 feet span, and is con- 
structed to carry 70,000 cubic yards of water per hour. It irrigates 
about 33,000 acres. A large part of the island is devoted to coco-nut 
plantations and plantain gardens. 

Nagar Devla. — Town in the Pachora tdluka of East Khandesh Dis- 
trict, Bombay, situated in 20° 35' N. and 75° 16' E., about 5 miles 
east of Kajgaon station. Population (1901), 6,050. ^Vest of the town 
is a ruined Hemadpanti temple of Mahadeo. The town contains 
a school for boys wath 190 pupils. 

Nagar Karnul.— South-eastern taluk of Mahbubnagar District, 
Hyderabad State, with an area of 621 square miles. Its population 
in 1901, including yVfo-Jn', was 77,095, compared with 73,155 in 1891. 
The tdlnk contained 146 villages, of which 19 are j'dglr. In 1905 
some villages from this taluk were transferred to Amrabad, and the 
number of khdlsa villages in it is now 112. Nagar Karnul (popula- 
tion, 2,428) is the head-quarters. The land revenue in 1901 was 2-5 
lakhs. The Wanparti and Gopalpet samasthdns are situated to the 



29S NAGAR KARNUL 

south-west, with populations of 62,293 and 16,301, and 124 and 35 
villages, respectively. Their areas are about 599 and 169 square miles. 
Farther south lies the samasthan of Jatpol with 89 villages, a popula- 
tion of 31,613, and an area of about 429 square miles. 

Nagarkot. — Ancient town in Kangra District, Punjab. See Kangra. 

Nagarkcvil. — Town in Travancore State, Madras. See Nagercoil, 

Nagar Parkar. — Head-quarters of the Nagar talnka in Thar and 
Parkar District, Sind, Bombay, situated in 24° 21' N. and 70° 47' E., 
120 miles south of Umarkot. Population (1901), 2,454. It is con- 
nected by good roads with Islam Kot, Mithi, Adigaon, Pitapur, Birani, 
and Bela in Cutch. The manufactures include weaving and dyeing of 
cloth ; and there is a local trade in wool, grain, coco-nuts, piece-goods, 
hides, and metals, besides a transit- trade in grain, camels, cattle, wool, 
and ghl. The village is believed to be of some antiquity ; about a 
mile distant is Sardhara, with a temple to Mahadeo, and a spring sacred 
among Hindus. In 1859 Nagar Parkar was the scene of a rebellion, 
for the supi)ression of which a British force was dispatched from 
Hyderabad. The ringleaders were transported for a term of years. 
Four miles north-west from Nagar Parkar in Bhodisar are the remains of 
three ancient Jain structures, supposed to have been built in 1375 and 
1449. '^he town contains a dispensary and two vernacular schools, 
attended by 152 pupils, of which one with 56 pupils is a girls' school. 

Nagaur. — Head-quarters of a district of the same name in the 
State of Jodhpur, Rajputana, situated in 27° 12' N. and 73° 44' E., on 
the Jodhpur-Bikaner Railway. Population (1901), 13,377. The town 
possesses a post office, an Anglo-vernacular school, and a hospital. 
The principal manufactures are brass and iron utensils, ivory toys, 
camel saddles, and cotton cloth. The town is said to take its name 
from its traditional founders, the Naga Rajputs, and was held succes- 
sively by PrithwT Raj Chauhan, Muhammad Ghori, and the chiefs of 
Jodhpur, save for a time when it was possessed by the Bikaner chief 
by grant from vVkbar, and by another Rathor family by grant from 
Shah Jahan. The town wall is more than 4 miles in length, between 
2\ and 5 feet thick, and on the average 17 feet high. The battlements 
bear many Arabic and Persian inscriptions, obtained from mosques 
demolished by Maharaja Bakht Singh in order to repair breaches 
caused in warfare. Of the numerous religious edifices, two Hindu 
temples and a five-domed mosque are especially noteworthy. The fort, 
rising above the town, has a double wall nearly a mile long, the outer 
being 25 feet and the inner 50 feet above the ground, with a thickness 
of more than 30 feet at the base and about 12 feet at the top. The 
principal objects of interest in the fort are some palaces, a fountain 
with seventeen jets (dating from Akbar's reign), a mosque erected by 
Shah Jahan, and a cave claimed by both Hindus and Musalmans 



NAG In A TOWN ig^j 

as a place of retreat for their former saints. The Nagaur district fur- 
nishes a fine breed of bullocks, fiimous throughout Northern India. 
The village of Manglod (20 miles east of Nagaur town) has a very 
old temple with a Sanskrit inscription dated a.d. 604, which records 
its repair during the reign of a king Dhuhlana. This is the oldest 
inscription yet discovered in Jodhpur. 

Nagercoil (Aa^i^ar/wv//, 'the temple of the serpent'). — Town in the 
Agastiswarani /<i/a/c of Travancore State, Madras, situated in 8° 10' N. 
and 77" 27' E., within 7 miles of the Aramboli pass. Population 
(1901), 25,782, consisting of 20,045 Hindus, 2,570 Musalmans, and 
3,167 Christians. Once the capital of Travancore, it is now the 
head-quarters of a District and Sessions Judge, a Munsif, and other 
officials. The London Missionary Society maintains a college, schools, 
a printing press, and a hospital. The native Christian women turn 
out fme lace which commands a brisk sale. 

Nagina Tahsil. — North-eastern /a/isi/ of Bijnor District, United 
Pro\inces, comprising the parganas of Nagina, Barhapura, and Afzal- 
garh, and lying between 29° 13^ and 29° 43' N. and 78° 17' and 
78° 57' E., with an area of 453 square miles. Population fell from 
183,147 in 1891 to 156,898 in 1901. There are 464 villages and two 
towns: NagIna (population, 21,412), the tahsil head-quarters, and 
Afzalgarh (6,474). '^ 1''6 demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 
Rs. 2,76,000, and for cesses Rs. 49,000. The density of population, 
346 persons per square mile, is the lowest in the District. The tahsil 
contains a considerable area of forest. It is crossed by several small 
streams, and also by the Ramganga and its tributary the Khoh. The 
soil is rich, and irrigation is i)rovided in the Nagina pargaiia by small 
canals from the Khoh and Gangan ; but the climate is not healthy, 
and the considerable decrease of population between 1891 and 1901 
is due to the unfavourable seasons ending with the excessive rain of 
1894. Cultivation also suffers from the depredations of wild animals. 
In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 197 square miles, of which 
14 were irrigated. Canals supply the greater part of the irrigated area. 

Nagina Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name in 
Bijnor District, United Provinces, situated in 29° 27' N. and 78° 26' E., 
on the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway, and at the terminus of a 
metalled road from Bijnor. Population (1901), 21,412, of whom 
14,887 were Musalmans. The early history of the town is unknown, 
but it is mentioned in the Ain-i-Akbar~i as head-quarters of a mahdl or 
pargana. During the rise of the Rohilla power in the middle of the 
eighteenth century a fort was built here. In 1805 the place was sacked 
by the Pindaris under Amir Khan, and from 181 7 to 1824 it was the 
head-quarters of the newly-formed District called Northern Moradabad. 
During the Mutiny the town was the scene of several conflicts between 

VOL. XVIIl. U 



300 NAG In A TOWN 

rival parties, as well as of the final defeat of the rebels on April 21, 
1858, which crushed the revolt in Bijnor. Nagina is a large and busy 
place, with good brick houses and paved streets, which drain into a 
tributary of the Khoh on the east and into the Karula on the west. 
It contains the old fort, now used as a tahsili, a dispensary, a tahsill 
school, and a branch of the American Methodist Mission. Nagina 
has been a municipality since 1886. During the ten years ending 
1901 the income and expenditure averaged Rs. 12,000. In 1903-4 
the income was Rs. 18,000, chiefly from octroi (Rs. 15,000); and the 
expenditure was Rs. 18,000. A market is held twice a week, when 
there is a considerable trade in sugar, rice, and cotton. Nagina is 
celebrated for the excellent workmanship of its carved ebony wares, 
such as walking-sticks, trays, boxes, &c., which are frequently inlaid 
with ivory. Large quantities of small glass phials are blown here, and 
exported to Hardwar for the pilgrims who carry away Ganges water in 
them. In former days matchlocks were largely made, and some iron- 
work is still produced. Hempen sacking and ropes and lacquered 
goods are also made. The tahsill school has 192 pupils, and the 
municipality aids 12 primary schools attended by 513 pupils. 

Nagod State (or Unchahra). — A sanad State in Central India, 
under the Political Agent in Baghelkhand, lying between 24° 12' and 
24° 39' N. and 80'^ 28' and 80° 53' E., with an area of about 501 square 
miles. Until the eighteenth century the State was known as Unchahra, 
from the name of its original capital. It is cut up into two sections, 
the isolated pargaiia of Dhanwahi, which lies east of Maihar, having 
been granted in 1859 in recognition of good services rendered during 
the Mutiny. The greater part of the territory is situated in the high- 
level plain to the east of the Panna range, but a small portion falls 
within the hilly tract. Nagod is watered by the Satna river, a tributary 
of the Tons, and by several smaller streams, which are not, however, 
available for irrigation. 

Geologically, Nagod presents several features of interest. The 
greater part is covered with fine sandstones of the Bandair (Bhander) 
series and the Sirbu shales. Limestone of a superior quality, known 
commercially as Nagod limestone, is met with in the form of low hills 
close to the chief town, supplying the most valuable source of lime 
known in India. In 1828 Captain Franklin announced the existence 
of fossil remains in this rock ; but subsequent search has failed to 
substantiate this discovery, which, as giving a clue to the age of the 
Vindhyans, would have been of the highest scientific importance. 
The famous Bharhut stupa was constructed of the Bandair sandstone, 
the excellence of which is proved by the marvellous sharpness of the 
carving on the fragments discovered. 

The chiefs of Nagod are Parihar Rajputs, one of the four Agnikula 



NAGOD STATE 301 

clans, whose traditional home is on Mount Abu. The history of their 
migration into Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand is of considerable 
interest, but exceedingly ditScult to unravel. In the seventh century 
the Gaharwars held Bundelkhand, but were driven out or at least 
subordinated by an incursion of Parihar Rajputs from the west, who 
established themselves in the country l}ing between Mahoba and Mau 
(near Chhatarpur\ and rapidly extended their sway over most of this 
region. In the ninth century they in their turn became subordinate to 
the great Chandel clan : and, though not exterminated, a large section 
was obliged to migrate still farther eastwards into Baghelkhand, where, 
according to their annals. Raja Dhara Singh seized the fort of Naro 
from the Teli Rajas in 1344. In 1478 Raja Bhoja obtained Unchahra, 
which he made the chief town, and which remained so until 1720, 
when the capital was moved to Nagod by Raja Chain Singh. Later 
on the Parihars lost to the Bundelas and Baghelas practically all their 
possessions, except the limited territory they now hold, and preserved 
this remnant only by submitting to their adversaries. 

When the British became paramount after the Treaty of Bassein 
(1802), Nagod was held to be tributary to Panna, and was included in 
the sanad granted to that State in 1807. In recognition, however, of 
the fact that the territory had been in the possession of the family 
before the estabUshment of Chhatarsal's power and had continued to 
be independent throughout the supremacy of the Bundelas and of All 
Bahadur, a separate sa/iad was granted to Lai Sheoraj Singh in 1809 
confirming him in his possessions. He was succeeded in 1818 by 
his son, Balbhadra Singh, who was deposed in 1831 for murdering his 
brother. His successor, Raghavendra Singh, who was then a minor, 
received powers in 1838 and obtained a new sanad, succession dues to 
the value of Rs. 8,000 being paid to the British Government. He 
involved the State in debt, and it was placed under management in 
1844. In the Mutiny the chief behaved most loyally in assisting 
Europeans, and in recognition of these services received a grant of 
eleven villages now forming the pargana of IJhanwahi, which had 
belonged to the confiscated State of Bijeraghogarh. In 1862 he 
received a sanad of adoption, and in 1865 he again assumed manage- 
ment till his death in 1874. He was succeeded by his son, the present 
chief, Raja Jadavendra Singh, who was then nineteen. The Raja 
began to exercise powers in 1882, but was deprived of them in 1894 
for mismanagement, and retired to Benares, where he lived as a recluse 
for ten years, refusing all inducements to return. In August, 1904, 
however, he agreed to accept an allowance and to reside at Satna. 
The chief has the title of Raja and receives a salute of 9 guns. 

The antiquities of Nagod are considerable, but have not, as yet, been 
fully investigated. The old routes from Malwa and Southern India to 

u 2 



302 NAGOD STATE 

Kausambhi and Sravasti probably met at or near Bharhut (24° 37' N. 
and 80° 53' E.), where a magnificent Buddhist stupa formerly stood, 
the remains of which were discovered by Sir Alexander Cunningham 
in 1873. Though entirely ruined, a large number of carved stones 
were recovered and placed in the Calcutta Museum. It must have 
originally been very similar to the great stupa at Sanchi, though the 
railing is more ornamental, and possibly of later date. On one of 
the gateways a record ^ was discovered referring to its erection during 
the rule of the Sunga dynasty, who flourished in the second and first 
centuries B.C. A mediaeval temple was also exhumed close by. Other 
places of interest are Lalpahar, a hill near the stupa^ where there arc 
a large cave and an inscribed record of the Kalachuri dynasty of 
1 158; Sankargarh ; Khoh, formerly a large city and capital of the 
I'eli Rajas, where several important records dating from a.d. 475 to 
554 have been discovered ; Bhumara, Majhgawan, Kari Talai, and 
Pataini Devi. At the last place is a small but well-preserved temple 
in the Gupta style of the fourth or fifth century, with some later Jain 
remains of the tenth and eleventh centuries. 

The population of the State has been : (1881) 79,629, (1891) 84,097, 
and (1901) 67,092. 'J'he large decrease of 20 per cent, during the last 
decade is due to famine. Hindus number 55,989, or 84 per cent. ; 
Animists, 8,701, mainly Gonds and Kols ; and Musalmans, 2,331. The 
State contains one town, Unchahra, its old capital ; and 336 villages. 
BaghelkhandT is the principal language, spoken by 85 per cent, of the 
population. About 86 per cent, of the inhabitants are supported by 
agriculture, 12 per cent, by general labour, and 2 per cent, by trade. 

Of the total area, 223 square miles, or 45 per cent., are cultivated, of 
which only 343 acres are irrigable. Of the uncultivated area, 87 square 
miles are cultivable, 167 square miles are under forest, and the rest is 
waste. Rice and wheat each occupy 43 square miles, or 18 per cent, 
of the cropped area; Iwdon, 38 square miles, or 16 ])er cent.; gram, 
37 square miles, or 15 per cent.; barley, 32 square miles, or 9 per 
cent. ; sdman and kahai, 24 square miles, or 10 per cent.; and Jowar, 
1 1 square miles. 

Besides the Panna-Satna high road, metalled roads connect Nagod 
with Unchahra and Unchahra with Parsmania, 86 miles in all, of which 
37 are maintained by the State. British post (offices are maintained at 
Nagod and Unchahra. 

The State was in 1905 under superintendence, being managed by 
the Political Agent assisted by a dlwdn. The total revenue from all 
sources is 1-7 lakhs, of which one lakh is derived from land. About 
Rs. 73,000 is alienated in grants to members of the chief's family and 

' A. C'unningliniii. 'The Bharhul Stup.T,' Iiidiait Aniiquary. vol. xiv. \\ ip,8; 
vol. xxi, p. 225. 



NAG P UR DI J 'I ST ON 



303 



other jdgirddrs. The principal heads of expenditure are Rs. 70,000 
on general administration, including the expenditure of the chief, 
Rs. 20,000 on public works, and Rs. 12,000 on police. A twelve years' 
revenue settlement, based on the productiveness of the soil and its 
position as regards villages and the caste of the holder, was made in 
1 90 1. The incidence of the land revenue demand is Rs. 1-8 per 
acre of cultivated area, and 11 annas per acre of total area. About 
159 square miles, or 32 per cent, of the total area, are alienated in grants. 
About 3 per cent, of the total population were able to read and write 
in 190T. The State contains eight schools and two hospitals. 

Nagod Village.— Capital of the State of the same name in Central 
India, situated in 24° 34' N. and 80° 36' E., on the Amran river, 
17 miles west of Satna, on the Satna-Panna high road. Population 
(1901), 3,887. The name is derived from Naga Vadha, 'the slaughter 
of the Nagas,' from whom it is said to have been seized by the ances- 
tors of the Nagod chief. Nagod became the capital of the State in 
1720. It was a British cantonment in 1857 ; and on the mutiny of 
the wing of the 50th Regiment of Native Infantry stationed here, 
the chief placed his own forces at the disposal of the Political officer, 
and finally sent him with some other European refugees from Banda 
safely under escort to Jubbulpore. A British post office, a hospital, 
a school, and a ^c/'-bungalow are situated in the place. 

Nagor. — Town in Jodhpur State, Rajputana. See N.^gaud. 

Nagore. — Village in Tanjore District, Madras. See Negapatam. 

Nagpur Division.^Southern Division of the Central Provinces, 
extending from 18° 42' to 22" 24' N. and from 78° 3' to 81° 3' E. 
It consists of a large plain lying along the southern base of the Satpura 
hill ranges, and comprised in the valleys of the ^^^ardha and Wain- 
ganga rivers, with a long strip of hilly country on the eastern border. 
The Nagpur Division includes fn e Districts, as shown below : — 



District. 


Area in 
square miles.'* 


Population 
1901.* 


Land revenue 
and cesses, 

in thousands 
of rupees. 


Wardha. 

Nagpur .... 

Chanda .... 

Bhandara 

Balaghat 

Total 


2,428 

3.840 

10,156 

3,965 
3.132 


385,103 
751.844 
581,315 
663,062 

325,371 


7.05 
10,94 

3,75 j 
5,.M 

2,7s 

29,86 j 


23.521 


2,706,695 



* The District figures of area and population have been adjusted to allow for 
some changes of territory which have taken place since the Census of 1901, 
including the projected transfer of part of Clianda District, with an area of 
593 square miles, to the Madras Presidency. 

Of these, Wardha and Nagpur in the valley of the Wardha river on 



304 NAG PUR DIVISION 

the west, with shallow black soil and a light rainfall, constitute the 
most important cotton-growing tract in the Province, while Bhandara 
and parts of Chanda and Balaghat in the valley of the Wainganga 
have been named the ' lake country ' of Nagpur, owing to the number 
of fine tanks constructed for the irrigation of rice. To the north of 
Balaghat and down the eastern side of Chanda stretch lines of hills 
approaching the Godavari river in the extreme south of the Province. 
The head-quarters of the Commissioner are at Nagpur City. The 
population of the Division was 2,758,116 in 1881, and increased to 
2,982,539 in 1 891, or by 8 per cent., the decade having been generally 
prosperous. At the Census of 1901 the population had fallen 
to 2,728,063, or by S-i per cent., the principal losses being in the 
eastern or rice Districts, which were severely affected by distress or 
famine in several years, while the population of the western or cotton 
Districts, which escaped more lightly, remained almost stationary. 
In 1 90 1 Hindus numbered nearly 84 per cent, of the total, and 
Animists 13 per cent., while the followers of other religions included 
Musalmans (86,931), Jains (6,624), ^"d Christians (7,113), of whom 
3,039 were Europeans and Eurasians. The total area is 23,521 square 
miles, and the density of population 115 persons per square mile. 
The Division contains 24 towns out of the Provincial total of 59, and 
7,898 villages. Nagpur city (population, 127,734), the head-quarters 
of the Central Provinces Administration, is the commercial centre, and 
Kamptee (38,888) is a cantonment 10 miles from Nagpur. Chanda, 
Bhaxdak, and Ramtek contain interesting archaeological remains. 

Nagpur District. — District of the Central Provinces, lying between 
20° 35' and 21° 44' N. and 78° 15' and 79° 40' E., in the plain to 
which it gives its name at the southern base of the Satpura Hills, 
with an area of 3,840 square miles. It is bounded on the north 
by Chhindwara and SeonI ; on the east by Bhandara ; on the south 
and west by ( "handa and Wardha ; and along a small strip on the 
north-west by the AmraotT District of Berar. The greater part of 
Nagpur District is an undulating plain, but it is traversed by low hill 

ranges. In the north a strip of the Satpura Hills 
^^'^^ is included within its limits, narrow on the west but 

widening to a breadth of 1 2 miles or more towards 
the east. Immediately south of them lies the western extremity of the 
Ambagarh hills, on which stand the well-known temples of Ramtek. 
On the western border another low range of hills runs down the 
length of the District, and, after a break formed by the valley of 
the Wunna river, continues to the south-east past Umrer, cutting 
off on its southern side the valley of the Nand. A third small 
range called the Pilkapar hills crosses the Katol idhsil from north 
to south. There are also a few detached hills, notably that of SIia- 



NAG PUR DISTRICT 305 

BALDi in Nagpur city, which is visible for a long distance from the 
country round. The hills attain no great altitude, the highest peaks 
not exceeding 2,000 feet, but vary greatly in appearance, being in 
places extremely picturesque and clothed with forest, while elsewhere 
they are covered by loose stones and brushwood, or are wholly bare 
and arid. The Wardha and ^^'ainganga rivers flow along part of 
the western and eastern borders respectively, and the drainage of the 
District is divided between them. The waters of about a third of 
its area on the west are carried to the Wardha by the Jam, the 
Wunna, and other minor streams. The centre is drained by the 
Pench and Kanhan, which, flowing south through the Satpura Hills, 
unite just above Kamptee, where they are also joined by the Kolar ; 
from here the Kanhan carries their joint waters along the northern 
boundary of the Umrer tahsil to meet the Wainganga on the Bhan- 
dara border. To the east a few small streams flow direct to the 
Wainganga. The richest part of the District is the western half of 
the Katol faksil, cut off by the small ranges described above. It 
possesses a soil profusely fertile, and teems with the richest garden 
cultivation. Beyond the Pilkapar hills the plain country extends to 
the eastern border. Its surface is scarcely ever level, but it is closely 
cultivated, abounds in mango-groves and trees of all sorts, and to- 
wards the east is studded with small tanks, which form a feature 
in the landscape. The elevation of the plain country is from 900 
to 1,000 feet above sea-level. 

The primary formation of the rocks is sandstone, associated with 
shale and limestone. The sandstone is now covered by trap on 
the west, and broken up by granite on the east, leaving a small 
diagonal strip running through the centre of the District and ex- 
panding on the north-west and south-east. The juxtaposition of 
trap, sandstone, and granite rocks in this neighbourhood invests the 
geology of Nagpur with special interest. 

The forests are mainly situated in a large block on the Satpura 
Hills to the north-east, while isolated patches are dotted on the hills 
extending along the south-western border. The forest growth varies 
with the nature of the soil, sdj [Terminalia tomentosd), achdr {^Bucha- 
nania latifolid), and teJidU {Diospyros toinentosd) being characteristic 
on the heavy soils, teak on good well-drained slopes, salai (^Bosivellia 
serrata) on the steep hill-sides and ridges, and satin-w^ood on the 
sandy levels. In the open country mango, mahi/d {Bass/a latifolid), 
tamarind, and bastard date-palms are common. 

There is nothing noteworthy about the wild animals of the District, 
and from the sportsman's point of view it is one of the poorest m 
the Province. Wild hog abound all over the country, finding shelter 
in the large grass reserves or groves of date-palm. Partridges, quail, 



3o6 XACPl^R DTSTRTCT 

and sand-grouse are fairly common ; bustard are frequently seen in 
the south, and florican occasionally. Snipe and duck are obtained 
in the cold season in a few localities. 

Nagpur has the reputation of being one of the hottest places in 
India during the summer months. In May the temperature rises 
to ii6°, while it falls on clear nights as low as 70°. During the 
rains the highest day temperature seldom exceeds 95°, and the lowest 
at night is about 70°. In the cold season the highest temperature 
is between 80° and 90°, and the lowest about 50"^. Except for three 
months from April to June, when the heat is intense, and in Septem- 
ber, when the atmosphere is steamy and the moist heat very trying, 
the climate of Nagpur is not unpleasant. 

The annual rainfall averages 46 inches, but less is received in the 
west than in the east of the District. Complete failure of the rain- 
fall has in the past been very rare ; but its distribution is capricious, 
especially towards the end of the monsoon, when the fate of the 
harvest is in the balance. 

There is no historical record of Nagpur prior to the commence- 
ment of the eighteenth century, when it formed part of the Gond 
kingdom of Deogarh, in Chindwara. Bakht Buland, 
the reigning prince of Deogarh, proceeded to Delhi, 
and, appreciating the advantages of the civilization which he there 
witnessed, determined to set about the development of his own terri- 
tories. To this end he invited Hindu artificers and husbandmen to 
settle in the plain country, and founded the city of Nagpur. His 
successor, Chand Sultan, continued the work of civilization, and re- 
moved his capital to Nagpur. On Chand Sultan's death in 1739 
there were disputes as to the succession, and his widow invoked the 
aid of Raghuji Bhonsla, who was governing Berar on behalf of the 
Peshwa. The Bhonsla family were originally headmen of Deora, 
a village in the Satara District of Bomba}-, from which place their 
present representative derives his title of Raja. Raghujfs grand- 
father and his two l)rothers had fought in the armies of SivajT, and 
to the most distinguished of them was entrusted a high military 
command and the collection of c/iai/th in Berar. Raghuji, on being 
called in by the contending Gond factions, rc])laced the two sons 
of Chand Sultan on the throne from which they had been ousted 
by a usurper, and retired to Berar with a suitable reward for his 
assistance. Dissensions, however, broke out between the brothers ; 
and in 1743 Raghuji again intervened at the rLCjuest of the elder 
brother, and drove out his rival. But he had not the heart to give 
back a second time the country he held within his grasp. Burhan 
Shah, the Gond Raja, though allowed to retain the outward insignia 
of royalty, became practically a state pensioner, and all real power 



HISTORY 307 

l)assed to tlie Afarathas. liolcl and dc('i.si\-e in action, RagluijI was 
tlie type of" a Maratha leader ; he saw in the troubles of other states 
an opening for his own ambition, and did not even require a pre- 
text for plunder and invasion. Twice his armies invaded Bengal, 
and he obtained the cession of Cuttack. Chanda, Chhattisgarh, and 
Sambalpur were added to his dominions between 1745 and 1755, 
the year of his death. His successor Janoji took part in the wars 
between the Peshwa and Nizam ; and after he had in turn betrayed 
both of them, they united against him, and sacked and burnt Nagpur 
in 1765. On JanojT's death his brothers fought for the succession, 
until one shot the other on the battle-field of Panchgaon, 6 miles 
south of Nagpur, and succeeded to the regency on behalf of his 
infant son Raghuji II, who was JanojI's adopted heir. In 1785 
Mandla and the upper Narbada valley were added to the Nagpur 
dominions by treaty with the Peshwa. Mudhojl, the regent, had 
courted the favour of the British, and this policy was continued for 
some time by his son Raghuji II, who acquired Hoshangabad and 
the lower Narbada valley. But in 1803 he united with Sindhia against 
the British Government. The two chiefs were decisively defeated 
at Assaye and Argaon ; and by the Treaty of Deogaon of that year 
Raghuji ceded to the British Cuttack, Southern Berar, and Sambalpur, 
the last of which was, however, relinquished in 1806. 

To the close of the eighteenth century the Maratha administration 
had been on the whole good, and the country had prospered. The first 
four of the Bhonslas were military chiefs with the habits of rough 
soldiers, connected by blood and by constant familiar intercourse with 
all their principal officers. Descended from the class of cultivators, 
they ever favoured and fostered that order. They were rapacious, but 
seldom cruel to the lower classes. Up to 1792 their territories were 
rarely the theatre of hostilities, and the area of cultivation and revenue 
continued to increase under a fairly equitable and extremely primitive 
system of government. After the Treaty of Deogaon, however, all this 
was changed. Raghuji had been deprived of a third of his territories, 
and he attempted to make up the loss of revenue from the remainder. 
The villages were mercilessly rack-rented, and many new taxes imposed. 
The pay of the troops was in arrears, and they maintained themselves 
by plundering the cultivators, while at the same time commenced the 
raids of the Pindaris, who became so bold that in 181 1 they advanced 
to Nagpur and burnt the suburbs. It was at this time that most of the 
numerous village forts were built, to which on the approach of these 
marauders the peasant retired and fought for liare life, all he possessed 
outside the walls being already lost to him. 

On the death of Raghuji II in 1816, his son, an imbecile, was soon 
supplanted and murdered by the notorious MudhojT or Appa Sahib. 



3o8 NAGPUR DISTRICT 

A treaty of alliance prtwiding for the maintenance of a subsidiary force 
by the British was signed in this year, a Resident having been appointed 
to the Nagpur court since 1799. In 181 7, on the outbreak of war 
between the British and the Peshwa, Appa Sahib threw off his cloak 
of friendship, and accepted an embassy and title from the Peshwa. 
His troops attacked the British, and were defeated in the brilliant action 
at SiTABALDi, and a second time round Nagpur city. As a result of 
these battles, the remaining portion of Berar and the territories in 
the Narbada valley were ceded to the British. Appa Sahib was rein- 
stated on the throne, but shortly afterwards was discovered to be again 
intriguing, and was deposed and forwarded to Allahabad in custody. 
On the way, however, he corrupted his guards, and escaped, first to 
the Mahadeo Hills and subsequently to the Punjab. A grandchild 
of Raghuji n was then placed on the throne, and the territories were 
administered by the Resident from 181 8 to 1830, in which year the 
young ruler known as Raghuji IH was allowed to assume the actual 
government. He died without heirs in 1853, and his territories were 
then declared to have lapsed. Nagpur was administered by a Com- 
missioner until the formation of the Central Provinces in 1861. During 
the Mutiny a scheme for a rising was formed by a regiment of irregular 
cavalry in conjunction with the disaffected Muhammadans of the city, 
but was frustrated by the prompt action of the civil authorities, sup- 
ported by Madras troops from Kamptee. Some of the native officers 
and two of the leading Muhammadans of the city were hanged from 
the ramparts of the fort, and the disturbances ended. The aged 
princess Baka Bai, widow of Raghuji H, used all her influence in 
support of the British, and largely contributed by her example to keep 
the Maratha districts loyal. 

In several localities in the District are found circles of rough stones, 
occasionally extending over considerable areas. Beneath some of them 
fragments of pottery, flint arrow-heads, and iron implements, evidently 
of great antiquit}', have been discovered. These were constructed by 
an unknown race, but are ascribed by the people to the pastoral Gaolis, 
and are said to be their encampments or burial-places. The remains of 
the fort of ParseonT, constructed of unhewn masses of rock, which are 
also ascribed to the Gaolis, certainly date from a very early period. The 
buildings at Ramtek, Katol, Kelod, and Saoner are separately 
described. Other remains which may be mentioned are the old Gond 
fort of Bhiugarh on the Bench river, and the temples of Adasa and 
Bhugaon, and of Jakhapur on the Saoner road. 

The population of the District at the last three enumerations was as 

Population. ^'^''"^^'s- (^^^0 697,356: (1891) 757,863; (1901) 

751,84.1. Between 18S1 and 1891 the increase was 

nearly 9 per cent., the District having been generally prosperous. 



POPULATION 



309 



During the last decade the population has been almost stationary. The 
number of deaths exceeded that of births in the years 1894 to 1897 
inclusive, and also in 1900. There was a considerable loss of popula- 
tion in the wheat-growing tracts of Nagpur and Umrer, while the towns 
and the cotton lands of Katol showed an increase. There are twelve 
towns — Nagpur City, the District headquarters, Kamptee, Umrer, 
Ramtek, Narkher, Khapa, Katol, Saoner, Kaf.meshwar, Mohpa, 
Kelod, and Mowar — and 1,681 inhabited villages. The urban popu- 
lation amounts to 32 per cent, of the total, which is the highest 
proportion in the Province. .Some of the towns are almost solely 
agricultural, and these as a rule are now declining in importance. But 
others which are favourably situated for trade, or for the establishment 
of cotton fiictories, are growing rapidly. The following table gives 
the principal statistics of population in 1901 : — 



Talisil. 


Is 
< 

871 

1,129 

1,040 

800 


Number of 


Population. 


11 

m 


Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and igoi. 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 


Towns. 

Villages. 


Nagpur 
Ramtek 
Umrer . 
Katol . 

District total 


4 
2 

5 


4^7 
451 
457 
356 


296,117 
156,663 
136,476 

162,588 


340 
139 

•31 

200 


-1- 0-6 

. - 0-3 

- 8.6 

+ 3-5 


24,855 
3,820 
3,610 

4,718 


3,840 


12 


1,681 


751.844 


193 


- 0.8 


37,003 



About 88 per cent, of the population are Hindus, nearly 6 per cent. 
Muhammadans, and 5 per cent. Animists. There are 2,675 Jains and 
481 ParsTs. Three-fourths of the Muhammadans live in towns. Many 
of them come from Hyderabad and the Deccan, and they are the most 
turbulent class of the population. About 77 per cent, of the population 
speak MarathT, 9 per cent. Hindi, 5^ per cent. Gondl, 5 per cent. Urdil, 
and I per cent. Telugu. It is noteworthy that nearly all the Gonds 
were returned at the Census as retaining their own vernacular. 

The principal landholding castes are Brahmans (23,000), Kunbis 
(152,000), and Marathas (ir,ooo). The Maratha Brahmans naturally 
form the large majority of this caste, and, besides being the most ex- 
tensive proprietors, are engaged in money-lending, trade, and the legal 
profession, and almost monopolize the better class of appointments in 
Government service. The Kunbis are the great cultivating class. They 
are plodding and patient, with a strong affection for their land, but 
wanting in energy as cornpared with the castes of the northern Districts. 
The majority of the villages owned by Marathas are included in the 
estates of the Bhonsla family and their relatives. A considerable pro- 
portion of the Government political pensioiiers are Marathas. Many 
of them also hold villages or plots ; but as a rule they are extravagant 



3IO NAG PUR DT STRICT 

in their living, and several of llie old Maratha nohilily have fallen in 
the world. The native army does not attract them, and but few are 
sutificiently well educated for the more dignified posts in the civil 
employ of Government. Raghvis (12,000), Lodhis (8,000), and Kirars 
(4,000), representing the immigrants from Hindustan, are exceptionally 
good cultivators. The Kirars, however, are much given to display and 
incur extravagant expenditure on their dwelling-houses and jewellery, 
while the Lodhis are divided by constant family feuds and love of 
faction. There are nearly 46,000 Gonds, constituting 6 per cent, 
of the population. They have generally attained to some degree of 
civilization, and grow rice instead of the light millets which sufifice for 
the needs of their fellow tribesmen on the Satpuras. The menial caste 
of Mahars form a sixth of the whole population, the great majority 
being cultivators and labourers. The rural Mahar is still considered as 
impure, and is not allowed to drink from the village well, nor may his 
children sit at school with those of the Hindu castes. But there are 
traces of the decay of this tendency, as many Mahars have become 
wealthy and risen in the world. About 58 per cent, of the population 
were returned as dependent on agriculture in 1901. 

Christians number 6,163, ^^ whom 2,870 are Europeans and Eura- 
sians, and 3,293 natives. Of the natives the majority are Roman 
Catholics, belonging to the Erench Mission at Nagpur. There are also 
a number of Presbyterians, the converts of the Scottish Free Church 
Mission. Nagpur is the head-quarters of a Roman Catholic diocese, 
which supports high and middle schools for European and Eurasian 
children and natives, and orphanages for boys and girls, the clergy being 
assisted by French nuns of the Order of St. Joseph who live at Nagpur 
and Kamptee. A mission of the Free Church of Scotland maintains 
a number of educational and other institutions at Nagpur and in the 
interior of the District. Among these may be mentioned the Hislop 
aided college, several schools for low-caste children, an orphanage and 
boarding-school for Christian girls, and the Mure Memorial Hospital for 
women. A small mission of the Church of England is also located at 
Nagpur, and one of the Methodist Episcopal Church at Kamptee. 

The prevailing soil is that known as black cotton. It seldom attains 

to a depth of 12 feet, and is superimposed on a band of conglomerate 

. . , and brown clay. Rich black clay is found only in 

Agriculture. ,, ^ . . , , ^ ... 

very small quantities, and the commonest sou is a 

dark loam mixed with limestone pebbles and of considerable fertility. 

The latter covers 65 per cent, of the cultivated area ; and of the 

remainder, 27 per cent, consists of an inferior variety of the same soil, 

very shallow and mixed with gravel or sand, and occurring principally 

in the hilly country. Little really poor land is thus under cultivation. 

About 383 square miles are held wholly or partially free of revenue. 



AGRICULTURE 311 

and 2,500 acres of Government land have been settled on the ryotivdri 
system. The balance of the District area is held on the ordinary 
mdlguzdri tenure. The following table shows the principal statistics of 
cultivation in 1903-4, areas being in square miles : — 



TahsU. Total. 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Cultivable Forests, 
waste. I 


Nagpur 
Ramtek 
Umrer . 
Katol . 

Total 


871 
1,129 
1,040 

800 

3.840 


578 
544 
564 
540 

2,226 


3 

5 
12 

4 


149 42 
166 343 
311 74 
114 i 56 


24 


740 ! 515 



Jowdr and cotton are the principal crops, covering (either alone or 
mixed with the pulse arhar) 661 and 633 square miles respectively. 
Of other crops, wheat occupies 353 square miles, /// 84 square miles, 
linseed 132 square miles, and gram 31 square miles. Cotton and 
Jowdr are grown principally in the west and centre of the T3istrict, rice 
in the east, where the rainfall is heavier, and wheat, linseed, and gram in 
the centre and south. The main feature of recent years is the increase 
in the area under autumn crops, cotton andy'c?<.''ar, which are frequently 
grown in rotation. The acreage of cotton alone and cotton with arhar 
has more than doubled since 1864, and that of jowdr alone and 
joivdr with arhar has risen by 23 per cent. This change is to be attri- 
buted mainly to the high prices prevailing for cotton, and partly also 
to the succession of unfavourable spring harvests which have lately 
been experienced. A\'heat shows a loss of 146 square miles and linseed 
of 106 during the same period. There are two principal varieties 
of cotton, of which that with a very short staple but yielding a larger 
supply of lint is generally preferred. Cotton-seed is now a valuable 
commercial product. The recent years of short rainfall have had 
a prejudicial effect on the rice crop, the area under which is only 
22 square miles as against 50 at settlement. Most of the rice grown 
is transplanted. A number of profitable vegetable and fruit crops are 
also grown, the most important of which are oranges, which covered 
1,000 acres in 1903-4; chillies, nearly 6,000 acres; castor, nearly 
4,000 acres; tobacco, 450 acres; and turmeric, 170 acres. About 
17,000 acres were under fodder-grass in the same year. The leaf of 
the betel-vine gardens of Ramtek has a special reputation, and it is also 
cultivated at ParseonT and Mansar, about 130 acres being occupied 
altogether. Kapuri pdn (betel-leaf) is grown for local consumption 
and bengald pdn for export. 

The occupied area increased by 12 per cent, during the currency 
of the thirty years' settlement (1863-4), and has further increased 
by 3 per cent, since the last settlement (1893-5). '"^'-' scope for yet 



312 NAG PUR DISTRICT 

more extension is very limited. The area of the valuable cotton crop 
increases annually, and more care is devoted to its cultivation than 
formerly. Cotton fields are manured whenever a supply is available, 
and the practice of pitting manure is growing in favour. In recent 
years the embankment of fields with low stone walls to protect them 
from erosion has received a great impetus in the Katol tahsil. During 
the ten years ending 1904, Rs. 79,000 was advanced under the Land 
Improvement Loans Act for the construction of wells, tanks, and field 
embankments, and 1-77 lakhs under the Agriculturists' Loans Act. 

Owing to the scarcity of good grazing grounds, the majority of the 
agricultural cattle are imported, only one-fourth being bred locally. 
The hilly country in the north of the Ramtek tahsil is the principal 
lireeding ground. Cattle are imported from Eerar, Chhindwara, and 
Chanda. Buffaloes are kept for the manufacture of ghi. Goats arc 
largely bred and sold for food, while the flocks are also hired for their 
manure. Cattle races take place annually at Silli in Umrer, at Irsi in 
Ramtek, and at Sakardara near Nagpur, these last being held by the 
Bhonsla family. Large weekly cattle markets are held at Sonegaon, 
KodamendhT, Bhiwapur, and Mohpa. 

Only 24 square miles are irrigated, most of which is rice and the re- 
mainder vegetable and garden crops. ^Vheat occasionally gets a supply 
of water, if the cultivator has a well in his field. The District has 995 
irrigation tanks and 4,302 wells. A project for the construction of a 
large reservoir at Ramtek, to irrigate 40,000 acres and protect a further 
30,000 acres, at an estimated cost of 16 lakhs, has been sanctioned. 

The Government forests extend over 515 square miles, of which 

nearly 350 are situated on the foot-hills of the Satpuras on both sides 

^ „ of the Bench river, and 170 consist of small blocks 

Forests, &c. , . ,, , , \„ ., _ , , , ,• 

lymg parallel to the Wardha boundary, and extending 

from the west of Katol to the south and east of Umrer. Small teak is 

scattered through the first tract, mixed with bamboos on the extreme 

north, but in no well-defined belts. Satin-wood, often nearly pure, 

is found on the sandy levels. The second tract contains small but 

good teak in its central blocks from Katol to the railway, but poor 

mixed forests to the north, and chiefly scrub to the south in the Umrer 

tahsil. Owing to the large local demand, the forests yield a substantial 

revenue. This amounted in 1903-4 to Rs. 63,000, of which Rs. 10,000 

was realized from sales of timber, Rs. 16,000 from firewood, and 

Rs. 26,000 from grazing. 

Deposits of manganese occur in several localities, princi{)ally in the 

Ramtek tahsil. A number of separate mining and prospecting leases 

have been granted, and a light tramway has been laid by one firm from 

rharsa station to AVaregaon and Mandri, a distance of about 1 5 miles. 

The total output of manganese in 1904 was 66,000 tons. Mines are 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 313 

being worked at Mansar, Kancln, Satak, Lohdongrl, Waregaon, Kachur- 
wahi, Mandrl, Pali, and other villages. A quarry of white sandstone 
is worked at Silewara on the Kanhan river, from which long thin slabs 
well suited for building are obtained. 

The weaving of cotton cloths with silk borders is the staple hand 
industry, the principal centres being Nagpur city and Umrer. Gold 
and silver thread obtained from Burhanpur is also 
woven into the borders. The silk is obtamed from communications. 
Bengal and from China through Bombay, spun into 
thin thread, and is made up into different thicknesses locally. Tasar 
silk cocoons are received from ChhattTsgarh. A single cloth of the 
finest quality may cost as much as Rs. 150, but loin-cloths worth from 
Rs. 8 to Rs. 25 a pair, and sans from Rs. 3 to Rs. 25 each, are most in 
demand. White loin-cloths with red borders are woven at Umrer, the 
thread being dyed with lac, and coloured sans arc made at Nagpur. 
Cheap cotton cloth is produced by Momins or Muhammadan weavers 
at Kamptee and by Koshtls at Khapa. Coarse cloth is also woven by the 
village Mahars, hand-spun thread being still used for the warp, on ac- 
count of its superior strength, and is dyed and made up into carpets and 
mattresses at Saoner and Patansaongl. Sawargaon, Mowar, and Narkher 
also have dyeing industries. In 1901 nearly 13,000 persons were returned 
as supported by the silk industry, 39,000 by cotton hand-weaving, and 
2,500 by dyeing. Brass-working is carried on at Nagpur and Kelod; 
and iron betel-nut cutters and penknives are made at Nagpur. 

Nagpur city has two cotton-spinning and weaving mills — the Em- 
press Mills, opened in 1877, and the Swadeshi Spinning and ^^'eaving 
Company, which started work in 1892. Their aggregate capital is 62 
lakhs. Nagpur also contains 12 ginning and 11 pressing factories, 
Kamptee 3 and 2, and Saoner 3 and 2, while one or more are situated 
in several of the towns and larger villages of the cotton tract. The 
majority of these factories have been opened within the last five years. 
They contain altogether 673 gins and 83 cotton-presses, and have an 
aggregate capital of 29 lakhs approximately. Nearly 11,000 persons 
were shown as suppo'rted by employment in factories in 1901, and the 
numbers must have increased considerably since then. The ginning 
and pressing factories, however, work only for four or five months in 
the year. The capitalists owning them are principally Marwari Banias 
and Maratha Brahmans, and in a smaller degree Muhammadan Bohras, 
Parsis, and Europeans. 

Raw cotton and cotton-seed, linseed, til, and wheat are the staple 
exports of agricultural produce. Oranges are largely exported, and an 
improved variety of wild plum {Zizyphus Jieji/ba), which is obtained by 
grafting. The annual exports of oranges are valued at a lakh of rupees. 
Betel-leaf is sent to Northern India. Yarn and cotton cloth are sent 



314 NAG PUR DISTRICT 

all over India and to China, Japan, and Burma by the Empress Mills, 
while the Swadeshi Mills find their best market in Chhattlsgarh. Hand- 
woven silk-bordered cloths to the value of about 5 lakhs annually 
are exported from Nagpur city and Unuer to Bombay, Berar, and 
Hyderabad, the principal demand being from Maratha Brahmans. 
Manganese ore is now a staple export. Many articles of produce arc 
also received at Nagpur from other Districts and re-exported. Among 
these may be mentioned rice from Bhandara and Chhattlsgarh, timber 
and bamboos from Chanda, Bhandara, and Seoni, and bamboo matting 
from Chanda. Cotton and grain are also received from the surround- 
ing Districts off the line of railway. .Sea-salt from Bombay is commonly 
used, and a certain amount is also received from the Salt Hills of the 
Punjab. Mauritius sugar is imported, and sometimes mixed with 
the juice of sugar-cane to give it the appearance of Indian sugar, which 
is more expensive by one pound in the rupee. Gur, or refined sugar, 
comes from the United Provinces, and also from Barsi and Sholapur, 
in Bombay. Rice is imi)orted from Chhattlsgarh and Bengal, and a 
certain amount of wheat from Chhindwara is consumed locally, as it 
is cheaper than Nagpur wheat. The finer kinds of English cotton 
cloth come from Calcutta, and the coarser ones from Bombay. Kero- 
sene oil is bought in Bombay or Calcutta according as the rate is 
cheaper. The use of tea is rapidly increasing all over the District. 
Soda-water is largely consumed, about ten factories having been estab- 
lished at Nag[)ur. AVooUen and iron goods come from England. 
\ European firm practically monopolizes the export trade in grain, 
and shares the cotton trade with Marwari Banias and Maratha Brah- 
mans. Lad Banias ex})ort hand-woven cloth, and Muhammadans 
and Marwaris manage the timber trade. Bohras import and retail 
stationery and hardware, and Cutchi Muhammadans deal in groceries, 
cloth, salt, and kerosene oil. Kamptee has the largest weekly market, 
and the Sunday and ^\'ednesday bazars at Nagpur are also important. 
'I'he other leading markets, including those for cattle which have 
already been mentioned, are at Gaorl and Kelod for grain and timber, 
and at Mowar for grain. A large fair is held at Ramtek in November, 
at which general merchandise is sold, and small religious fairs take 
place at Ambhora, Kudhari, Adasa, and Dhapewara. 

The Great Indian Peninsula Railway from Bombay has a length of 
27 miles in the District, with 3 stations and its terminus at Nagpur city. 
From here the Bengal-Nagpur Railway runs east to Calcutta, with 
5 stations and 34 miles within the limits of the District. The most 
important trade routes are the roads leading north-west from Nagpur 
city to Chhindwara and Katol, the eastern road to Bhandara through 
Kuhi, and the north-eastern road to Seoni through Kamptee. Next to 
these come the southern roads through Mill to Umrcr, and to Chanda 



ADMINISTRATION 315 

through Borl, Jam, and Warora. There is some local traffic along the 
road to AmraotI through Bazargaon. The District has 231 miles of 
metalled and 74 miles of unmetalled roads, and the annual expenditure 
on maintenance is Rs. 99,000. The Public Works department has 
charge of 253 miles of road, and the District council of 52 miles. 
There are avenues of trees on 185 miles, Nagpur being better provided 
for in this respect than almost any other District in the Province. 
Considering its advanced state of development, the District is not very 
well supplied with railways, and there appears to be some scope for the 
construction of feeder lines to serve the more populous outlying tracts. 
Nagpur District is recorded to have suffered from failures of crops in 
1819, 1825-6, and 1832-3. There was only slight distress in 1869. In 

1896-7 the District was not severely affected, as the „ 
. . ' •, , , c ■ Famine. 

jozvar, cotton, til, and wheat crops gave a fair out- 
turn. Numbers of starving wanderers from other Districts, however, 
flocked into Nagpur city. Relief measures lasted for a year, the highest 
number in receipt of assistance being 18,000 in May, 1897, and the total 
expenditure was 5 lakhs. In 1899-1900 the monsoon failed completely, 
and only a third of a normal harvest was obtained. Relief measures 
lasted from September, 1899, to November, 1900, 108,000 persons, or 
19 per cent, of the population, being in receipt of assistance in August, 
1900. The total expenditure was 19-5 lakhs. The work done consisted 
principally of breaking up metal, but some tanks and wells were con- 
structed, and the embankment of the reservoir at Ambajheri was raised-. 

The Deputy-Commissioner has a staff of four Assistant or- Extra- 
Assistant Commissioners. For administrative purposes the District is 
divided into four tahslls, each of which has a tahstl- .... 
ddr and a naib-tahsllddr. Forests are in charge of a 
Forest officer of the Imperial service ; and the Executive Engineer 
of the Nagpur division, including Nagpur and Wardha Districts, is 
stationed at Nagpur city. 

The civil judicial staff consists of a District Judge and five Sub- 
ordinate Judges, two Munsifs at Ramtek and Katol, and one at each 
of the other tahslls^ and a Small Cause Court Judge for Nagpur city. 
The Divisional and Sessions Judge of the Nagpur Division has juris- 
diction in the District. Kamptee has a Cantonment Magistrate, 
invested with the powers of a Small Cause Court Judge. 

Under the Maratha administration the revenue was fixed annually. 
The Marathas apparently retained as a standard the demand which 
they found existing when they received the country from the Gonds. 
This was called the ain Javiabajidi ; and at the commencement of every 
year an amount varying partly with the character of the previous 
season, and partly with the financial necessities of the central Govern- 
ment, was fixed as the revenue demand. Increases of revenue were, 

VOL. XVIII. X 



3i6 NAG PUR DISTRICT 

however, expressed usually as fractions on the ain jafuabaftdi. The 
local officers or kamaishdars, on receiving the announcement of the 
revenue assessed on their charge, called the pdtels or headmen of 
villages together and distributed it over the individual villages accord- 
ing to their capacity. The /a^^/ then distributed the revenue over the 
fields of the village, most of which had a fixed proportionate value 
which determined their share of the revenue. Neither headmen nor 
tenants had any proprietary rights, but they were not as a rule liable to 
ejectment so long as they paid the revenue. Under the earlier Maratha 
rulers the assessment was fairly equitable ; but after the Treaty of 
Deogaon the District was severely rack-rented, and villages were let 
indiscriminately to the highest bidder, while no portion of the rental 
was left to \\\^ pdtels. At the commencement of the protectorate after 
the deposition of Appa Sahib, there were more than 400 villages for 
which no headman could be found to accept a lease on the revenue 
demanded. The revenue was at once reduced by 20 per cent. Culti- 
vation expanded during the management by the British, and some 
increase was obtained, the assessment being made for periods of from 
three to five years. During the subsequent period of Maratha govern- 
ment the British system was more or less adhered to, but there w-as 
some decline in the revenue due to lax administration. Many of the 
cultivating headmen were also superseded by court favourites, w-ho were 
usually Maratha Brahmans. The demand existing immediately prior 
to the first long-term settlement was 8-77 lakhs. The District was 
surveyed and settled in 1862-4 for 3. period of thirty years, the demand 
being fixed at 8-78 lakhs. On this occasion proprietary rights were con- 
ferred on the village headmen. During the currency of the thirty years' 
settlement, which was effected a few years before the opening of the 
railway to Bombay, the condition of the agricultural classes was ex- 
tremely prosperous. The area occupied for cultivation increased by 
12 per cent., and the prices of the staple food-grains by 140 per cent., 
while the rental received by the landowners rose by 20 per cent. On 
the expiry of this settlement, a fresh assessment was made between 1893 
and 1895. The revenue demand was raised to 10-57 lakhs, or by 
18 per cent, on that existing before revision, Rs. 75,000 of the revenue 
being ' assigned.' The experience of a number of bad seasons follow- 
ing on the introduction of the new assessment, during which the 
revenue was collected without difficulty, has sufficiently demonstrated 
its moderation. The average incidence of revenue per cultivated acre 
is R. 0-12-8 (maximum Rs. 1-4-11, minimum R. 0-6), while that of 
the rental is Rs. 1-0-3 (maximum Rs. 1-13-10, minimum R. 0-9-1). 
The new settlement is for a period varying from eighteen to twenty 
years in different tracts. The collections of land and total revenue in 
recent years are shown below, in thousands of rupees : — 



A D^n^ istra tion 



z-'i 





i8?o-i. 


1890-1. 


lOOO-I. 


1903-4- 


Land revenue 
Total revenue 


8,27 
15.75 


8,56 
iS,40 


10,62 

18,96 


9,98 

2 ',39 



The management of local affairs outside municipal areas is entrusted 
to a District council and four local boards, each having jurisdiction 
over one iahsil. The income of the District council in 1903-4 was 
Rs. 1,05,000, while the expenditure on public works was Rs. 34,000, 
on education Rs. 27,000, and on medical relief Rs. 6,000. Nagpur, 
Ramtek, Khapa, Kalmeshwar, Umrer, Mowar, and Saoxer are 
municipal towns. 

The police force — under a District Superintendent, who is usually- 
aided by an Assistant Superintendent — consists of 1,006 officers and 
men, with a special reserve of 45. There are 2,130 village watchmen 
for 1,693 inhabited towns and villages. Nagpur city has a Central jail, 
with accommodation for 1,322 prisoners, including 90 females. The 
daily average number of prisoners in 1904 was 710. Printing and 
binding, woodwork (including Burmese carving), cane-work, and cloth- 
weaving, are the principal industries carried on in the jail. 

In respect of education the District stands third in the Pro%-ince, 
nearly 5 per cent, of the population (9-2 males and 0-7 females) being 
able to read and \\Tite. The percentage of children under instruction 
to those of school-going age is 14. Statistics of the number of pupils 
are as follows: (1880-1) 10,696, (1390-1) 12,394, (1900-1) 14,991, 
(1903-4) 14,141, including 1,135 gi^ls. The educational institutions 
comprise two Arts colleges, both at Nagpur cit}', with 170 students, 
one of these, the Morris College, also containing Law classes with 42 
students; 5 high schools, 16 English middle schools, 17 vernacular 
middle schools, and 147 primary schools. The District also contains 
two training schools and four other special schools. The expenditure 
on education in 1903-4 was 1-74 lakhs, of which i lakh was derived 
from Provincial and Local funds, and Rs. 30,000 from fees. 

The District has 17 dispensaries, with accommodation for 201 in- 
patients. In 1904 the number of cases treated was 270,025, of whom 
1,905 were in-patients, and 6,560 operations were performed. The 
expenditure was Rs. 40,000. Nagpur city also contains a lunatic 
asylum with 142 inmates, a leper asylum with 30 inmates, and a 
veterinary dispensary'. 

Vaccination is compulsory only in the municipal towns of Nagpur, 
Umrer, and Ramtek. The number of persons successfully vaccinated 
in 1903-4 was ^Z per 1,000 of the District population, 

[R. H. Craddock, Settlement Report (1899). A District Gazetteer is 
being compiled.] 

X 2 



3i8 NAGPUR TAHSIL 

Nagpur Tahsil. — Central tahsU of the District of the same name, 
Central Provinces, lying between 20° 46' and 21° 23' N. and 78° 44' 
and 79° 19' E., with an area of 871 square miles. The population 
in 1901 was 296,117, compared with 294,262 in 1891. The general 
density is 340 persons per square mile, and the rural density 136. The 
/c-^jj/ contains four towns — Nagpur City (population, 127,734), the 
head-quarters of the Province, District, and tahsil, Kamptee (38,888), 
Kalmeshwar (5,340), and Saoner (5,281) — and 417 inhabited 
villages. Excluding 42 square miles of Government forest, 80 per 
cent, of the available area is occupied for cultivation. The cultivated 
area in 1903-4 was 578 square miles. The demand for land revenue in 
the same year was Rs. 2,76,000, and for cesses Rs. 26,000. The tahsil 
comprises the fertile plains of Kalmeshwar and Nagpur, the plateau of 
Kauras, a continuation of the Katol uplands, and the undulating 
Wunna valley. Cotton and jowdr are the principal crops, but there is 
a considerable area under wheat in the Kalmeshwar and Nagpur plains. 

Nagpur City.- — Capital of the Central Provinces, and head-quarters 
of the District and tahsil of the same name, situated in 21° 9' N. and 
79° 7' E., on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, 520 miles from 
Bombay, and on the Bengal-Nagpur Railway, 701 miles from Calcutta, 
the two lines meeting here. The city stands on a small stream called 
the Nag, from which it takes its name. Its site is somewhat low, sloping 
to the south-east, with an open plain beyond, while to the north and 
west rise small basaltic hills, on one side of which is situated the fort 
of SitabaldT, on another the residence of the Chief Commissioner, 
and on a third the great reservoir which supplies the city with water. 
Nagpur is steadily increasing in importance, the population at the 
last four enumerations having been: (1872) 84,441, (1881) 98,229, 
(1891) 117,014, and (1901) 127,734. The population in 1901 included 
104,476 Hindus, 17,368 Muhammadans, 760 Jains, 436 Parsis, and 
3,794 Christians, of whom 1,780 were Europeans and Eurasians. 

Nagpur was founded at the beginning of the eighteenth century by 
the Gond Raja, Bakht Buland. It subsequently became the head- 
quarters of the Bhonsla Rajas, and in 1861 of the Central Provinces 
Administration. The battles of Sitabaldl and Nagpur were fought here 
in 181 7. Two small riots have occurred in recent years — one in 1896 
at the commencement of the famine, and one in 1899 on the enforce- 
ment of plague measures — but both were immediately suppressed 
without loss of life. Nagpur itself possesses no archaeological remains 
of interest, but some sculptures and inscribed slabs have been collected 
in the Museum from various parts of the Province. The city is also 
singularly bare of notable buildings ; and since the Bhonsla palace was 
burnt down in 1864, there is nothing deserving of mention. The 
residence of the present representative of the family is situated in the 



NAG PUR CITY 319 

Sakardara Bagh, about a mile from the city, where a small menagerie 
is maintained. But the two fine reservoirs of Ambajheri and TelinkherT 
to the west of the city, the Juma talao (tank) between the city and the 
railway station, and the Maharajbagh and Telinkheri gardens form 
worthy monuments of the best period of Bhonsla rule, and have been 
greatly improved under British administration. The Maharajbagh also 
contains a menagerie. The hill and fort of Sltabaldi form a small 
cantonment, at which a detachment of infantry from the Kamptee 
garrison is stationed. Nagpur is the head-quarters of two Volunteer 
battalions, whose combined strength in the station itself is five 
companies. 

Nagpur was constituted a municipality in 1864. The municipal 
receipts and expenditure during the decade ending 1901 averaged 
Rs. 3,28,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 4,63,000, including octroi 
(Rs. 2,31,000), water rate (Rs. 34,000), and conservancy (Rs. 26,000) ; 
and the expenditure was Rs. 4,51,000, the chief items being refunds 
(Rs. 68,000), water-supply (Rs. 91,000), conservancy (Rs. 65,000), 
up-keep of roads (Rs. 15,000), drainage (Rs. 14,000), and repayment 
of loans (Rs. 22,000). The water-supply is obtained from the Amba- 
jheri reservoir, distant four miles from the city. The works were first 
constructed in 1873, the embankment of the old tank being raised 
1 7 feet, and pipes laid to carry water to the city by means of gravitation 
at a cost of 4 lakhs. In 1890 an extension was carried out at a cost of 
3 lakhs to serve the higher parts of the city and civil station, which 
could not previously be supplied through want of sufficient head. 
The embankment was again raised by famine labour in 1900, and its 
present length.is 1,033 yards, the greatest height being 35 feet. The 
catchment area of the tank is 6^ square miles, and the water surface 
412 acres. In order to prevent the waterlogging of the site of the 
city, as a result of the constant intake from an extraneous source of 
supply, a scheme for a surface drainage system has now been undertaken. 
In addition to the drainage scheme a sewage farm is proposed, and the 
cost of the whole project is estimated at about 10 lakhs. A concession 
has recently been granted by the municipal committee for the construc- 
tion of a system of electric tramway lines along the principal roads. 

Nagpur is the leading industrial and commercial town of the centre 
of India, its trade being principally with Bombay. The Empress Mills, 
in which the late J. N. Tata was the chief shareholder, were opened in 
1877. They contain 1,400 looms and 67,000 spindles, the present 
capital being 47 lakhs. Their out-turn of yarn and cloth in 1904 was 
valued at 61 lakhs, and they employ 4,300 operatives. The Swadeshi 
Spinning and Weaving Mills were opened in 1892 with a capital of 
15 lakhs; they have 180 looms and 16,500 spindles, employ r,roo 
operatives, and produced goods to the value of 14 lakhs in 1904. In 



320 NAG PUR CITY 

addition to the mills, twelve cotton-ginning and pressing factories con- 
taining 287 gins and 11 presses are now working, with an aggregate 
capital of i6'47 lakhs. The city contains eleven printing presses, with 
EngHsh, Hindi, and Marathi type, and one EngHsh weekly and two 
native papers are published, besides the Central Provinces Law Reports. 
The principal hand industry is cotton-weaving, in which about 5,000 
persons are engaged. They produce cotton cloths with silk borders 
and ornamented with gold and silver lace. Numbers of orange gardens 
have been planted in the vicinity of the city, and the fruit grown bears 
a very high reputation. 

Nagpur is the head-quarters of the Central Provinces Administration 
and of all the Provincial heads of departments, besides the Commis- 
sioner and Divisional Judge, Nagpur Division, a Deputy-Postmaster- 
General, an Inspector of Schools, and Executive Engineers for Roads 
and Buildings and Irrigation. The Inspector-General of Agriculture 
for India, the Deputy-Comptroller of Post Offices, Bombay Circle, and 
the Archdeacon of Nagpur also have their head-quarters here. It 
contains one of the two Provincial lunatic asylums and one of the three 
Central jails. Numerous industries are carried on in the Central jail, 
among which may be mentioned printing and binding, woodwork (in- 
cluding Burmese carving), cane-work, and cloth-weaving. All the forms 
and registers used in the public offices of the Province, amounting to 
about ten million sheets annually, are printed or lithographed in the 
Nagpur jail, which contains thirty presses of different sizes. The Agricul- 
tural department maintains a model farm, which is devoted to agricul- 
tural experiment and research. The Victoria Technical Institute is now 
under construction as a memorial to the late Queen Empress. When 
finished it will take over the Agricultural and Engineering classes in 
the schools, and also teach various handicrafts. Nagpur is the head- 
quarters of a Roman Catholic diocese, with a cathedral and convent. 
There is also a mission of the Free Church of Scotland, of which the 
Rev. S. Hislop, whose ethnographical and other writings on the Central 
Provinces are well-known, was for long a member. The Morris and 
Hislop Colleges prepare candidates for degrees in Arts ; they are aided, 
but not maintained, by Government, and had 207 students in 1903-4. 
The Morris College also prepares candidates for degrees in Law, and 
42 students are taking this course. The other educational institutions 
comprise three aided high schools, containing together 404 students ; 
and, besides middle school branches attached to the high schools, four 
English middle schools, of which two are for Muhammadan and Telugu 
boys respectively, and forty-five primary schools. The St. Francis de 
Sales and Bishop's schools are for European boys, and the St. Joseph's 
Convent school for girls. They are attended by 520 children. The 
special institutions consist of male and female normal schools for 



NAIGA WAN REBAI 3 2 1 

teachers, and the agricultural school. The normal schools train stu- 
dents to qualify for teaching in rural schools. They are entirely sup- 
ported from Provincial revenues, and contain 39 male and 19 female 
students, both classes of whom receive stipends or scholarships. The 
agricultural school has 42 students ; it is connected with the model 
farm, and gives instruction in improved methods and implements of 
agriculture to subordinate Government officials and the sons of land- 
owners. The medical institutions comprise the Mayo and Dufferin 
Hospitals for males and females respectively, with combined accom- 
modation for 112 in-patients, and 9 other dispensaries. 

Nahan State. — Native State in the Punjab. See Sirmur. 

Nahan Town. — Capital of the Sirmur State, Punjab, situated in 
30° 2>z' N. and 77° 20' E., on a picturesque range of the Outer Hima- 
layas, at an elevation of 3,207 feet. Population (1901), 6,256. Founded 
in 162 1 by Raja Kami Parkash, it has since been the residence of the 
Rajas and the capital of the State. West of the old town, in which is 
the Raja's palace, lies the Shamsher cantonment for the State troops, 
while to the east is a small grassy plain surrounded by houses and 
public buildings. The town is administered by a municipal board, and 
possesses a school, a civil and a military hospital, a jail, a police station, 
and other offices. On a spur east of the town stands the Shamsher Villa, 
built in the Italian style by Raja Sir Shamsher Parkash, G.C.S.I., in 
1 88 1. The iron foundry employs 600 men. 

Nahr Sadikiyah (or Cholistan). — Tahs'il in the Minchinabad 
nizdmat, Bahawalpur State, Punjab, lying between 29° 29' and 
30° 18' N. and 73° 7' and 74° i' E., with an area of 625 square miles. 
The population in 1901 was 26,758, compared with 23,215 in 1891. 
It contains 127 villages. The tahsil is called after the Sadikiyah canal, 
which runs through it from end to end, and will, when completed, have 
a total length of 120 miles. The tahsil, which has only recently been 
formed out of a portion of the Minchinabad tahsil, will have its head- 
quarters at the new town of Sadikganj, near the M^Leodganj Road 
junction of the main line and the Ferozepore-McLeodganj Road 
branch of the Southern Punjab Railway. The land revenue and 
cesses in 1905—6 amounted to Rs. 41,000. 

Naigawan Rebai {Naigaofi Rebai). — A petty satiad State in 
Central India, under the Bundelkhand Agency, with an area of about 
7 square miles. Population (1901), 2,497. The jdglrddr is an Ahir 
{Daowa) by caste. The land forming \hejdgir was originally included 
in the Jaitpur State, which lapsed in 1849. After British supremacy 
had been established in Bundelkhand, Lachhman Singh, then the 
leader of a marauding band, was induced to surrender on a promise 
of pardon ; and a grant of five villages, with an estimated revenue of 
Rs. 15,000, was made to him in 1807. On his death, in 1808, his son 



322 NAIGAWAN REBAI 

Jagat Singh succeeded. In 1850 it was held that Lachhman Singh's 
tenure was for Ufe only, and that the holding should have been 
resumed on his death. Jagat Singh was, however, allowed to continue 
in possession; and in 1862 this ruling was reversed and the jagir da r 
received an adoption sanad. The present holder is Larai Dulhaiya, 
widow of Jagat Singh, who succeeded in 1867 with the sanction of 
Government, though no woman had before held the position of ruling 
chief in Bundelkhand. She has an adopted son, Kunwar Vishvanath 
Singh, born in 1881, who has been recognized as her successor. The 
State contains 4 villages, with a cultivated area of 6 square miles, and 
a revenue of Rs. 1 1,000. The administration is carried on by the 
Thakurain herself, assisted by a kavidar. The head-quarters of the 
estate are at Rebai, situated in 25° 2\' N. and 79° 29' E., 18 miles 
north of Nowgong cantonment. Population (1901), 757. Until 1834 
Naigawan (25° 11'' N. and 80° 54' E.) was the chief place. The 
change in the head-quarters has given rise to the present name of 
the holding. 

Naihati. — Town in the Barrackpore subdivision of the District of 
the Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal, situated in 22° 54'' N. and 88° 25' E., 
on the east bank of the Hooghly river. Population (1901), 13,604. 
Naihati is a station on the Eastern Bengal State Railway and the 
junction of a branch railway across the Hooghly Bridge which connects 
with the East Indian Railway. An emigration depot is situated in the 
town ; and at Gaurlpur there are large jute and oil-mills. Naihati was 
constituted a municipality in 1869, The area within municipal limits 
has been greatly curtailed by the separation of the Bhatpara munici- 
pality in 1899, and of the Halisahar municipality in 1903. The 
income for the five years since its separation from Bhatpara has 
averaged Rs. 21,000, and the expenditure Rs. 20,000. In 1903-4 the 
income was Rs. 13,700, including Rs. 5,000 derived from a tax on 
persons (or property tax); and the expenditure was Rs. 11,400. 

Naini Tal District. — Southern District in the Kumaun Division, 

United Provinces, lying between 28° 51' and 29° 37' N. and 78° 43' 

and 80° 5' E., with an area of 2,677 square miles. It is bounded 

on the north by the Districts of Almora and Garhwal ; on the east by 

Almora and by Nepal territory ; on the west by Garhwal and Bijnor ; 

and on the south by Plhbhit, Bareilly, INIoradabad, and the State of 

Rampur. About one-sixth of the District lies in the outer ranges 

_ of the Himalayas, the chief of which is known as 

Physical . 

aspects Gagar. These rise abruptly from the plains to 

a height of 6,000 or 7,000 feet, and are clothed with 

forest. The scenery is strikingly beautiful ; and from the tops of the 

higher peaks, which reach a height of nearly 9,000 feet, magnificent 

views can be obtained of the vast level plain to the south, or of the 



NAIXI TAL DISTRICT 323 

mass of the tangled ridges lying north, bounded by the great snowy 
range which forms the central axis of the Himalayas. Immediately 
below the hills stretches a long narrow strip of land called the Bhabar, 
in which the mountain torrents sink and are lost, except during the 
rains, beneath the boulder formation which they themselves have 
made. The Bhabar contains vast forest areas, and is scantily culti- 
vated. The remainder of the District is included in the damp moist 
plain known as the Tarai and the Kashipur tahs'tl. On the northern 
edge of the Tarai springs appear, which gradually form rivers or small 
streams, and give a verdant aspect to the country throughout the year, 
Kashipur, in the south-west corner, is less swampy and resembles the 
adjoining tracts in Rohilkhand. None of the rivers in the District 
rises in the snowy range except the Sarda, which just touches the 
eastern boundary. The main drainage lines of the hill country are 
those of the KosI, Gola, and Nandhaur. The Kosi rises in Almora 
District, and the Gola and Nandhaur in the southern slopes of the 
outer hills. All three rivers eventually join the Ramganga, the Gola 
being known in its lower courses as the Kichha, and the Nandhaur as 
the Deoha and later as the Garra. The smaller watercourses of the 
Bhabar and the Tarai are innumerable, and change their names every 
few miles, but all eventually drain into the Ramganga. In the hills 
are several lakes of some size and considerable beauty, the chief being 
NainI Tal, Bhim Tal, Malwa Tal, Sat Tal, Naukuchhiya Tal, and 
Khurpa Tal. 

The Tarai consists of a zone of recently formed Gangetic alluvium, 
while the Bhabar is a gently sloping mass of coarse gravels still being 
formed from the debris brought down by streams from the hills. 
A sub-Himalayan zone of low hills, including the Kotah Dun, which 
resembles the Siwaliks and the valley of the Nandhaur, contains 
deposits of the Upper Tertiary age, chiefly Nahan sandstone. This zone 
is separated from the Himalayas by a reversed fault. The higher hills 
comprise an older set of slates and quartzites ; a massive dark dolomite 
or limestone ; beds of quartzite and basic lava-flows, and possibly other 
schistose and granitic rocks. The steep slopes acted on by heavy rain- 
fall have from time to time given way in landslips of considerable size ^ 

The flora of the District presents a great variety. In the Tarai the 
ordinary trees and plants of the plains are found. The Bhabar forests 
consist to a large extent of sal {Shorea robusta) ; but as the hills are 
ascended the flora changes rapidly, and European trees and plants 
are seen ^ 

^ Records, Geological Survey of India, vol. xxiii, pts. i and iv, and vol. xxiv, pt. ii ; 
T. H. Holland, Report on Geological Structure of Hill Slopes near N^aini Tal. 

^ For a complete list of plants found, see chap, viii, N.-W. P. Gazetteer, vol. x, 

1S82. 



324 NAINI TAL DISTRICT 

Owing to the wide range of climate and elevation, most of the 
animals of both the plains and hills of Northern India are found in this 
District. A few elephants haunt the Bhabar and part of the Tarai, 
while tigers and leopards range from the plains to the hills. The wolf, 
jackal, and wild dog are also found. The Himalayan black bear lives 
in the hills, and the sloth bear in both the Bhabar and the Tarai. The 
sdtnbar or jarau, spotted deer, swamp deer, hog deer, barking-deer, 
four-horned antelope, fillgai, antelope, and giiral also occur. Many 
kinds of snakes are found, including immense pythons which some- 
times attain a length of 30 feet. The District is also rich in bird life ; 
about 450 species have been recorded. Fish are plentiful, and fishing 
in the lakes and some of the rivers is regulated by the grant of 
licences. 

The climate of the Tarai and to a lesser extent of the Bhabar is 
exceedingly unhealthy, especially from- May to November. Few 
people, except the Tharus and Boksas, who seem fever-proof, are able 
to live there long. In the hills the climate is more temperate, and the 
annual range on the higher slopes is from about 26° in January, when 
snow falls in most years, to 85° in June. 

The rainfall varies as much as the climate. At Kashipur, south 
of the Tarai, only 46 inches are received annually ; while at HaldwanI, 
in the Bhabar, the average is nearly 77. NainI Tal is still wetter, and 
receives 95 inches annually, including snow. 

Traditions connect many places in the hills with the story of the 
Mahabharata. The earliest historical record is to be found in the visit 
of Hiuen Tsiang, who describes a kingdom of 
Govisana, which was probably in the Tarai and 
Bhabar, and a kingdom of Brahmapura in the hills. The Tarai then 
appears to have relapsed into jungle, while the hills were included in 
the dominion of the Katyuri Rajas, of whom little is known. They 
were succeeded by the Chands, who claimed to be Sombansi Rajputs 
from Jhusi in Allahabad District, and first settled south of Almora 
and in the Tarai. The Musalman historians mention Kumaun in the 
fourteenth century, when Gyan Chand proceeded to Delhi and obtained 
from the Sultan a grant of the Bhabar and Tarai as far as the Ganges. 
The lower hills were, however, held by local chiefs, and Kirati Chand 
(1488-1503) was the first who ruled the whole of the present District. 
When the Mughal empire was established the Musalmans formed 
exaggerated ideas of the wealth of the hills, and the governor of the 
adjoining tract occupied the Tarai and Bhabar and attempted to 
invade the hills, but was foiled by natural difficulties. The Ain-i-Akbarf 
mentions a sarkdr of Kumaun, but the tnahdls included in it seem to 
refer to the submontane tract alone. The power of the Chand Rajas 
was chiefly confined to the hill tracts; but Baz Bahadur (1638-78) 



POPULATION 325 

visited Shah Jahan at Delhi, and in 1655 joined the Mughal forces 
against Garhwal, and recovered the Tarai. In 1672 he introduced 
a poll-tax, the proceeds of which were remitted to Delhi as tribute. 
One of his successors, named Debi Chand (1720-6), took part in the 
intrigues and conspiracies of the Afghans of Rohilkhand and even 
faced the imperial troops, but was defeated. In 1744 All Muhammad, 
the Rohilla leader, sent a force into the Chand territory and penetrated 
through Bhim Tal in this District to Almora ; but the Rohillas were 
ultimately driven out. A reconciliation was subsequently effected ; 
troops from the hills fought side by side with the Rohillas at Panlpat 
in 1 76 1, and the lowlands were in a flourishing state. Internal dissen- 
sions followed, and the government of the plains became separated 
from that of the hills, part being held by the Nawab of Oudh and part 
by Brahmans from the hills. In 1790 the Gurkhas invaded the hill 
tracts, and the Chands were driven to the Bhabar and finally expelled. 
The Tarai and Kashlpur were ceded to the British by the Nawab 
of Oudh in 1801 with the rest of Rohilkhand. In 18 14 war broke out 
between the British and Nepalese, and a force marched from Kashlpur 
in February, 1815. Almora fell in two months and Kumaun became 
British territory. The later history of the District is a record of 
administrative details till 1857. The inhabitants of the hills took no 
part in the great Mutiny ; but from June there was complete disorder 
in the plains, and large hordes of plunderers invaded the Bhabar. 
Unrest was spreading to the hills, when martial law was proclaimed by 
Sir Henry Ramsay, the Commissioner, and the danger passed. The 
rebels from Rohilkhand seized Haldwani near the foot of the hills ; and 
attempts were made to reach NainI Tal, but without success. By 
February, 1858, the rebels were practically cleared out of the Tarai, 
and there was no further trouble. 

There are considerable areas of ruins in the Tarai and Bhabar which 
have not been properly explored. Near KashTpur bricks have been 
found bearing inscriptions of the third or fourth century a.d. The 
temple at Bhim Tal, built by Baz Bahadur in the seventeenth century, 
is the chief relic of the Chands. 

The District contains 7 towns and 1,513 villages. Population 
increased considerably between 1872 and 1891, but was then checked 
by a series of adverse seasons. The numbers at the 
four enumerations were as follows: (1872) 263,956, 
(1881) 339,667, (1891) 356,881, and (1901) 311,237. The Tarai and 
Bhabar contain a large nomadic population. There are four divisions, 
corresponding to the iahsils of Districts in the plains : namely, NainI 
Tal, the Bhabar, the Tarai, and Kashipur. The Bhabar is in 
charge of a tahsllddr stationed at Haldwani, and the Tarai is under 
a tahslldar at Kichha. The principal towns are the municipalities 



326 



NAINI TAL DISTRICT 



of NainI Tal, the District head-quarters, and Kashipur, and the 
'notified area' of Haldwani. The following table gives the chief 
statistics of population in 1901 : — 



TahsU. 



Naini Tal 
Bhabar 
Kashipur 
Tarai . 



District total 



433 

1,279 

189 

776 



2,677 



Number of 












H 


> 


I 


451 


4 


5I' 


2 


147 




404 



7 1,513 



43,738 

93,445 

55,632 

1 18,422 



311,237 



ga 



lOI 

73 
294 
153 



116 



bog gtn o 
rt_0.0 - o\ 

o 1- 3 5; c 
<u ;, O " 



- 5-2 


3,735 


- 6.7 


6,138 


— 24.0 


2,313 


-13-8 


1. 741 



12-7 



c a ^ 

3 O S ^ 



12,927 



About 75 per cent, of the population are Hindus, and more than 
24 per cent. Musalmans ; but the latter are chiefly found in the Tarai 
and Kashipur. More than 67 per cent, of the total speak Western 
Hindi, 31 per cent. Central Pahari, and i per cent. Nepali or Gorkhali. 

In the hills and Bhabar the majority of the population is divided 
into three main castes — Brahmans, Rajputs, and Doms. The two 
former include the Khas tribes classed respectively as Brahmans and 
Rajputs. The Doms are labourers and artisans, while the Brahmans 
and Rajputs are agriculturists. In the Tarai and Kashipur are found 
the ordinary castes of the plains, with a few peculiar to this tract. 
Rajputs altogether number 51,300 ; Brahmans, 36,000 ; Doms, 33,000 ; 
and Chamars, 23,000. The Tharus and Boksas, who are believed to 
be of Mongolian origin, number 16,000 and 4,000 respectively. They 
are the only people who can retain their health in the worst parts 
of the Tarai. In the hills are found three small, but peculiar, castes : 
the Bhotias, who come from the border of Tibet ; the Naiks, who 
devote their daughters to prostitution ; and the Sauns, who are miners. 
Among Musalmans the chief tribes are the Shaikhs (19,000), and 
Julahas or weavers (13,000). The Rains (4,000) and the Turks (4,000) 
are found only in the submontane tract. Agriculture supports about 
67 per cent, of the total population, and general labour 9 per cent. 

Out of 659 native Christians in 1901, Methodists numbered 201, 
Roman Catholics 193, Presbyterians 59, and the Anglican communion 
38. The American Methodist Episcopal Mission commenced work at 
Nairn Tal in 1857. 

In the hill tracts the method of cultivation differs according to the 

situation of the land. Plots lying deep in the valleys near the beds 

... of rivers are irrigated by small channels, and produce 

a constant succession of wheat and rice. On the 

hill-sides land is terraced, and vtarud, or some variety of bean or pulse, 



AGRICULTURE 



327 



takes the place of rice in alternate years, while wheat is not grown 
continuously unless manure is available. In poorer land barley is 
grown instead of wheat. Potatoes are largely cultivated on the natural 
slope of hill-sides from which oak forest has been cut. Cultivation in 
the hills suffers from the fact that a large proportion of the population 
migrate to the Bhabar in the winter. Agricultural conditions in the 
Bhabar depend almost entirely on the possibility of canal-irrigation, 
and the cultivated land is situated near the mouth of a valley in the 
hills. Rice is grown in the autumn, and in the spring rape or mustard 
and wheat are the chief crops. Farther south in the Tarai and in 
Kashlpur cultivation resembles that of the plains generally. In the 
northern portion the soil is light ; but when it becomes exhausted, 
cultivation shifts. Lower down clay is found, which is continuously 
cultivated. Rice is here the chief crop ; but in dry seasons other crops 
are sown, and the spring harvest becomes more important. 

The tenures in the hill tracts have been described in the account 
of the KuMAUN Division. In the Bhabar the majority of villages are 
managed as Government estates, the tenants being tenants-at-will and 
the village managed and the rents collected by a headman. There 
are also a few villages under zamlnddri tenures peculiar to the tract, in 
which tenants with the khaikari occupancy right of the hills are found. 
Most of the Tarai is also a Government estate. The cultivators, though 
mere tenants-at-will, are never dispossessed so long as they pay their 
rents. In Kashlpur the tenures of the plains predominate, but a few 
villages are managed as Government estates. The main agricultural 
statistics for 1903-4 are given below, in square miles: — 



Tahsil. 


Total. 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated. 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Naini Tal . . . 

Bhabar .... 

Kashlpur 

Tarai .... 


433 
1,279 

189 


89 
69 


13 

88 
10 
38 


19* 

32* 

75 
431 


Total 


2,677 


407 


149 


557 



* In demarcated area only. 

No crop returns are prepared for the Naini Tal tahs'il, in which 
wheat, barley, rice, and tnarud are the main food-crops, while a little 
tea and spices are also grown. Rice and wheat are the most important 
crops in the Tarai and Kashlpur, covering loi and 87 square miles 
respectively, or 38 and 33 per cent, of the net area cropped. Gram, 
maize, and barley are grown on smaller areas. Oilseeds cover 
24 square miles, and a little sugar-cane and cotton are produced. 
There are five tea estates in the lower hills, but little tea is now made, 
and fruit-growing is becoming a more important industry. 



328 NAINI TAL DISTRICT 

The cultivated area in the hill tracts increased by nearly 50 per cent, 
between 1872 and 1902 ; but agricultural methods have not improved 
to any marked extent, except in the extension of irrigation and of 
potato cultivation. The cultivated area in the Bhabar has also 
increased, but is entirely dependent on canals. In the Tarai and 
Kashlpur cultivation fluctuates considerably according to variations in 
the rainfall. Advances under the Land Improvement and Agriculturists' 
Loans Acts are small. They are not required in the hills or in the 
Bhabar. 

The hill cattle are smaller than those of the plains ; but neither 
breed is of good quality, though attempts have been made to introduce 
better strains. Enormous herds are brought from the Districts farther 
south for pasture during the hot season. Ponies of a small, but hardy, 
variety are bred in large numbers along the foot of the hills for use as 
pack-animals. Goats and sheep are of the ordinary type, and con- 
siderable flocks are driven up in the winter from the plains to the 
Tarai. In the hills goats are seldom used to supply milk, but are 
kept for their flesh and manure. 

The total area irrigated in 1903-4 was 149 square miles. A few 
square miles are irrigated in the hills from channels drawn from the 
rivers and carried along hill-sides, besides irrigation from springs and 
water near the surface. The greater part of the irrigation in the rest 
of the District is from small canals. These are drawn in the Bhabar 
from the rivers which flow down from the hills, supplemented by lakes 
which have been embanked to hold up more water. Owing to the 
porous nature of the soil and gravel which make up that area, there is 
a great loss of water, and the channels are gradually being lined with 
masonry. More than 200 miles of canals have been built, command- 
ing an area of no square miles. In the Tarai the small streams which 
rise as springs near the boundary of the Bhabar were formerly dammed 
by the people to supply irrigation. Immense swamps were formed and 
the tract became extremely unhealthy. Canals and drainage systems 
have, however, been undertaken. The canals are chiefly taken from 
the small streams and are ' minor ' works. In the east the villagers 
themselves make the dams and channels. The more important canals 
are divided between the charges of the Engineer attached to the Tarai 
and Bhabar and of the Engineer of the Rohilkhand Canals. 

The forests of the District cover an area of about 1,510 square miles, 

of which about 900 are ' reserved ' and 340 consist of ' protected ' 

_ forests. They are situated partly in the submontane 

Forests. , \ ...... '^ ^ ■'. ^ 

tract and partly m the hills. In the former tract the 

most valuable product is sal {Shorea robusta) ; while shisham {Dalbergia 

Sissoo), haldu {Adtna cordifolta), and khair {Acacia Catechu) are also 

found. Sal extends up to about 3,000 feet, and is then replaced by 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 329 

various pines, especially chtr {Finns longifolia\ and ultimately by 
various kinds of oak {Quercus semecarpifolia, incatia, and dilaiaia). 
The whole of the waste land in the hill tracts has now been declared 
' protected ' forest to prevent further denudation, which had begun to 
threaten the cultivation in the river-beds. Most of the ' reserved ' 
forest area is included in the Naini Tal, Kumaun, and Garhwal forest 
divisions, and accounts are not kept separately for the District. The 
receipts are, however, large, amounting to 2 or 3 lakhs annually. 

The mineral products are various, but have not proved of great 
value. Building stone is abundant, and lime is manufactured at 
several places. Iron was worked for a time both by Government and 
by private enterprise ; but none is extracted now. Copper is also to be 
found, but is not worked. A little gold is obtained by washing the 
sands of the Dhela and Phlka rivers ; and other minor products are 
alum, gypsum, and sulphur. 

Cotton cloth of good quality is largely woven in the south-west of 

the District, especially at Jaspur, and is dyed or printed locally for 

export to the hills. Elsewhere only the coarsest 

material is produced for local use. In the hill tracts ^^ ^ ^^. 

^ communications. 

a coarse kmd of cloth, sackmg, and ropes are woven 

from goat's hair. There are no other industries of importance. A 

brewery is situated close to Nairn Tal, which employs about 50 hands. 

The District as a whole imports piece-goods, salt, and metals, while 
the chief exports are agricultural and forest produce. The hill tracts 
supply potatoes, chillies, ginger, and forest produce, and import grain 
from the Bhabar. The surplus products of the latter tract consist of 
grain, forest produce, and rapeseed. There is little trade to or from 
the Tarai. A considerable through traffic between the interior of the 
Himalayas and the plains is of some importance to this District. 
Naini Tal is the chief mart in the hills, while Haldwani, Ramnagar, 
Chorgallia, and KaladhungI in the Bhabar, and Jaspur and Kashlpur 
are the principal markets in the plains. 

The only railway is the Rohilkhand-Kumaun line from Bareilly to 
Kathgodam at the foot of the hills below Nairn Tal ; but extensions 
are contemplated from Lalkua on this line via Kashlpur to Ramnagar, 
and from Moradabad on the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway to Kashl- 
pur. There are 737 miles of road, of which 173 are metalled and are 
in charge of the Public Works department. The cost of the metalled 
roads is charged to Provincial revenues, while 226 miles of unmetalled 
roads are maintained by the District board, and 337 by the Tarai and 
Bhabar estate funds. The chief road is that from Bareilly through 
Kathgodam to Ranlkhet and Almora, passing close to Naini Tal. 
Another road from Moradabad through Kashlpur and Ramnagar 
also leads to Ranlkhet. 



330 NAINI TAL DISTRICT 

Famine is practically unknown in the District, though high prices 
cause distress among the lowest classes. A serious failure of rain in 
the hills has never happened ; and although deficiency 
amine. injures the crops, the hill people depend largely on 

the Bhabar, in which irrigation is drawn from permanent sources. 
The Tarai suffers more from excessive rain than from drought, and 
the canal system protects every part of the low country except Kashl- 
pur, where scarcity was experienced in 1896. 

The District is in charge of a Deputy-Commissioner, who is ordinarily 
assisted by a member of the Indian Civil Service and by a Deputy- 
Collector, who are stationed at NainI Tal. The 
KashTpur tahsll forms a subdivision in charge of 
another Deputy-Collector, who resides at KashTpur except during the 
rains. A special superintendent manages the Tarai and Bhabar 
Government estates. A tahsilddr is stationed at the head-quarters 
of each tahsll except Nairn Tal and Kashlpur, where there is a 
naib-tahsllddr. In addition to the ordinary District staff, an 
Engineer is in charge of canals and other public works in the 
Government estates, and the forests are divided between several forest 
divisions. 

Naini Tal is administered as a non-regulation tract, and the same 
officers exercise civil, revenue, and criminal jurisdiction. In civil 
matters the Commissioner of Kumaun sits as a High Court, while the 
Deputy-Commissioner has powers of a District Judge, and his assistants 
and the tahsildars have civil powers for the trial of suits. The Com- 
missioner is also Sessions Judge in subordination to the High Court 
at Allahabad. There is little crime in the hill tracts ; but dacoity 
is fairly common in the Tarai and Bhabar, and this is the most 
serious form of crime. The proximity of the State of Rampur favours 
the escape of criminals. 

A District of NainI Tal was first formed in 1891. Before that date 
the hill tracts and the Bhabar had been included in what was then 
the Kumaun, but is now called the Almora District. The parganas 
included in Kashlpur and the Tarai were for long administered as parts 
of the adjoining Districts of Moradabad and Bareilly. About 1861, 
after many changes, a Tarai District was formed, to which in 1870 
Kashlpur was added. The tract was at the same time plated under 
the Commissioner of Kumaun. 

The first settlement of the hill tracts and the Bhabar in 18 15 was 
based on the demands of the Gurkhas and amounted to Rs. 17,000, 
the demand being levied by parga?ias or patt'is (a subdivision of the 
pargana), and not by villages, and being collected through headmen. 
Short-term settlements were made at various dates, in which the revenue 
fixed for each pattl was distributed over villages by the zaminddrs. 



ADMINISTRA TION 33 1 

themselves. The first regular settlement was carried out between 1842 
and 1846, and this was for the first time preceded by a partial survey 
where boundary disputes had occurred, and by the preparation of 
a record-of-rights. The revenue so fixed amounted to Rs. 36,000. 
A revision was carried out between 1863 and 1873 ; but the manage- 
ment of the Bhabar had by this time been separated from that of the 
hills. In the latter a more detailed survey was made. Settlement opera- 
tions in the hills differ from those in the plains, as competition rents 
are non-existent. The valuation is made by classifying soil, and esti- 
mating the produce of each class. The revenue fixed in the hill pattis 
alone amounted to Rs. 34,900, which was raised to Rs. 50,300 at the 
latest assessment made between 1900 and 1902. The latter figure 
includes the rent of potato clearings, which are treated as a Government 
estate, and also revenue which has been 'assigned,' the actual sum 
payable to Government being Rs. 43,100. There was for many years 
very little advance in cultivation in the Bhabar, the revenue from which 
in 1843 was only Rs. 12,700. In 1850 it was placed in charge of 
Captain (afterwards Sir Henry) Ramsay, who was empowered to spend 
any surplus above the fixed revenue on improving the estate. The 
receipts at once increased by leaps and bounds, as irrigation was 
provided and other improvements were made. Revenue continued to 
be assessed as in the hills in the old settled villages, while the new 
cultivation was treated as a Government estate. The first revision in 
1864 yielded Rs. 60,000, of which Rs. 4,000 represented rent; and 
the total receipts rose to a lakh in 1869, i'4 lakhs in 1879, nearly 
2 lakhs in 1889, and 2-4 lakhs in 1903. Of the latter figure, Rs. 57,000 
is assessed as revenue and Rs. 1,85,000 as rent. The greater part of 
the Tarai is held as a Government estate, and its fiscal history is 
extremely complicated, as portions of it were for long administered 
as part of the adjacent Districts. The land revenue in 1885 amounted 
to Rs. 70,000 and the rental demand to about 2 lakhs. The latter 
item was revised in 1895, when rents were equalized, and the rental 
demand is now about 2-5 lakhs. Kashlpur was settled as part of 
Moradabad District, and at the revisions of 1843 and 1879 the revenue 
demand was about a lakh. A revision has recently been made. The 
total demand for revenue and rent in Naini Tal District is thus 
about 7 lakhs. The gross revenue is included in that of the Kumaun 
Division. 

There are two municipalities, Kashipur and Nain! Tal, and 
one ' notified area,' Haldwani, and four towns are administered under 
Act XX of 1856. Beyond the Hmits of these, local affairs are managed 
by the District board ; but a considerable expenditure on roads, 
education, and hospitals is incurred in the Government estates from 
Provincial revenues. The District board had in 1903-4 an income 

VOL. xvin. Y 



332 NAINI TAL DISTRICT 

of Rs. 37,000 and an expenditure of Rs. 82,000, including Rs. 42,000 
spent on roads and buildings. 

The Superintendent of police and a single circle inspector are in 
charge of the whole of the Kumaun Division. In the hill tract of this 
District there are no regular police, except in the town of NainI Tal 
and at three outposts, the duties of the police being discharged by the 
patwdris, who have a higher position than in the plains. There is one 
reserve inspector; and the force includes 37 subordinate officers and 
135 constables, besides 83 municipal and town police, and 152 rural 
and road police. The number of police stations is 11. A jail has 
recently been built at Haldwanl. 

The population of Naini Tal District is above the average as re- 
gards literacy, and 4-2 per cent. (7-1 males and 0-5 females) could read 
and write in 1901. The Musalmans are especially backward, only 2 
per cent, of these being literate. In 1880-1 there were only 16 public 
schools with 427 pupils; but after the formation of the new District 
education was rapidly pushed on, and by 1 900-1 the number of schools 
had risen to 60 with 1,326 pupils. In 1903-4 there were 93 public 
schools with 2,277 pupils, including 82 girls, besides 13 private schools 
with 170 pupils. Only 200 pupils in public and private schools were 
in advanced classes. Two schools were managed by Government and 
77 by the District and municipal boards. The expenditure on educa- 
tion was Rs. 1 2,000, provided almost entirely from Local and Provincial 
funds. These figures do not include the nine European schools in 
Naini Tal Town, which contain about 350 boys and 250 girls. 

There are 14 hospitals and dispensaries in the District, with accom- 
modation for 104 in-patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated 
was 78,000, of whom 1,040 were in-patients, and 1,687 operations were 
performed. The expenditure amounted to Rs. 49,000. 

In 1903-4 the number of persons successfully vaccinated was 11,000, 
giving an average of 37 per r,ooo. 

[J. E. Goudge, Settkmefit Report, Abfiord and Hill Pattis of Nairn 
7^/(1903) ; H. R. Nevill, District Gazetteer (1904).] 

Naini Tal Tahsil. — A portion of Naini Tal District, United Pro- 
vinces, comprising the parganas of Dhyanirao, Chhakhata Pahar, 
Pahar Kota, Dhaniyakot, Ramgarh, Kutauli, and Mahruri, and lying 
between 29° 9' and 29° 37' N. and 79° 9' and 79° 56' E., with an area 
of 433 square miles. Population fell from 46,139 in 1891 to 43,738 in 
1901. There are 451 villages, but only one town, Naini Tal, which 
is the District head-quarters in the hot season (population, 7,609 in 
winter and 15,164 in summer). The demand for land revenue in 
1903-4 was Rs. 33,000, and for cesses Rs. 5,000. The density 
of population, 10 1 persons per square mile, is higher than in the 
Himalayan tracts generally. This tract lies entirely in the hills, and is 



NAINI TAL TOWN m 

under the charge of a, peshkdr ox naih-tahsllddr. In 1903-4 the area 
under cultivation was 54 square miles, of which 13 were irrigated either 
by small channels from rivers or by canals. 

Nairn Tal Town. — Head-quarters of Nain! Tal District, United 
Provinces, with cantonment, situated in 29° 24' N. and 79° 28' E., in 
a valley of the Gagar range of the Outer Himalayas. Population, 
15,164 in September, 1900, and 7,609 in March, 1901, including that 
of the small cantonment. Up to 1839 the place was resorted to only 
by the herdsmen of surrounding villages, and though it was mentioned 
by the Commissioner in official reports, he does not appear to have 
visited it. It was then discovered by a European, and from 1842 it 
increased rapidly in size and prosperity. At the time of the Mutiny, 
Nairn Tal formed a refuge for the fugitives from the neighbouring 
Districts in Rohilkhand. Soon afterwards it became the summer 
head-quarters of Government, and it is now also the head-quarters of 
the Commissioner of Kumaun and of a Conservator of Forests. In 
September, r88o, after three days' continuous rain, a landslip occurred, 
which caused the death of forty-three Europeans and 108 natives, 
besides damage to property amounting to about 2 lakhs. Since this 
disastrous occurrence a complete system of drainage has been carried 
out at great expense. The valley contains a pear-shaped lake, a little 
more than two miles in circumference, with a depth of 93 feet. On 
the north and south rise steep hill-sides clothed with fine forest trees, 
among which oaks predominate. On the western bank is situated 
a considerable area of more gently sloping land, from which a level 
recreation-ground has been excavated. The upper bazar stands above 
this, and the houses occupied by the European residents are scattered 
about on the sides of the valley. East of the lake the lower bazar is 
built on the outer edge of the range. The surface of the lake is 6,350 
feet above sea-level ; and the highest peaks are China (8,568) on the 
north, Deopatha (7,987) on the west, and Ayarpatha (7,461) on the 
south. The residence of the Lieutenant-Governor, completed in 1900, 
is a handsome building standing in spacious grounds. The principal 
public buildings include the Government Secretariat, the District 
offices, the Ramsay Hospital for Europeans, and male and female 
dispensaries for natives. There is also an important station of the 
American Methodist Mission. Naini Tal has been a municipality 
since 1845. During the ten years ending 1901 the income and 
expenditure averaged \\ lakhs, including loan funds. The income in 
1903-4 was 1-7 lakhs, including house tax (Rs. 34,000), tolls (Rs. 93,000), 
water-rate (Rs. 23,000), and conservancy tax (Rs. 21,000); and the 
expenditure was 1-4 lakhs, including repayment of loans and interest 
(Rs. 23,000), maintenance of water-supply and drainage (Rs. 34,000), 
and conservancy (Rs. 26,000). Drinking-water is derived from springs, 

Y 2 



334 NAINl TAL TOWN 

and is pumped up to reservoirs at the top of hills and distributed by 
gravitation. More than 4 lakhs has been spent on water-supply and 
drainage, and the introduction of a scheme of electric light is con- 
templated. The trade of the town chiefly consists in the supply of 
the wants of the summer visitors ; but there is some through traffic 
with the hills. Three schools for natives have 220 pupils, and five 
European schools for boys have 350 pupils and four for girls 250. 

Nainwah. — Town in Bundi State, Rajputana. See Naenwa. 

Najibabad Tahsil. — Northern tahsil of Bijnor District, United 
Provinces, comprising the parganas of Najibabad, Kiratpur, and 
Akbarabad, and lying between 29° 25'' and 29° 58' N. and 78° 7' 
and 78° 31' E., with an area of 396 square miles. Population fell 
from 156,873 in 1891 to 153,896 in 1901. There are 422 villages and 
two towns: Najibabad (population, 19,568), the /a,^i-J/ head-quarters, 
and Kiratpur (15,051). The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 
was Rs. 2,75,000, and for cesses Rs. 45,000. The density of popu- 
lation, 389 persons per square mile, is much below the District average. 
The tahsil contains a considerable area of forest, besides a hilly tract 
which is uninhabited. The northern portion is scored by torrents, 
which are dry for eight months in the year but scour deep ravines 
during the rains. Numerous other streams cross the rich alluvial 
plain which constitutes the rest of the tahsil, the chief being the 
Malin, The Ganges forms the western boundary. In 1903-4 the 
area under cultivation was 188 square miles, of which only 7 were 
irrigated. A small private canal from the Malin serves about one 
square mile, but rivers are the chief source of supply. 

Najibabad Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same 
name in Bijnor District, United Provinces, situated in 29° 37' N. 
and 78° 21' E., at the junction of the main line of the Oudh and 
Rohilkhand Railway with the branch to Kotdwara in Garhwal. Popu- 
lation (1901), 19,568. Najibabad was founded by Najib-ud-daula, 
paymaster and for a time Wazir of the Mughal empire, who built 
a fort at Patthargarh, a mile to the east, in 1755. I'^ ^772 the town 
was sacked by the Marathas, and in 1774 it passed into the hands of 
the Nawab of Oudh. During the Mutiny Mahmud, great-grandson 
of Najib-ud-dauIa, revolted, and in 1858, when the place was recovered, 
the palace was destroyed. Najibabad is close to the forest and its 
climate is unhealthy, but the town is well drained into the Malin. The 
principal relic of Rohilla rule is the tomb of Najib-ud-daula ; and a 
carved gateway still marks the site of the palace, now occupied by the 
tahsin.. A spacious building called the Mubarak Bunyad, which was 
built at the close of the eighteenth century, is used as a resthouse. 
The fortress of Patthargarh, also known as Najafgarh, is in ruins. The 
stone used in its construction was taken from an ancient fort, called 



NAKUR TAHSIL 335 

Mordhaj, some distance away. Najlbabad contains a dispensary and 
police station, and a branch of the American Methodist Mission. It 
has been administered as a municipality since 1866, During the ten 
years ending 1901 the income and expenditure averaged Rs. 15,000. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 25,000, chiefly from octroi (Rs. 20,000) \ 
and the expenditure was Rs. 28,000. Najlbabad is of considerable 
importance as a depot for trade with the hills. Metal vessels, cloth, 
blankets, shoes, &c., are made here, and exported to Garhwal, while 
there is a through trade in salt, sugar, grain, and timber. The town 
is also celebrated for its production of sweetmeats and small baskets, 
and in former days its matchlocks were well-known. The tahsili school 
has over 220 pupils and an English school about 100. A primary 
school and 1 1 aided schools have about 350 pupils. 

Nakodar Tahsil. — Western tahsU of Jullundur District, Punjab, 
lying on the north bank of the Sutlej, between 30° 56'' and 31° 15' N. 
and 75° 5'' and 75° 37' E., with an area of 371 square miles. The 
population in 1901 was 222,412, compared with 217,079 in 1891. 
The head-quarters are at the town of Nakodar (population, 9,958), 
and it also contains 311 villages. The land revenue and cesses 
in 1903-4 amounted to 4-3 lakhs. The Sutlej forms the southern 
boundary of the tahsil. The alluvial lowlands along the right bank 
average 7 miles in breadth. The soil of the uplands above the old 
bank of the river is a light loam, and low sand ridges are not 
uncommon. The Eastern Bein passes through the tahsil. 

Nakodar To"wn. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name, 
Jullundur District, Punjab, situated in 31° 8' N. and 75° 29' E. Popu- 
lation (1901), 9,958, Taking its name from the Nikudari wing or 
legion of the Mughals, it became a stronghold of the Sikh chief, Tara 
Singh, Ghaiba, and was captured by Ranjit Singh in 181 5. The can- 
tonment established here after the first Sikh War was abolished in 
1854. Nakodar contains two fine tombs dated 1612 and 1637. It 
has a considerable trade in agricultural produce, and hukka tubes and 
iron jars are manufactured. The municipality was created in 1867. 
The income during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 9,100, 
and the expenditure Rs. 8,800. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 9,300, 
chiefly from octroi; and the expenditure was Rs. 10,100. The town 
has an Anglo -vernacular middle school, maintained by the municipality, 
and a Government dispensary. 

Nakur Tahsil. — South-western tahsil of Saharanpur District, 
United Provinces, lying between 29° 39' and 30° 10' N. and 
77° 7' and 77° 34' E. It comprises four parganas — Sultanpur, 
Sarsawa, Nakur, and Gangoh — which all lie on the east bank of 
the Jumna. The total area is 428 square miles, of which 306 were 
cultivated in 1903-4. The population rose from 192,657 in 1891 to 



336 NAKUR TAHSIL 

203,494 in 1 90 1. There are 394 villages and eight towns, including 
Gangoh (population, 12,971), Ambahta (5,751), and Nakur (5,030), 
the head-quarters. In 1903-4 the demand for land revenue was 
Rs. 3,29,000, and for cesses Rs. 55,000. About one-third of the 
iahs'il lies in the Jumna khddar. The eastern portion is irrigated by 
the Eastern Jumna Canal, which supplied 24 square miles in 1903-4, 
while 60 square miles were irrigated from wells. 

Nakur Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name in 
Saharanpur District, United Provinces, situated in 29° 56' N. and 
77° 18'' E. Population (1901), 5,030, Hindus and Musalmans being 
about equally divided. Nakur is said to have been founded by 
Nakula, one of the Pandavas, from whom its name is derived. The 
town suffered much in the Mutiny and was burnt by a party of Gujars ; 
but a relieving force recovered part of the plunder. There is a fine 
Jain temple, and also a tahstli school, a dispensary, and a sarai, all 
well built. Nakur is administered under Act XX of 1856, and taxa- 
tion yields about Rs. 1,100 a year. The site is raised and well 
drained. There is very little trade. 

Nal. — A large lake in the Bombay Presidency, about 37 miles 
south-west of Ahmadabad, lying between 22° 43' and 22° 50' N. 
and 71° 59' and 72° 6' E. It was at one time part of an arm of the 
sea which separated Kathiawar from the mainland, and it still covers 
an area of 49 square miles. Its water, at all times brackish, grows 
more saline as the dry season advances, till at the close of the hot 
season it has become nearly salt. The borders of the lake are fringed 
with reeds and other rank vegetation, affording cover to innumerable 
wild-fowl of every description. In the bed are many small islands, 
much used as grazing grounds for cattle during the hot season. 

Nala. — Estate in Khandesh District, Bombay. See Mehwas 
Estates. 

Nalagarh (also called Hindur). — One of the Simla Hill States, 
Punjab, lying between 30° 54' and 31° 14' N. and 76° 39' and 
76° 56' E., with an area of 256 square miles. Population (1901), 
5 2,5 5 T. The country was overrun by the Gurkhas for some years 
prior to 181 5, when they were driven out by the British, and the 
Raja was confirmed in possession. The present Raja is Isri Singh, 
a Rajput. The revenue is about Rs. 1,30,000, of which Rs. 5,000 
is paid as tribute. The principal products are wheat, barley, maize, 
and poppy. 

Nalapani. — Village in Dehra Dun District, United Provinces. See 
Kalanga. 

Nalbari. — Village in the Gauhati subdivision of Kamrup District, 
Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 26° 27' N. and 91° 26' E. 
Population (1901), 1,312. The village contains a market in which 



NALGONDA DISTRICT 337 

country produce of all sorts is procurable. The public buildings 
include a dispensary and an English middle school. Nalbari suffered 
severely from the earthquake of 1897, which altered the waterways 
and rendered it impossible for boats to come up the Chaulkhoa from 
Barpeta in the rains — a route that was formerly open. Efforts are now 
being made to bring one of the rivers back into its former channel. 
Most of the trade is in the hands of Marwari merchants known as 
Kayahs. The principal imports are cotton piece-goods, grain and 
pulse, kerosene and other oils, salt, and bell-metal ; the chief exports 
are rice, mustard, jute, hides, and silk cloths. 

Nalchiti. — Town in the head-quarters subdivision of Backergunge 
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 22° 39' N. and 
90° 18' E., on the river of the same name. Population (1901), 2,240. 
Nalchiti was formerly an important trading town, exporting betel- 
nuts direct to Arakan and Pegu, and is still a busy mart on the 
main steamer route between Barisal and Calcutta. The chief exports 
are rice and betel-nuts ; and the chief imports are salt, tobacco, oil, 
and sugar. Nalchiti was constituted a municipality in 1875. The 
income during the decade ending 190 1-2 averaged Rs. 2,270, and the 
expenditure Rs. 2,100, In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 3,150, mainly 
derived from a property tax ; and the expenditure was Rs. 3,100. 

Naldrug District. — Former name of Osmanabad District, 
Hyderabad State. 

Naldrug Taluk. — A taluk formerly in the south of Osmanabad 
District, Hyderabad State, amalgamated with the Tuljapur taluk in 
1905. The population in 1901, including y'^^/W, was 56,335, and the 
area was 370 square miles, while the land revenue was 1-3 lakhs. 

Naldrug Village. — Village in the Tuljapur taluk of Osmanabad 
District, Hyderabad State, situated in 17° 49' N. and 76° 29' E. 
Population (1901), 4,111. The fort of Naldrug is situated above the 
ravine of the Bori river, and is one of the best fortified and most pictur- 
esque places in the Deccan. Before the Muhammadan invasion in 
the fourteenth century, it belonged to a local Raja, probably a vassal of 
the Chalukyas. It fell to the Bahmani dynasty, who built the stone 
fortifications. After the division of the Bahmani kingdom in 1482, it 
was seized by the Adil Shahis of Bijapur, and was a bone of contention 
between them and the Ahmadnagar Sultans. All Adil Shah in 1558 
not only added to the fortifications, but erected a dam across the 
Bori, which afforded a constant supply of water to the garrison. 

Nalgonda District. — District in the Medak Gulshanabad Division, 
Hyderabad State, lying between 16° 20' and 17° 47' N. and 78° 45' and 
79° 55' E., with an area of 4,143 square miles, including jagirsK 

^ The dimensions relate to the District as it stood up to 1905. The changes made 
then are described below under Population. 



338 NALGONDA DISTRICT 

The Hyderabad Districts of Warangal, Karlmnagar, Mahbubnagar, and 

Atraf-i-balda bound it on the east, north, and west. On the south it 

is separated from the Guntur District of the Madras Presidency by 

the Kistna river. A range of hills runs through the tdliiks of Nalgonda 

and Devarkonda, and enters the Amrabad %\^-tdhik 

Physical -^^ ^j^^ 's.OM\\i of Mahbubnagar District. Another 

aspects. . ° 

range of low hills starts in the south-west of the 

District and extends from the vicinity of the Dandi river in a north- 
eastern direction as far as Warangal District. A third range, known 
as the Nalla Pahad, after reaching the Dandi and the Peddavagu, 
bifurcates, one spur extending north, the other joining the second 
range. A fourth range, in the north-west of the District, runs from 
the west of Pasnur in a north-westerly direction as far as Surikonda, 
and then taking a sudden turn towards the east extends for 12 miles 
and turns again due north, passing between Narayanpur and Ibrahlm- 
patan, curving again towards Vemalkonda. This range lies almost 
wholly in the District, its total length being about 60 miles. Besides 
these there are nearly a hundred isolated hills, some of which are 
situated in one or other of the ranges mentioned. The general 
slope of the District is from west and north-west towards the south- 
east. 

The most important river is the Kistna, which forms the southern 
boundary. It first touches the District at Yellaisharam in the Devar- 
konda tdluk and has fifteen fords, one in Devarkonda and fourteen in 
Devalpalli tdluk, served by boats or coracles. Its length in the District 
is 53 miles. The Musi, a tributary of the Kistna, enters the District 
from the north-west, and flows due east for a distance of 40 miles ; 
but after its junction with the Aler river, it flows in a south-easterly 
direction till it falls into the Kistna near Wazlrabad, after a course in 
the District of 95 miles. The other rivers are the Peddavagu and the 
Dandi in the Devarkonda tdluk. The Hallia river, which rises in the 
hills west of Narayanpur in the Nalgonda tdluk, flows in a south- 
easterly direction for about 45 miles, when it is joined by the Kongal 
river near the village of Kongal, and continuing in the same direction 
falls into the Kistna. Its total length is 82 miles. 

The District is occupied by Archaean gneiss, except along the banks 
of the Kistna, where the rocks belong to Cuddapah and Kurnool 
series \ The famous Golconda diamonds were formerly obtained from 
the Cuddapahs and Kurnools, particularly the basement beds of the 
latter. 

The jungles and hilly portions of the District contain the common 
trees met with everywhere, such as teak, ebony, eppa {Hard^vickia 
binata), nalldmaddi {Tennifialia tomentosa), sandra {^Acacia Catechu), 
' W. King, Me?noirs, Geological Survey of India, vol. viii, pt. i. 



POPULATION 339 

babul l^Acacia arabica), mango, tamarind, tarvar {Cassia atiriculata)^ 
and various species of Fiais. 

In the jungly portions of Devarkonda and Devalpalli and parts of 
Bhonglr and Suriapet, tigers, leopards, cheetahs, bears, hyenas, and 
wolves, as well as sdmbar, spotted deer, antelope, and hares, are found. 
Among birds, peafowl, partridges, quail, rock pigeon, and jungle-fowl 
are abundant. 

The District is malarious from August to October, and healthy 
from November to the end of May. It is very hot during April 
and May, the temperature rising to iio°. In August and Septem- 
ber the moist heat is very oppressive. The average rainfall for the 
twenty-one years ending 1901 was 26 inches. 

The District was part of the dominions of the Warangal Rajas, 
one of whose governors built Pangal, 2 miles north-east of the town of 
Nalgonda, and made it his head-quarters, afterwards 
removing to Nalgonda. That place was conquered 
during the reign of Ahmad Shah Wali, the Bahmani king. After the 
dissolution of the Bahmani power, the District became part of the 
Kutb Shahi kingdom of Golconda, and though it had been occupied 
for a time by the Raja of Warangal, it was eventually retaken by Sultan 
Kuli Kutb Shah. After the fall of Golconda, the District was annexed 
with the other Deccan Subahs by Aurangzeb, but it was separated from 
the Delhi empire on the foundation of the Hyderabad State in the 
beginning of the eighteenth century. 

There are several places of archaeological interest in the District, 
the chief among them being the forts of Nalgonda, Devarkonda, 
Orlakonda in the Suriapet taluk, and Bhongir. The fort of Devar- 
konda is surrounded by seven hills, and was at one time considered 
a formidable stronghold, but is now in ruins. The temples at Pangal 
in the Nalgonda taluk, at Nagalpad in Devalpalli, and at Palalmari in 
Suriapet, are fine specimens of Hindu religious architecture. 

The number of towns and villages in the District, including ya^J;-.?, 
is 974. The population at the three enumerations was: (1881) 
494,190, {1891) 624,617, and (1901) 699,799. The population. 
towns are Nalgonda and Bhongir. About 95 per 
cent, of the population are Hindus, and as many as 91 per cent, 
speak Telugu. The table on the next page shows the distribution 
of population in 1901. 

In 1905 Cherial and Kodar were transferred to this District from 
Warangal, the latter %\!iO-tdluk being made a taluk and its name changed 
to Pochamcherla. The District in its present form thus consists of 
the following seven taluks : Nalgonda, Cherial, Suriapet, Pocham- 
cherla, Mirialguda (Devalpalli), Devarkonda, and Bhongir. 

The most numerous caste is that of the agricultural Kapus, who 



340 



NALGONDA DISTRICT 



number 125,500, or 18 per cent, of the population, the most important 
classes among them being the Kunbis (82,800) and Mutrasis (33,100). 
Next come the Madigas or leather-workers (95,500), the Dhangars 
or shepherds (71,700), the Mahars or village menials (57,200), the 
Brahmans (31,400), the Salas or weavers (28,900), the Komatis or 
trading caste (26,600), and the Ausalas or smiths (22,300). The 
Madigas and Mahars work as agricultural labourers, and most of 
the Dhangars are engaged in agriculture as well as grazing. The 
population engaged in, and supported by, agriculture numbers more 
than 250,000, or 36 per cent, of the total. 



Tihik. 


S . 
tr «i 

< 


Number of 


c 


"a 

0. 


u 

rt Si 
§■1 


Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 189: 
and iQoi. 


Number of 

persons able to 

read and 

write. 


c 

f2 


> 


Nalgonda . 
Suriapet 
Devalpalli . 
Devarkonda 
Bhongir 
Jagirs, &c. 

District total 


762 
644 

749 
662 

4."^ 4 

S72 


1 

I 
2 


190 
182 
150 
152 
92 
206 


131,836 

166,586 

76,904- 

85,370 

73,031 

166,052 


173 
258 
103 
129 
161 
190 


- 5-1 
+ 18.4 

- 9-9 

+ 16.8 

+ 34-6 
+ 10-9 


3 

r > 

OS 




4,143 


972 


699,779 


168 


-1- I2-0 


13,038 



Agriculture. 



There is an American mission at Nalgonda, having a church, a 
mission school, and a hospital, with a competent staff of native Christian 
teachers for the school, and a lady doctor in charge of the hospital. 
The mission has two branches, one at Devarkonda and the other at 
Mirialguda. In 1901 the District contained 1,212 native Christians, of 
whom 429 were Roman Catholics, 225 Methodists, and 235 Baptists. 
The converts are mostly from the lower castes. 

The entire District is situated in the granitic region, hence most of 
its soils are derived from the decomposition of granite and are gener- 
ally sandy, such as chalka and masab. In the Deval- 
palli taluk the soil near the Kistna is alluvial, and 
also consists to a large extent of regar or black cotton soil. Both 
these varieties are utilized for raising rahi crops. Regar is found in 
the other taluks to a smaller extent, but with an admixture of sand. 
The kharlf crops raised on the chalka and masab soils are Joivdr, 
bdjra, cotton, kultki, and castor-oil seed. 

The tenure of lands is mainly ryotwdri. Khdlsa and ' crown ' lands 
covered a total area of 3,271 square miles in 1901, of which 1,525 
were cultivated, 874 cultivable waste and fallows, 574 forests, and 
298 were not available for cultivation. Joiudr and bdjra form the 
staple food-crops, being grown on 17 and 22 per cent, of the net area 
cropped. Rice is next in importance, the area under it being 138 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 341 

square miles. Cotton is produced on i \\ square miles, and castor-oil 
seed on 386 square miles. 

The District has not yet been settled, but the revenue survey has 
been completed. The total cultivated area increased from 1,187 square 
miles in 1891 to 1,525 in 1901, or by 41 per cent. No steps have been 
taken to improve the cultivation by importing new varieties of seed 
or introducing better agricultural implements. 

A special breed of cattle is found in the Devarkonda taluk, generally 
black or red in colour, very sturdy and well suited for agricultural 
work. The animals are supposed to be descended from the Mysore 
breed, and are well-known beyond the frontier, a large number being 
acquired by purchasers from British territory. The white cattle bred 
in the Suriapet and Devalpalli idluks are handsome animals. In other 
parts the cattle are of the ordinary strain. Goats are largely bred in 
the Devarkonda, Devalpalli, and Suriapet taluks, as the large extent of 
jungle and hill tracts provides plenty of grazing, while in the Nalgonda 
and Bhonglr taluks sheep are more commonly kept. The ponies are 
of a very inferior class. 

The area irrigated in 1901 was 229 square miles, supplied by 
352 large tanks, 1,110 kuntas or small tanks, 12,456 wells, and 
208 other sources. The principal channels are those from the rivers 
Musi, Aler, Peddavagu, and other minor streams, which supply some 
of the chief tanks, as well as provide direct irrigation. 

There are small forest areas in all the taluks, amounting to a total 
of 574 square miles, of which 190 square miles are 'protected.' In the 
hilly jungles bordering on the Kistna river in the Devalpalli and 
Devarkonda taluks, large tracts are covered with eppa {Hardzvickia 
binata) and sandra (^Acacia Catechti). No forest is 'reserved,' but 
17 species of timber trees have been reserved wherever found. The 
revenue obtained from the sale of fuel, charcoal, and forest produce 
in 1 90 1 was Rs. 2,750. 

In the Devalpalli taluk laminated limestone resembling the Shah- 
abad stone is found, which is used for building purposes and also burnt 
for making lime. Slate is also found in the same taluk. Gold was 
discovered at Chitrial in the same taluk, and worked for a time, but 
the yield was so small that the mine was given up. At Nandkonda 
and the neighbouring villages on the left bank of the Kistna diamonds 
are said to be found. 

At Charlapalli and Pangal in the Nalgonda taluk silk cloth scarves 
and saris of various patterns and colours are made, which are very 
durable and are largely used by the better classes. 
The Salas or weavers also manufacture ordinary communications 
coarse cotton cloth and saris for the use of the 
ryots. Light earthen vessels, such as goblets and drinking cups of 



342 NALGONDA DISTRICT 

a fine quality, are made at Bhonglr, and are exported to Hyderabad 
and adjoining Districts. To the east of the town of Nalgonda 
there is a tannery where leather of a superior quality is prepared. 
The number of hands employed in 1901 was 30. 

The chief exports consist of castor-seed, cotton, tarvar bark, hides 
and skins, both raw and prepared, bones and horns, rice, Jowdr, and 
bdjra ; while the imports are salt, opium, silver and gold, copper and 
brass, iron, refined sugar, kerosene oil, raw silk, yarn, and silken, 
woollen, and cotton fabrics. The chief centres of trade are the towns 
of Nalgonda and Bhongir, Articles for export from the northern 
portions of the District find their way to Bhongir and Aler stations 
on the Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway, and those from the 
southern portions are sent direct by the old Masulipatam road 
to Hyderabad. The number of carts that pass through the town of 
Nalgonda varies between 200 per diem in the slack season to 700 
in busy times. 

The Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway traverses the Bhongir tdltik 
from west-south-west to east-north-east for a distance of 21 miles, and 
has five stations in the District. 

The principal road is that from Hyderabad to Masulipatam, which 
was constructed by the Madras Sappers and Miners in 1832 for 
military purposes. Its length in the District as far as Gumpal in the 
Suriapet taluk is 71 miles. The road from Hyderabad to Madras 
branches off at the sixty-seventh mile, near Nakrekal, and terminates 
at Wazlrabad near the Kistna, its length in the District being 40 miles. 
This road was also made about the same time as the former, and by 
the same agency. About 21 miles of the Hyderabad-Warangal road 
lie in the District. Other roads are railway feeders, such as the 
Nalgonda-Bhonglr road, 44 miles ; the Khammamett station feeder 
road, 18 miles ; Nalgonda to Devarkonda, 36 miles ; to Tipparti, 
12 miles; and to Nakrekal, 14 miles. The last three were made 
during the famine of 1877-8. 

In 1790 a great famine affected the District, and grain was sold at 

one rupee a seer. Another famine in 1877 caused severe distress 

. among the poor. Grain was sold at 4 seers a rupee, 

and the District lost more than 34,000 head of cattle. 

The famine of 1 899-1 900 was not so severe as that of 1877, but its 

effects lasted for nearly two years. 

The District is divided into three subdivisions : one consisting 

of the taluks of Bhongir and Cherial, under a Second Talukdar ; 

. . the second consisting of the taluks of Mirialguda 

(Devalpalli) and Devarkonda, under a Third 

Talukdar ; and the third consisting of the taluks of Nalgonda, 

Suriapet, and Pochamcherla (Kodar), under the head-quarters Third 



ADMINISTRA TION 



343 



Talukdar. The First Talukdar exercises a general supervision over 
the work of all his subordinates. Each taluk is under a tahsilddr. 

The District civil court is presided over by the First Talukdar with 
a Madadgdr or Judicial Assistant for both civil and criminal work, 
there being no Ndzim-i-D'nvdni. There are altogether ten subordinate 
civil courts, three presided over by the .Second and Third Talukdars, 
and seven by the tahsilddrs. The First Talukdar is the chief 
magistrate of the District and his Assistant is also a joint-magistrate, 
who exercises powers in the absence of the First Talukdar from head- 
quarters. The Second and Third Talukdars and the tahsilddrs have 
magisterial powers of the second and third class. Serious crime is 
not heavy, dacoities, theft, and house-breaking being the common 
offences in ordinary years. 

Little is known of the early history of land revenue. Up to 1821 
an anchanaddr (estimator) was appointed to every ten villages, who 
estimated the standing crops and submitted his estimates to the dniils. 
On ' wet ' lands irrigated by tanks, and ' dry ' lands, the State and the 
ryot had equal shares, but on 'wet' lands supplied by channels and 
wells the ryot's share was three-fifths and three-fourths respectively. 
In 1 82 1 ziladdrs (revenue managers) were appointed, who entered 
into an agreement for a period of ten years with patels or village 
headmen to pay annually a sum equal to the average receipts of the 
previous ten years. In 1835 groups of villages were made over to 
zamtnddrs on the sarbasta or contract system, which continued to the 
time of Messrs. Dighton and Azam All Khan, the revenue managers or 
ziladdrs in 1840. Five years later this was changed in certain tdluks 
and the revenue was collected departmentally, partly in kind and 
partly in cash. The sarbasta or contract system was completely 
abolished on the formation of regular Districts in 1866, when rates 
of assessment were fixed per b'lgha {^ acre). The revenue survey of 
the whole District has not yet been completed. The tdluks of 
Nalgonda and Devalpalli have very recently been settled, the increase 
in their revenue being nearly Rs. 46,200, or more than 16 per cent. 
The average assessment on ' dry ' land is Rs. 1-14 (maximum Rs. 
2-12, minimum Rs. 1-4), and on 'wet' land Rs. 15 (maximum 
Rs. 18, minimum Rs. 11). 

The land revenue and total revenue in recent years are given below, 
in thousands of rupees : — 





1881. 


1891. 


1901. 


1903. 


Land revenue . 
Total revenue . 


8,20 
12,99 


10,93 
16,83 


11.97 
22,49 


12,38 
22,22 



Owing to changes in area effected in 1905, the revenue demand 
is now about 14-6 lakhs. 



344 NALGONDA DISTRICT 

In 1902, after the settlement of the two talnhs of Nalgonda and 
Devalpalli, a cess of one anna in the rupee was levied for local 
purposes, and boards were formed for every taluk except Nalgonda, 
with the tahsilddrs as chairmen. A District board was also constituted, 
with the First Talukdar as president. Prior to the formation of these 
boards and the levying of the one anna cess, the municipal expenditure 
of the town of Nalgonda and of all the head-quarters of taluks was met 
from State funds, amounting to Rs. 2,844 in 1901. The District 
board supervises the work of the municipality of Nalgonda. 

The First Talukdar is the head of the police, with a Superintendent 
[Mohtatnim) as his executive deputy. Under him are 6 inspectors, 
92 subordinate officers, 589 con